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BE IT REMEMBERED, that on this fifth day of May, in the 

forty-first year of the Independence of the United States of" 
America, Edward J. Coale and Nathaniel G. Maxwell, of the 
said district, have deposited in this office, the title of a book, the 
right whereof they claim as proprietors in the words following, 
to wit : — 

« Tooke's Pantheon of the Heathen Gods, and' Illustrious He- 
roes. Revised for a classical course of education, and adapted 
for the use of students of every age, and of either sex. Illus- 
trated with engravings from new and original designs." 

In conformity to an act of the Congress of the United States, 
^entitled " An act for the encouraeement of leai-ning, by securing 
Ihe copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and pro- 
prietors af such copies, during the times therein mentioned ; 
and also to the act, entitled, " An act supplementary to the act, 
entitled ' An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing 
the copies of maps, charts, and books to the authors and propri- 
etors of such copies during the times therein mentioned, and 
extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, 
and eV^hing historical and other pnnts.''^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

merk of the District of Maryland. - 


The JVymphs, ^^ 

The Inferior Rural Deities, .' ' .' ..' .* jg^ 


Ti-iton and other Marine Gods' ', * * * iqq 
Monsters of the Sea, } • • . lyy 

Scylla and Charybdis, \ 202 

riew of Hell, Charon, Rivers of Hell, Cer^ 

Pluto, Plutus, . . . . ; 211 

Proserpine, the Fates, the Furies, ' \ ' ' 215 

-^'ght, Death, Sleep, the Judges of Hell, [ 220 

Ihe most famous of the Condemned in Hell 222 

Monsters of Hell, Elysium, Lethe, . . . 229 



The Penates, the Lares, . ^qa 

The Genii, •.../.!;; 240 

The JYuptial Deities, , . ] , [ [ * 243 

Deities presiding over Infants, . \ \ \ \ 245 



Hercules, 2^^ 

Jason, Theseus, .......*** 258 

Castor and Pollux, ....!.[' 263 

Perseus, JEsculap^ius, \ \ 267 

Prometheus, Atlas, ....*.'.* .* ] 273 
Orpheus, and Amphion, Achilles, . .* \ \ 279 

Ulysses andfOrion, - ! ! 283 

Osires, Apis, Serapis, ...!"!.' 286 

Th^ Virtues and the Good Deities^ , . , 292 
The^ Vices and the Evil Deities^ . , ^^10 




The object of the Editor of this work, is to 
> present a complete summary of Mythology, m a 
4 chaste diction, for the study of persons of every 
1 a^e and of either sex. Without a general know- 
f ledge of Heathen Mythology, the immortal writ- 
ings of Homer, Virgil, Ovid, and others, are al- 
most unintelligible, and their principal beauties 

* Tooke's Pantheon is a work which has 
stood the test of time. It is more than a century 
since it was published, and the labours and re- 
searches of the author are at this day so justly es- 
teemed, that it is used as a class-book m several of 
our colleges. The sole exception urged by many, 
is, that the work is occasionally too indelicate in 
its phraseology, and therefore not well adapted for 
the youth of either sex. An attempt has been made 
in this edition to render it free from this objection, 
by altering or expunging the language or phrases 
considered improper, while much care has been 
taken that no fact nor incident, worthy of any note, 
related by the author, is omitted. 

* Andrew Tooke, born in London, 1673, was a learned man, 
and a very respectable teacher. Though he possessed much 
property, he was so attached to literature and his habits of life, 
that he continued in his profession to the end of his ^s He 
published several learned works, among them The Pantheon, 
translated from the Latin of Poraey, a Jesuit oi Lyons. Pomey 
was much distinguished for his Paniheum Myshcum, translated 
by Tooke without acknowledgment. He wrote besides a French 
aad ik^V dictionary, and several works which exhibited his 
III ■I'^iUliiiiig ill ancient literature. He died at Lyons, in the 
year KITS; thus H appear- that this work was published previon* 
to that year. 


While tiiis book may be resorted to, occasionaljv 
by gentlemen who have finished their classical 
course of education, we trust it will be found very 
useful to both young fedies and young gentlemen 
prosecutmg their studies in polite literature, espe- 
cially as classical learning has of late become an 
object of considerable importance in female edu- 

Thirty new and beautiful outlined plates, drawn 
irom antique statues, have been engraved for this 
edition by G. Fairman, Esq. an artist of the first 
reputation of this country, and the work is printed 
with good type, on paper o-f an excellent quahty; 
It IS therefore anticipated, that it will meet with a 
favourable reception, and a liberal support from the 
classical reader and the heads of colleges, acada- 
mies and schools, equal to the endeavours of the 
publishers to render it worthy of their patronage. 

Questions for examination, for the conve- 
nience of teachers, and for the use of students, will 
be found at the end of each chapter. The table of 
eojitents exhibits a brief analysis of the work. 



This temple, the most celebrated of those which 
have escaped the more essential injm'ies of time, im- 
presses us with a very striking idea of the magnifi- 
cence of the ancients. From its circular form it has 
acquired the name of the rotunda. The entrance to 
it is under a grand portico, supported by sixteen im- 
mense columns of the Corinthian order, each of them 
composed of a single piece of red oriental granite. 
Of these, eight of them are in front, and sustain an 
entablature and frontispiece of the most beautiful 
proportion which architecture can boast. The cir- 
cumference of each of these columns is fourteen feet ; 
and the height, independent of the base and capital, 
which are of white marble, two and forty. The in- 
side of the temple is supplied with light through one 
circular aperture, the diameter of which is six and 
twenty feet, and to which there is an ascent by a 
staircase consisting of an hundred and ninety steps. 
The gallery over the principal altar of a semicircu- 
lar form, is obtained from the thickness of the wall, 
and supported by pillars of yellow marble. On 
every side are chapels adorned also with columns of 
yellow marble, and with pilasters crowned with an 
entablature of white marble, which extends round 
the bttilding. The walls and the pavement are cased 
with raaibie. The whole presents us with an assem- 
blage of rarelieauty ; and we cannot but regret the 


loss of its statues and some of its other original or- 
naments ; which would still improve the magnifi- 
cence of its effect. 

The bronze ornaments of the dome were removed 
in the pontificate of Urban VIII. for the purpose of 
forming tlie canopy of the great altar in St. Peter's. 
We know that the bronze gates ornamented with 
bass-relief, were taken away by Genseric, king of the 
Vandals, and were lost in the sea of Sicily. 








The Fabulous Pantheon, is, as its name imports, 
die Temple of all the Gods, which the superstitious 
folly of men have feigned through a gross ignorance 
of the true and only God. 

It may be right to give some account of tlie Pan- 
theon, of which you have a view in the plate that fa- 
ces the title page. It is uncertain by whom this beau- 
tiful edifice was erected : some suppose it to have been 
built by Agrippa, the son-in-law of Augustus ; but 
others contend that he only enlarged and adorned it, 
and added to it a magnificent portico. Its body is 
cylindrical, and its roof or dome spherical ; its inner 
diameter was one hundred and forty-four feet, and 
the height from the pavement to the grand aperture, 
on its top, was also one hundred and fort3-four feet.. 
Its exterior was built after the Corinthian order of 
architecture. The inner circumference is divided 
into seven grand niches, six of which are flat at the 
top, but the seventh, which is opposite to the entrance, 
is arciied. Before each niche are two columns of an- 
tique yellow marble, fluted, and of one entire block, 
^he whole wall of the temple, as high as the grand 
sive, is cased with different kinds of 
)le, in compartments. The frieze is 


entirely of porphyry. Above the grand cornice rises 
an attic, in which are wrought, at equal distances, 
fourteen oblong square niches, between each of which 
were four marble pilasters, and between the pillars, 
marble tables of various kinds. This attic had a 
complete entablature ; but the cornice projected less 
than that of the grand order below. The spherical 
roof springs from the cornice, which is divided by 
bands that cross each other like the meridians and 
parallels of an artificial terrestrial globe. The spa- 
ces between the bands decrease m size as they ap- 
proach the top of the roof, to which they do not 
reach, there being a considerable space left plain, 
between them and the great opening. 

The walls below were formerly decorated with 
works of carved brass or silver, and the roof was co- 
vered on the outside with plates of gilded bronze. The 
portico is composed of sixteen columns of granite, 
four feet in diameter, eight of which stand in front, 
with an equal intercolumniation. To these columns 
is a pediment, whose tympanum, or flat, was orna- 
mented with bass-rehefs in brass : the cross beams, 
which formed the ceiling of the portico, were covered 
with the same metal, and so were the doors. Such 
was the Pantheon, the richness, and magnificence of 
which induced Pliny, and others, to rank it among 
the wonders of the world. This temple subsisted in 
all its grandeur, till the incursion of Alaric, who 
plundered it of its precious metals. The building 
continues to this day ; but it was, in the beginning 
of the seventh century, converted, by Boniface IV. 
into a Christian church, and dedicated to the " Vir- 
gin Mary, and all the saints." 
^he causes which have chiefly conduced to the 
establishment and continuance of idolatry ai^ thus 
enumerated : 

1. The first cause of idolatry wa&J^€iBifmifk< fol-^ 
?v, and vain tdory of men , who h^e oHidd't&I^Him*. 

' Jii 


who is the inexhausted fomitain of all good, the hon- 
ours which they have attributed to muddy streams : 
" pigging," as the prophet Jeremiah complains, " to 
themselves broken and dirty cisterns, and neglecting 
and forsaking tlie most pure fountain of living wa- 
ters." It ordinarily happened after this manner: if 
any one excelled in stature of body, if he were en- 
dued with greatness of mind, or noted for clearness 
of wit, he first gained to himself the admiration of 
the ignorant vulgar : this admiration was by degrees 
turned into a profound respect, till at length they 
paid him greater honour than men ought to receive, 
and ranked the man among the number of gods ; 
while the more prudent were either carried away by 
the torrent of the vulgar opinion, or were unable or 
afraid to resist it. 

2. The sordid- flattery of subjects toward their 
princes, was a second coMse of Idolatry. To gratify 
their vanity, to flatter their pride, and to soothe 
them in their self-conceit, they erected altai's, and 
set the images of their princes on them ; to which 
they oflered incense, in like manner as to the gods ', 
and not unfrequently, while they were hving. 

3. A third cause of Idolatry, was an immoderate 
love of immortality in many ; who studied to attain 
it, by leaving effigies of themselves behnid them; ima- 
gining that their names would still be preserved from 
the power of death and time, so long as they hved: 
in brass, or in statues of marble, after their funerals. 

4. A desire of perpetuating the memories of excel- 
lent and useful men to future . ages, ivas the fourth 
cause of Idolatry. For to make the memory of 
such men eternal, and their names immortal, they 
made them gods, or rather called them so. 

The contriver and assertor of false gods was Ni- 
nus, the first king of the Assyrians, who, to render 
tbe name of his father Belus, or Nimrod, immortal, 


worshipped him with divine honours after his death, 
which is thus accounted for : 

After Ninus Iiad conquered many nations far and 
near, and built the city called after his name, Nine- 
veh; in a public assembly of the Babylonians he 
extolled his father Belus, the founder of the empire 
and city of Babylon, beyond all measure, representing 
him not only worthy of perpetual honour among all 
posterity, but also of an immortality among the gods 
above. He then exhibited a statue of him, curiously 
and neatly made, to which he commanded them to 
pay the same reverence that they would have given 
to Belus while alive ; he also appointed it to be a 
common sanctuary to the miserable, and ordained, 
" that if at any time an offender should fly to this 
statue, it should not be lawful to force him away to 
punishment." This privilege easily procured so 
great a veneration to the dead prince, that he was 
thought more than a man, and, therefore, was cre- 
ated a god, and called Jupiter, or, as others write, 
Saturn of Babylon ; where a most magnificent tem- 
ple was erected to him by his son. 

After this beginning of Idolatry, several nations 
formed to themselves gods ; receiving into that num- 
ber not only mortal and dead men, but brutes also ; 
and even the most mean and pitiful inanimate things. 
For it is evident from the authority of innumerable 
writers, that the Africans worshipped the heavens as 
a god; the Persians adored fire, water, and the 
winds; the Lybians, the sun and moon; the The- 
bans, sheep and weasels ; the Babylonians of Mem- 
phis, a whale; the inhabitants of Mendes, a goat; 
theThessalanians, storks ; the Syrophcenicians, doves ; 
the Egyptians, dogs, cats, crocodiles and hawks; 
nay, leeks, onions, and garlic. Which most sense- 
less folly Juvenal wittily exposes. 

« O sanclas gentes, quibus haec nasci 
Numma"-— «— 



ReTigious natior.s snre. and 1)le5s'd abtulps. 
Where ev"iy orcliai'd is o"eiTuii with gods. 

The ancient Romans, who were so superior in 
aiins, in arts, in eloquence, and in ahnost every 
thing that can adorn human nature, were pkmged 
into the grossest idolatry. They reckoned among 
their gods not only beasts and things void of all 
sense, but, which is a far greater madness, they some- 
times worshipped as gods, the very worst of man- 

Besides their own country gods, and family gods, 
they worsiiipped all strange deities that came to the 
city, and which were made free of it. Whence it 
came to pass, in time, that when they saw their pre- 
cincts too narrow to contain so many, necessity 
forced them to send their gods into colonies, as they 
did their men. 


What is meant by the Fabidous Pantheon ? 

Give some account of the Pantheon at Rome 

To what purpose was it devoted by Poj^,e Boniface ? 

What causes have conspired to the establishmeiit of Idolatry r 

Who was the contriver of false gods, and how is the circum- 
stance accounted for ? 

Whom or what did the Africans, Persians, and others wor- 
ship as gods ? 

Did the ancient Romans exhibit more wisdom in this respect? 

To what had they recourse when Ihek" deities became very 
numerous ? 



As the Roman people were distributed into three 

ranks ; namely, of * senators or noblemen^ knights or 

•m^tle?nen, plebeans or citizens; as also into fnohle, 

Tatricii, equites. et plebeii. f Nobiles, novi, et ignobiles. Cic. 
Muraen. • * 


new-raised\ and ignoble ; (of whicli the new-raised 
were those who did not receive their nobihty from 
their ancestors, bat obtained it themselves by their 
own virtue ;) so the lioman gods were divided, as it 
were, into three classes. 

The Jirst class is of superior gods, JDii majorum 
gentium, for the people paid to them a higher degree 
of w arship ; because they imagined that these gods 
were more eminently employed in the government of 
this world. These were called also select, because 
they had always the title of celestial gods, and were 
famous and eminent above others, of extraordinary 
authority and renown. Twelve of these were styled. 
consentes ; because, in affairs of great importance, 
Jupiter admitted them into his council. The images 
of these were fixed in the Forum at Rome : six of 
them were males, and six females ; commonly, with- 
out other additions, called The Twelve gods ; and 
whose names Emiius comprises in a distich. 

Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, 
Mei'curius, Neptunus, Jupiter, Vulcanus, Apollo. 

These twelve gods were believed to preside over 
the twelve months ; to each of them was allotted a 
month 5 January to Juno, February to JVeptune,. 
March to Minerva, April to Venus, May to Apollo, 
June to Mercury, July to Jupiter, August to Ceres, 
September to Vulcan, October to Mars, November 
to Diana, December to Vesta. They likewise pre- 
sided over the twelve celestial signs. If to these 
twelve Dii Consentes^ you add the eight following, 
Janus, Saturnus, Genius, Sol, Pluto, Bacchus, Tel- 
lus, and Luna, you will have twenty, that is, sdl the 
select gods. 

The second class ccaitains the gods of lower rank 
and dignity, who were styled Dii Minorum Gentiu 
because they shine with a less degree of glory 
have been placed among the gods^ as Gkero says, ht 

their own merits. Whence they are called also M- 
sciiptitii, Minuscularii^ Putadi, and Indigetes : be- 
cause now they wanted nothing ; or because, being 
translated from this earth into heaven, they conversed 
with the gods ; or being fixed, as it were, to certain 
places, committed peculiarly to their care, they dwelt 
in them, to perform the duty intrusted to them. Thus 
^neas was made a god, by his mother Venus, in 
the manner described by Ovid : 

His better parts by lustral waves refin'd, 

More pure and nearer to ethereal mind ; 

With gums of fragrant scent the goddess strews, 

And on his features breathes ambrosial dews. 

Thus deified, new honours Rome decrees, 

Shrines, festivals ; and styles him Indiges. — Met. 14. 

The gods of the third and lower class, are some- 
times called Minutiy Vesci, and Miscellanei, but more 
usually Semones, whose merits were not sufficient to 
gain them a place among the celestial gods; yet 
their virtues were such, that the people thought them 
superior to mortal men. They were called PateU 
larii, from certain small dishes, in which the an- 
cients offered to the gods their sacrifices, of which 
Ovid makes mention : 

To Vesta's deity, with iiumble mess, 

In cleanly dibh serv'd up, they now address. 

To these we ought to adjoin the gods called JVo- 
vensiles, which the Sabines brought to Rome by the 
command of king Tatius ; and which were so named, 
and some say, because they were latest of all rec- 
koned among the gods ; or because they were presi- 
dents over the changes, by which the things of this 
world subsist. Circius believes them to have been 
the strange gods of conquered nations ; whereof the 
numbers were so vast, tliat it was thought fit to call 
iXi in general Kovensiles, lest they should forget any 

"thm, * And lastlj; to this class also we must refei' 


those gods and goddesses by whose help and means, 
as Cicero says, men are advanced to heaven, and 
obtain a place among the gods; of which sort are 
the principal virtues, as we shall show in the proper 


Were the heathen gods, all of one degree of rank ; if not, int© 
how many classes were they divided ? 

What is said of the first class ? 

Why were they called select f 

Why were some of them called consentcs? 

Over what did the twelve gods preside ? Enumerate thenx. 

Which others make up the twenty Select gods ? 

Which is the second class of gods, and Avhy are they so styled ?' 

What are the gods of the third class, and how are they deao 
minated ? 

What are the *' JNovensiles ?" 



Having ah*eady described to j^ou the structure and 
ornaments of this wonderful building, within the nich- 
es of which the statues of the gods were placed, it is 
right you should be informed, that the three classes, 
mentioned above, are here divided into six, and paint- 
ed upon the several parts of the Pantheon. 1. The 
celestial gods and goddesses are upon an arch. 2. 
The terrestrial, upon the wall on the right hand. 3. 
The marine and river gods upon the wall on tlie left. 
4. The infernal, Vi^ow the lower compartment by the 
pavement. 5. The minuti or semones, and miscella' 
nei, before you. 6. The adscriptitii and indigetes 
behind you. Our discourse shall likewise consist of 

six parts ; in each of which I shall lay before ydu. 

vhatever I have foimd most remarkable. 


best authors upon this subject. Let us, however 
first sit down together awhile ; and, as the place is 
free from company, we will take a deliberate view 
of the whole army of gods, and inspect them one 
after another ; beginning, as is fit, with the celestial, 
and so with Jove, according to the direction of the 
poet : 

** Ab Jove principium Musae : Jovis omnia plena." 

Virg. Eel. 3. 
From the great father of the Gods above 
My Muse begins : for all is full of Jove. 


Into how many classes are the gods in the pantheon divided ? 

Hov\ are they ranged? does the description begin ? 

Repeat the line from Virgil and translation. 




The gods commonly called celestial, are Jupiter, 
Apollo, Mars, Mercury, and Bacchus. The celes- 
tial goddesses are Juno, Vesta, Minerva or Pallas, 
Venus, Luna, and Bellona. 

We will begin with Jupiter,* the father and king 
of gods and men, whom you see sitting in a throne 
of ivory and gold, under a rich canopy, with a beard, 
holding thunder in his right hand, which he brandish- 
es against the giants at his feet, whom he formerly 
conquered. His sceptre, they say, is made of cy- 
press, which is a symbol of the eternity of his empire, 
because that wood is free from corruption. On his 
sceptre sits an eagle, either because he was brought 
up by it, or because an eagle resting upon his head, 
portended his reign, or because in his wars with the 
giants an eagle brought him his thunder ; and thence 
received the title of Jupiter"* s armour hearer. 

He wears golden shoes, and an embroidered cloak, 
adorned with various flowers and figures of animals. 
This cloak, it is reported, Dionysius the tyrant took 
from him in Sicily, and giving him a woollen cloak 
instead of it, said, " That would be more convenient 
for him in all seasons, since it was warmer in the 

• DiyAm pater atque horainum rei 



winter, and much lighter in the summer." Yet you 
must not be surprised, if by chance you should see 
him in another place, and in another dress, for he is 
wont to be decked in several fashions, according to 
the various names he assumes, and according to the 
diversity of the people among wliom he is worship- 
ped. You may see him among the Lacedaemonians 
without ears ; whereas the Cretans are so liberal to 
him in this particular, that they give him four. So 
much for the figure of Jupiter. 

quESTIO^'s for examl\atiok. 

Which are the celestial gods ? 

Who is Jupiter? 

Of Avhat is Iiis sceptre the symhol ? 

Wliat does the eagle on his sceptre denote ? 

What happened to him with respect to his cloak? 

How was lie represented by the Lacedai^nionians and Cretans ? 


Those who were skilled in the Heathen Theology, 
reckon up three Jupiters ; of which the first and se- 
cond were born in Arcadia. The father of the one 
was jEther ; from whom Proserpine and Liber are 
said to be born. The father of the other was Coelus ; 
he is said to have begot Minerva. The third was a 
Cretan, the son of Saturn, whose tomb is yet extant 
in the isle of Crete. But Varro reckoned up three 
hundred Jupiters ; and others mention a much larger 
number ; for there was hardly any nation that did 
not worship a Jupiter of their own, and suppose him 
to be born among themselves. But of all these, the 
most famous Jupiter, according to the general opin- 
ion, is he, whose mother was Ops, and whose father 
was Saturn ; to whom therefore all that the poets 
fabulously wrote about the other Jupiters is usual- 
ly ascribed. 

-. He was educated at the place where he was born, 
%t U, upon the mountain Ida in Crete, but it is not 


agreed by whom he was brought up. Some affirm, 
that he was educated by the Curetes and Corybantes ; 
some say, by the Nymphs, and some, by Amalthaea, 
the daughter of Mellissus, king of Crete. Others, 
en the contrar}^, have recorded, that the bees fed him 
with honey ; and some maintain, that a goat gave 
him milk. Not a few say, that he was nourished by 
doves ; some, by an eagle ; many, by a bear. And 
further, it is the opinion of some concerning the 
aforesaid Amalthgea, that she was not the daughter 
of Mellissus, as we have mentioned ; but the very 
goat which suckled Jupiter, whose horn he gave af- 
terwards to his nurses, with this admirable privilege, 
" that whoever possessed it should immediately ob- 
tain every thing that he desired." They add be- 
sides, that after this goat was dead, Jupiter took the 
skin and made a shield of it ; with which he smgly 
combated the giants ; whence that shield was called 
*^gis, from a Greek word that signifies a she goat, 
which at last he restored to life again, and, giving 
her a new skin, placed her among the celestial con- 


- How many Jupiters were there, and whence do they derive 
their origin ? 

Which was the most famous Jupiter ? 

What is ascribed to him ? 

Where was he educated ? 

What do authors say of those who brought him up ? 

What is said of the horn of the goat which is thought to hav« 
suckled Jupiter ? 

Why was his shield called the iEgis.? 


He overcame, in war, the Titans and the Giants, of 
whom we shall say more when we speak of Saturn, 
He also delivered his father Saturn from imprison- 
ment; but afterwards deposed him from the throne^; 
and banished him for a conspiracy, and then divid«(i 



the paternal inheritance with his two brolliers, Nep* 
tune and Phito. Jn fine, he so assisted and obhged 
all mankind by the great favours which he did, that he 
not only thence obtained the name of Jupiter, but he 
was advanced also to divine honours, and was esteem- 
ed the common father both of gods and men. Among 
some of his most illustrious actions, we ought to re- 
member the story of Lycaon. For wiien Jupiter 
had heard a report concerning the wickedness and 
great impiety of men, it is said that he descended 
from heaven to the earth, to know the real truth of 
it ; and that being come into the house of Lycaon, 
king of Arcadia, where he declared himself to be a 
god, while others were preparing sacrifices for him, 
Lycaon derided him : nor did he stop here, but be- 
ing desirous to try whether Jupiter was a god, he 
kills one of his domestic servants, roasts and boils 
the flesh of him, and sets it on the table as a ban- 
quet for Jupiter ; who, abhorring the wretch's bar- 
barity, fired the palace with lightning, and turned 
Lycaon into a wolf. Ovid Met, 1 . 

With respect to his other exploits, some of them. 
are absurd ; others are highly criminal, if taken in a 
literal sense. But it is supposed by the Abbe Ba- 
nier and other learned writers on this subject, that 
they are merely allegorical, and conceal some mean- 
ing, at present either lost to us or open to conjecture. 
1st. Such for instance his having wooed his sister, 
Juno, in the shape of a crow ; an ill-boding fowl 
one would suppose, not very likely to captivate 
the heart of a tender maid, but, perhaps, the croak- 
ing thing might take very well with a termagant^ 
such as she has been described to be. 2d. Next, 
that he overcame the innocence of Danae, daughter 
of Acrisius, king of the Argives ; this monarch be- 
ing forewarned by the oracle that he would perish 
by the hand of his grandson shut up his only child 
in a tower ; Jupiter, however assumed the shape of 

•ci sliining metal called gold, (in which no small por* 
tion of his divinity has ever since resided,) and de- 
scending throiigh the roof, fell into the lady's lap* 
3d. At another time he flew into the arms of Leda, 
the wife of Tyndarus, in the shape of a beaiitilal 
swan. 4th. In the likeness of a wild satyr, he he- 
haved like a rufilan to Antiope, the wife of Lycns, 
king of Thebes. 5tli. He imposed upon Alcmena 
by assuming the figure of her husband Amphitryon. 
Gth. In the shape o(Jire he won the heart of Egina, 
the daughter of Asopus, king af Boetia. 7th. Pie 
deceived Calisto by counterfeiting the modesty and 
countenance of Diana; yet, he shamefully abandoned 
her to the cruel persecution of Juno, who transformed. 
her into a hear ; but, however, commiserating her 
condition, he placed her and her son Areas both in 
the heavens. Calisto is said to be the great bear and 
Areas the little. 8th. He sent an eagle to snatch away 
Ganymede, the son of Tros, as he hunted upon the 
mountain Ida. Or rather he himself, being changed 
into an eagle, took him unto his claws, and carried 
him up to heaven. He offered the same violence to 
Asteria ; the daughter of Coeus, a young lady of the 
greatest modesty, to whoii?i he appeared in the shape 
of an eagle, and carried her away in his talons. 9th. 
Personally attached to Europa, daughter of Agenor, 
king of Phoenicia, he ordered JVIercury to convey her 
to the seashore, where, having transformed himself 
into a bull, he took her upon his back and transported 
her into Crete. The bull is supposed to have been 
die ship upon which a bull was painted, in which Eu- 
ropa was carried away. In like manner the horse 
Pegasus, which was painted upon Bellerophon's ship, 
and the ram, which was painted on that of Phryxus 
and Helle, created ample matter of fiction for the poets. 
But to return to our fable : Agenor immediately or- 
dered his son Cadmus to travel, and search every 
where for his sister Europa ; which he did, but could 



no where find her. Cadmus dared not return without 
lier, because, by a sentence not less unjust to him than 
kind to his sister, his father had banished him for 
ever unless he found her. Wherefore he built the 
city of Thebes, not far from the mountain Parnassus ; 
and as it happened that his companions, who were 
with him were devoured by a- certain serpent,' while 
they went for water ; he, to avenge their death, slew 
that serpent ; whose teeth he took out, and, by the 
advice of Minerva, sowed them in the ground ; and 
suddenly sprouted up a harvest of armed soldiers, 
who, quarrelling among themselves, with the same 
speed that they grew up, mowed one another down, 
excepting five only, by whom that country was peo- 
pled afterward. At length Cadmus and his wife 
Hermione, after much experience, and many proofs 
of the inconstancy of fortune, were changed into 

He is said to have invented sixteen of the letters of 
the Greek alphabet ; <«, /3, y, <J, e, <, », a, /«., v, o, ^, p^ 
C-, T, y, which, in the time of the judges of Israel, he 
brought out of Phoenicia into Greece : two hundred 
and fifty years after this, Palamedes added four more 
letters, namely, |, 9, <p, %, in the time of the siege of 
Troy ; although some affirm that Epicharmus invent- 
ed the letters 6 and z • and six hundred and fifty 
years after the siege of Troy, Simonides invented 
the other four letters, namely, v, &>, {, ^. Cadmus is 
also said to have taught tlie manner of writing in 
prose ; and that he was the first among the Greeks 
who consecrated statues to the honour of the gods, 


Mention some of the exploits of Jupiter? 
How did he derive his name and honours ? 
What did he to Lycaon, and why? 
What is his other exploits ? 
What happened to Calisto .^ 




What circumstance occurred to Ganymede and Asteria 9 
Explain the fable respecting Europa ? 
What did Agenor do to recover his daughter ? 
What city did Cadmus build, and what exploit did he perform 
on a serpent ? 
Which of the letters of the Greek alphabet did Cadmus invent ? 
Who added the others, and when ? 
What besides did Cadmus do for the benefit of mankind ? 


Can hardly be numbered ; so many did he obtain, 
either from the places where he lived and was wor- 
shipped, or from the things that he did. The most 
remarkable shall be given alphabetically. 

The Greeks called him Ammon, or Hammon, which 
name signifies sandy. He obtained this name first 
in Lybia, where he was worshipped, under the figure 
of a ram ; because, when Bacchus was athirst in the 
fabulous deserts of Arabia, and implored the assist- 
ance of Jupiter, Jupiter appeared in the form of a ram, 
opened a fountain with his foot, and discovered it to 
him. But others give this reason, because Jupiter 
in war wore a helmet, whose crest was a ram's head. 

The Babylonians and Assyrians, whom he govern- 
ed, called him Belus, who was the impious author of 
idolatry : and because of tlie uncertainty of his de- 
scent, they believed that he had neither father nor 
mother ; and, therefore, he was thought the first of 
all gods. In difierent places, and languages, he 
was afterw ards called Beel, Baal, Beelphegor, Beel- 
zebub, and Belzemen. 

Jupiter was called Capitolinus, from the Capito- 
line hill, upon the top of which he had the first tem- 
ple that ever was built in Rome ; this Tarquin the 
Elder determined to build, Tarquin the Proud did 
build, and Horatius, the consul, dedicated. 

He was also called Tarpeius, from the Tarpeian 
rock, on which this temple w as built. He was like- 
wise styled Optimus Maximus, from his power and 
willingness to profit all men. 



He was also called Gustos. There is in Nero's 
coins an image of him sitting on his throne, which 
bears in one hand thunder, and in the other a spear, 
with this inscription, Jupiter Custos. 

In some forms of oaths he was commonly called 
Diespiter, the father of iight ; as we shall further 
remark presently under the word Lapis ; and to the 
same purpose he was by the Cretans called Dies. 

The title of Dodonteus was given him from the 
city Dodona in Chaonia, which was so called from 
Dodona, a nymph of the sea. Near to this city 
there was a grove sacred to Jupiter, which was 
planted with oaks ; and famous, because it was the 
most ancient oracle of all Greece. Two doves de- 
livered responses there to those who consulted it : 
or, as others used to say, the leaves of the oaks 
themselves became vocal, and gave forth oracles. 

He was named Elicius, because the prayers of men 
may bring him down from heaven. 

Quod ccelo precibus eliciatur. 

" Eliciunt coelo te Jupiter, unde Minores 

Nunc quoque te celebrant, Eliciumque vocant." — 

Fast 3. 
Jove can't resist the just man's cries, 
They bring him down, e'en from the skies ; 
ll«nce he's Elicius call'd. 

The name Feretrius is given him, because he^ 
smites his enemies, or because he is the giver of^ 
peace ; for when peace was made, the sceptre by 
which the ambassadors swore, and the flint-stone on 
which they confirmed their agreement, were brought 
out of his temple : or lastly, because, after they had 
overcome their enemies, they carried the grand 
spoils [spolia opima) to his temple. Romulus first 
presented such spoils to Jupiter, after he had slain 
Acron, king of Csenina ; and Cornelius Gallus of- 
fered the same spoils, after he had conquered Tolum- 
nius, king of Hetruria ; and thirdly, M. Marcellus, 



when he had vanquished Viridomams, kmg of the 
Gauls, as we' read m Virgil : 

'•' Tertlaque arma Patri suspendet capta Quirino.'* 

And tlic third spoils shall grace Feretrian Jove. — ^n. 6 

Those spoils were called o/lma, which one general 
took from the other in battle. 

Fulminator, or Ceraunius, in Greek Ke^ccwtog, is 
Jupiter's title, from hurhng thunder, which is thought 
to be his proper office, if we believe the poet : 

-O qui res hominumque Deumque 

j^ternis regis imperiis, et fulmine terres." — 

Virg. ^n. 1. 229. 

O king of gods and men, whose awful hand 
Disperses thunder on the seas and land ; 
Dispensing all with absolute command. 

In Lycia they worshipped him under the name of 
Gragus, r^a^io^ \^G7^a])sios'\ and Genitor. 

In jEgium, about the seacoast, he is said to have 
had a temple with the name of Homogynus. 

At Pra3neste he was called Imperator. There was 
a most famous statue of him at that place, afterward 
translated to Rome. 

He was called Latialis, because he was worshipped 
in Latium, a country of Italy ; whence the Latin 
festivals are denominated, to which all the inhabit- 
ants of those cities of Italy resorted, who desired to 
be partakers of the solemnity ; and brought to Ju- 
piter several oblations ; particularly, a bull was .sa- 
crificed at that time, in the common name of them 
all, of which every one took a part. 

The name Lapis, or as others write, Lapideus, 
was given him by the Romans, who believed that an 
oath* made in the name of Jupiter Lapis, was the 
most solemn of all oaths. And it is derived either 

* Juramentuna per Jovem. Lapideui omuium sanctissimuna* 
Cic,,7.ap. 12. 



J^porn the stone whicli was presented to Saturn by his 
\^'ife Ops, who said it was Jupiter, in which sense 
Eusebius says, that Lapis reigned in Crete ; or from 
the flint-stone, which, in making bargains, the swearer 
held in his hand, and said, ■^" It" knowingly I deceive, 
so let Diespitev, saving the city and the capitol, cast me 
away from all that is good, as I cast aw^ay this 
stone ;" upon which he threw the stone away. The 
Romans had another form, not unlike to this, of 
making bargains, whicli may be mentioned here : 
f " If with evil intention I at 'any time deceive ; upon 
that cl-iy, O ! Jupiter, so strike thau me, as I shall 
this day strike this swine ; and so much the more 
strike thou, as thou art the more able and skilful to 
do it ;" he then struck down the swine. 

In the language of the people of Campania, he is 
called Lucetius, from lux ; and among the Latins Di- 
espiter, from dies. Which names were given to Ju- 
piter, " because he cheers and comforts us with the 
light of the d?ty, as much as with life itself:" or, be-^ 
cause he was believed to be the father of light. 

^he people of Elis used to celebrate him by the 
title of Martins. 

He was also called IMuscarius, because he drove 
away the flies : for when the religious exercises of 
Hercules were interrupted by a multitude of flies, he 
immediately oflered a sacrifice lo Jupiter, which be- 
ing finished, all the flies flew awa}*. 

He was styled Nicephorus, that is, carrying vic- 
tory : and by the oracle of Jupiter Nicephorus, em- 
peror Adrian was told, that he should be promoted 
to the empire. Livy often mentions him ; andma- 

^ Si sciens fallo, me Diespiter, salva urbe arceque, bonis eji- 
ciat ut ego liunc lapidem. — Fest ap. Lil. 

t Si dolo raalo aliquando fallam, tu ilio die, Jupiter, me sic 
ferrto. ut ego huiic porcum hodie feriam ; tantoque niagis ferito, 
quatiio magis pote-^!,. pollesque. Liv. 1, I 



iiy coins are extant, in which is the image of Jupi- 
ter bearing victoiv in his hand. 

He was called Opitiikis, or Opitulator, the helper, 
and Centipeda, from his stability ; because those 
things stand secure and firm which have many feet. 
He was called Stabilitor and Tigellus, because he 
supports the world : Almus and Alumnus, because 
he cherishes all things. 

He was styled Olympius, from Olymptis, the name 
of the master who taught him, and of the heaven 
wherein he resides, or of a city which stood near the 
mountain Olympus, and was anciently celebrated 
far and near, because there a temple was dedicated 
to Jupiter, and games solemnized every five years. 
To this Jupiter Olympus, the first cup was sacri- 
ficed in their festivals. 

When the Gauls besieged the capitol, an altar was 
erected to Jupiter Pistor ; because he put it into the 
minds of the Romans, to make loaves of bread, and 
throw them into the Gaul's tents ; upon which the 
siege was raised. 

The Athenians erected a statue to him, and wor^ 
shipped it upon the mountain Hymettus, giving him 
in that place the title of Pluvius ; this title is men- 
tioned by Tibullus : 

" Arlda nee Pluvio supplicat herba Jovi." 

Praedator was also his name, not because he pro- 
tected robbers, but because out of all the booty taken 
from the enemy, one part was due to him. For 
when the Romans w ent to war, they used to devote 
to the gods a part of the spoil that they should get, 
and for that reason there was a temple at Rome 
dedicated to Jupiter Praedator. 

He was styled Quirinus, as appears by that verse 
of Virgil, cited above, when we spoke of the name of 



Rex and Regnator are his common titles in Vir- 
gil, Homer, and Ennius. 

Jupiter was also called Stator, which title he first 
had from Romulus on this occasion : when Romulus 
was fighting widi the Sabines, his soldiers began to 
fly ; upon which Romulus, as Livy relates, thus 
prayed to Jupiter :'^' " O ! thou father of the gods 
and mankind, at this place at least drive back the 
enemy, take away the fear of the Romans, and stop 
their dishonourable flight. And I vow to build a 
temple to thee upon the same place, that shall bear 
the name of Jupiter Stator, for a monument to pos- 
terity, that it was from thy immediate assistance that 
Rome received its preservation." After this prayer 
the soldiers stopped, and returning again to the bat- 
tle, obtained the victory ; upon which Romulus con- 
secrated a temple to Jupiter Stator. 

The Greeks called him i:uTr,p \^Soter'\ Servator, 
the saviour^ because he delivered them from the 
Medes. Conservator also was his title, as appears 
from divers of Dioclesian's coins, on which were his 
effigies, with thunder brandished in his right hand, 
and a spear in his left ; with this inscription : Con- 
servatori. In others, instead of thunder, he holds 
forth a little image of victory, with this inscription : 
Jovi Conservatori Orbis, To Jupiter the conservator 
of the world. 

The augurs called him Tonans and Fulgens And 
emperor Augustus dedicated a temple to him, so call- 
ed ; wherein was a statue of Jupiter, to which a little 
bell was fastened. He is also called Bpovrxtei [^Bron- 
taios'] by Orpheus ; and Tonitrualis, the thunderer, 
by Apuleius ; and an inscription is to be seen upon 
a stone at Rome, Jovi Brontonti. 

* Tu pater Deum hominumque, hiiic saltern arce hostera, deme 
terrorem Romanis, fugamque foedam siste. Hlc ego tibi templum 
Statori Jovi, quod monuraentum sit posteris tua praesenti ope 
servatam urbem esse, voveo. Liy. I. 1. 


Trioculas, T/t.c^^stAjuos \_7Viopihalnios^ was m\ epi- 
thet given him by the Grecians, who thought that 
he had tln-ee eyes, with one of whicli he observed 
the affairs of heaven, with another the affairs of the 
earth, and with the tliird he viewed the sea affairs. 
There was a statue of him, of this kind, in Priamus' 
palace, at Troy ; which, beside the two usual eyes, 
had a third in the forehead. 

T^ejovis, or Vejupiter, and V^edius, that is, " lit- 
tle Jupiter," was his title when he was described 
without his thunder, viewing angrily short spears 
which he held in his hand. The Romans accounted 
him a fatal and noxious deity ; and therefore they 
worshipped him only that he might not hurt them. 

Agrippa dedicated a pantheon to Jupiter Ultor, 
" the avenger ;" at Rome, according to Pliny. 

He was likewise called Xenius, or Hospitalis, be- 
cause he was thought the author of the laws and cus- 
toms concerning hospitality. Whence the Greeks 
call presents given to strangers xenia, as the Latins 
called them lauiia. 

live, ^Zeus'\ is the proper name of Jupiter, because 
he gives life to animals. 


Had Jupiter many names ? 
What did the Greeks call him ? 
What name did he obtain in Lybia ? 
By whom and on what account was he called Belus ? 
Why was he called Capitolinus ? 

Why was he called Tarpeius, and why Optimus Maximus ? 
How did he obtain the title of Diespiter f 
Why was he styled Dodonaeus ? 
Why was he named Elicius ? 

Explain the reason why the name Feretrius was given him .'' 
Why was he called Fulminator ? 
What was he called at Praeneste ? 
Why was he called Latialis ? 

How did he obtain the name Lapis, and from what is it de- 
rived ? 

What was the Roman way of making bargains ? 
Why was he called Lucetius ? 



Why was he styled Muscariiis, and why Nicephorus ? 

Why was he denominated Opitulator, Centipeda, Almas, and 
Ruminiis ? 

On what account was he denominated Olympius, Pistor, Plu- 
vius, Praedator ? 

What are his titles in Virgil, Homer, and Ennius ? 

How did he obtain the title Stator ? 

Why, and by whom was he called Soter r 

What was he called by the augurs ? 

Why was he called Trioculus i 

Why was he called Xenius, and why Zeus ? 


•► Natural philosophers many times think that heaven 
is meant by the name Jupiter-: whence many authors 
(express the thunder and hghtning, which came from 
heaven, by these phrases : Jove tonante, fulgente, <^c. 
and in this sense Virgil used the word Olympus. 

" Panditur interea domus omnipotentis Olympi." uEn. 10. 

Meanwhile the gates of heaven unfold. 
•• Others have imagined that the air, and the things 
that are therein contained, as thunder, lightning, 
rain, meteors, and the like, are signified by the same 
name. In which sense Horace is to be miderstood, 
when he says : sub Jove, that is, " in the open air." 
Some, on the contrary, call the air Juno, and the 
fii'e Jupiter, by which the air being warmed becomes 
fit for the production of things. Others, again, call 
the sky Jupiter, and the earth Juno : because out of 
the earth all things spring ; which Virgil has ele- 
gantly expressed in the second book of his Georgics : 

" Turn pater omnipotens foecundis imbribis sether, 
Conjugis in gremium letse descendit, et omnes 
Magnus alit, magno conimistus corpoi'e, foetus." 

Euripides thought so, when he said that the sky 
ought to be called Summus Deus, '* the great God." 
Plato's opinion was different ; for he thought that the 
sun was Jupiter ; and Homer, together with the 
slforesaid Euripides, thinks that he is fate ; which 



fate is, according to Cicero's definition, — *" The 
cause from all eternity why such things as are al- 
ready past, were done ; and why such things as are 
doing at present, be as they are ; and why such 
things as are to follow hereafter, shall follow ac- 
cordingly."* In short, others by Jupiter understand 
the soul of the world ; which is diffused not only 
through all human bodies, but likewise through all 
the parts of the universe, as Virgil poetically de- 
•scribes it : 

The heaven and earth's compacted frame, 

And flowing watei-s, and the starry frame, 
And both the radiant lights, one common soul 
Inspires, and feeds, and animates the whole. 
This active mind, infus'd through all the space, 
Unites and mingles with the mighty mas§.^-;-iEn. 6. 

* Jupiter is usually represented by the ancients as 
governing the world by his providence ; and is de- 
scribed as viewing from an eminence the pursuits 
and contentions of mankind, and weighing in his 
scales their fortunes and their merits. He is the 
moderator of the difterences of the gods, and when- 
ever any of the inferior deities asked him a favour, 
he was disposed to nod his assent : * 

He, whose all-conscious eyes the world behold, 
Th' eternal thunderer, sat enthron'd in gold : 
High heav'n the footstool for his feet he makes, 
And wide beneath him, all Olympus shakes. 
He spake ; and awful bends his sable brows, 
Shakes his ambrosial curls, and gives the nod ; 
The stamp of fate and sanction of the god : 
High heaven, with trembling, the dread signal took, 
And all Olympus to the centre shook. — Homer. 

All heaven is represented as shaken with his ter- 
rors, and neither men nor gods had the temerity to 
oppose his will : 

* iEterna rerum causa ; cur ea, quae preterierint, facta sint ; 
et ea, quae instant, fiant ; et ea, quae consequentur, futura sint 
pic. d.e Divin. 1. 



Ih^n spake ih' almighty father as he sat 
Enthron'd in gold ; and clos'd the great* debate, 
Th' attentive ^\•inds a solemn silence keep ; 
The wond'ring waves lie level on the deep ; 
Earth to his centre shook ; high heav'n was aw'd, 
And all th' immortal pow'rs stood trembling at the god, 



What do philosophers understand by the word Jupiter f 
What meaning do others give of it ? 
What is the example from Horace ? 
How does Virgil understand it in the Georgics ? 
Repeat the original and translation ? 
Give me the opinion of Eux-ipides, Plato, and Homer ? 
Repeat the lines from the sixth ^neid, and point out the ap- 
plication ? 

How is Jupiter represented by the ancients ? 
Repeat the lines from Homer ? 
How is he represented by Virgil ? 



Apollo is represented as a beardless youth, with 
long hair, comely and graceful, who wears a laurel 
crown, and shines in garments embroidered with, 
gold, with a bow and arrows in one hand, and a 
harp in the other. He is at other times described 
holding a shield in one hand and the Graces in the 
other. And because he has a threefold power in 
heaven, where he is called Sol : in earth, where he 
is named Liber Pater ; and in hell, where he is styled 
Apollo 5 he is usually painted with these three things : 
a harp, a shield, and arrows. The harp shows that 
he bears rule in heaven, where all things are full of 
harmony ; the shield describes his office in earth, 
where he gives health and safety to terrestrial crea- 
tures ; his arrows show his authority in hell, for who- 
ever he strikes with them, he sends them into hell. 


Sometimes he is painted with a crow and a hawk 
flying over his head, a wolf and a laurel tree on one 
side, and a swan and a cock on the other ; and un- 
der his feet grasshoppers creeping. The crow is sa- 
cred to him, because he foretells the weather, and 
shows the different changes of it b}' the clearness or 
hoarseness of his voice. The swan is likewise en- 
dued with a divination,^ because foreseeing" his hap- 
piness in death, he dies with singing and pleasure. 
The wolf is not unacceptable to him, not only be- 
cause he spaied his flock when he was a shepherd, 
but the sharpness of his eyes represents the foresight 
of prophecy. The laurel tree is of a very hot na- 
ture, always flourishing, and conducing to divination 
and poetic raptures ; and the leaves of it put under 
the pillow, was said to produce true dreams. The 
hawk has eyes as bright as the sun ; the cock fore- 
tells his rising; and the grasshoppers so entirely 
depend on him, that they owe their rise and sub- 
sistence to his heat and influence. 

There were four Apollos : the first and most an- 
cient of them was born of Vulcan, and was the tute- 
lary god of the Athenians ;f the second was a Cre- 
tan, a son of one of the Corybantes ; the third was 
born of Jupiter and Latona ; the fourth was born in 
Arcadia, called by the Arcadians, Nomius. But 
though, as Cicero says, there were so many Apollos, 
yet the rest of them are seldom mentioned, and all 
that they did is ascribed to one only, namely, to him 
that was born of Jupiter and Latona, which is thus 
represented : 

Latona, the daughter of Coeus the Titan, con- 
ceived twins by Jupiter : Jmio, mcensed at it, sent 
the serpent Python against her ; and Latona, to es- 

* Cygni non sine causa Apollini dicati sunt, quod ab eo divi^ 
nationem habere videantur ; quia praevidentes quid in moite bo- 
iii sit, cum cantu et voluptate moriuntur. Cic. TuscuL 1 

t Bapier's Mythology. 



eape tiie serpent, fled into the island of Delos^- 
Where she brought forth Apollo and Diana at tlie 
same birth. 


How is Apollo represented ? 

With what things is he painted, and why ? 

Wliy are the crow, hawk^w^olf, swan, and laurel, consecrated 
to liim ? ..13 

How many Apollos were there, and which is the principal ?_ 

Where was Apollo born, and what was tlie occasion of his 
birth at Delos r 


Apollo was advanced to the highest degree of 
honour and worship by these four means, viz : by 
the invention of physic, music, poetry, and rhetoric, 
which is ascribed to him ; and, therefore, he is sup- 
posed to preside over the Muses. It is said that he 
taught the arts of foretelhng events, and shooting 
with arrows; when, therefore, he had benefited man- 
kind infinitely by the?e favours, they worshipped 
him as a god. Hear how gloriously he himself re-- 
peats his own accomplishments of mind and nature, 
where he magnifies himself to the flying nymph 
whom he passionately loved. 

-'' Nescis, temeraria, nescis 

Quern fugias, ideoque fugis- 
Jupiter est genitor. Per me quod eritque, fuitque, 
Estque, patet. Per me concordant carmina nervis; 
Certa quidem nostra est, nostra taraen una sagitta 
Certior, in vacuo, quae vulnera pectore fecit. 
Inventum medicina meum est, opiferque per orbem 
Dicor ; et herbarum est subjecta potentia nobis." 

Ov. Met. a. 

Stay, nymph, he cried, I follow not a foe ; 
Thus from the lion darts the trembling doe : 
Thou shunn'st a god, and shunn'st a god that loYQ. 
But think from whom thou dost so rashly fly, 
Nor basely born, nor shepherd's swain am I. 

What shall be, 

Or is, or ever was, in fate I gee. 



Mine is the invention of the charming lyre ; 
Sweet notes and heavenly numbers 1 inspire. 
Sure is my 1jo\v, unerring is my dart, 
But ah ! more deadly his, who pierc'd my heart. 
Med'cine is mine ; what herbs ai^id simples grow 
In fields, in forests, all their powers I know, 
And am the great physician call'd below. 

His principal actions are as follows : 
1. He destroyed all the Cyclops, tlie forgers of 
Jupiter's thunderbolts, with his arrows, to revenge 
the death of jEsculapius, his son, whom Jupiter had 
killed with thunder, because by the help of his 
physic he revived the dead. "^For this act Apollo 
\vas cast down from heaven and deprived of his di- 
vinity, exposed to the calamities of the world, and 
commanded to live in banishment upon the earth. In 
this distress he was compelled by want to look after 
Admetus' cattle : where, it is said, he first invented 
and formed a harp. Aiter this, Mercury got an op- 
portunity to dri\'e away a few of the cattle of his 
herd by" stealth ; and while Apollo complained and 
threatened to punish him, unless he brought the 
same cattle back again, his harp was also stolen by the 
samef god j so tliat his anger was changed tO 

2. He raised the walls of the city of Troy, by tlie 
music of his harp alone ; if we may believe the poet: 

" Ilion aspices, firmataque turribus altis 

Mceni, Apollinaj structa eanore lyree." — Otid. Ejp. Pari(jt. 

Troy you shall see, and walls divine admire j 

Built by the music of Apollo's lyre. 

Some say that there was a stone, xipon whicli 
Apollo only laid down his harp, and the stone by 
the touch became so melodious, that whenever it wa^ 
struck with another stone, it sounded like a harp. 

3. By misfortune he killed Hyacintlius, a boy 
that he loved. For, while Hyacinthus and b© were 

* Lucian Dial. Mort 
i Hor. Carm. 1. 


playing together at quoits, Zephyrus was enraged, 
because Apollo was better beloved by Hyaciuthus 
than himself; and, having an opportunity of re- 
venge, he blew the quoit that Apollo cast, against 
the head of Hyaciuthus, by which blow he fell down 
dead. Apollo caused the blood of the youth, that 
was spilt upon the earth, to produce flowers called 
violets, as Ovid finely expresses it : , 

"^ Ecce cruor, qui fusus humi siguaverat herbam, 
Desiiiit esse cruor; Tyrioque nitentior ostro 
Flos oritur, formamque capit, quain lilia ; si non 
Purpureas color huic, argenteus esse in illis. ' — Met. ICt 

* Behold the blood, which late the grass had dy'd, 
Was now no blood ; from which a lloAver full blown^ 
Far brighter than the Tyrian scarlet shone, 
Which seeni'd the same, or did resemble right 
A lily, changing but the red to white. 

. Besides, he was passionately fond of Cyparissus, 
another boy, who, when he had unfortunately killed 
a fine deer, which he exceedingly loved and had 
brought up from its birth, was so melancholy for 
his misfortune, that he constantly bewailed the loss 
of his deer, and refused all comfort. Apollo, be- 
cause he begged of the god that his mourning might 
be made perpetual, in pity changed him into a cypress 
tree, the branches of which were always used at fu- 

'' munusque supremum. 

Hoc petit a superis, ut tempore lugeat omni. — 
Ingemuit, tristis(}ue Deus, lugebere nobis, 
Lugebisque alios, aderisque dolentibus, inquit." 

Ov. Met. 10^ 

Implores that he might never cease to mourn, 
When Phoebus sighing, I for thee will mourn, 
Mourn thou for others, hearses still adorn. . 

4. He fell violently in love with the virgin 
Daphne, so famous for her modesty. He pursued 
lier, but whiie she fled from the violence of his pas- 


sion, she was changed mto a laurel, which remains^ 
ahvays flourishing, and always pure^ ,. 

5. He courted also along time the nymph Bolina, 
but never could gain her ; for she chose rather to 
throw herself hito the river and be drowned, than 
yield to his wishes. 

6. Leucothoe, the daughter of Orchamus, lung of 
Babylon, was not so tenacious. Her father could 
not bear the disgrace brought on his family, and 
buried her alive. Apollo was greatly grieved at 
this, and though he could not bring her again to life, 
he poured nectar upon the dead bod} , and thereby . 
turned it into a tree that drops frankincense. 

" Nectare adorato spargit corpusque locumque, 
Multaque prajquestus, tanges tumen sethera, dixit. 
Protiniis imbutum coelesti nectare corpus 
DelicLiit, terramque suo madefecit adore ; 
Virgaque per glebas, sensirn radicibus actis, 
Thurea surrexit ; tumulumque cacumine rupit." 

Ov. Met. 4. 

He mourned her loss, and sprinkled all her hearse 
With balmy nectar, and more precious tears. 
Then said since fate does here our joys defer, 
Thou shalt ascend to heav'n and bless me there 
Her body straight embalm'd with heav'nly art, 
Did a sweet odour to the ground impart, 
And from the grave a beauteous tree arise, 
That cheers the gods wath pleasing sacrifice. 

The attachment of Leucothoe and Apollo had 
been discovered to her father by her sister Clytie, 
whom Apollo formerly loved, but now deserted: 
which she seeing, pined away, with her eyes con- 
tinually looking up to the sun, and at last was 
changed into a flower called a siui-flower, or helio- 
trope. Ovid Met. 4. 

7. Apollo was challenged in music by Marsyas, a 
proud musician ; and when he had overcome him, 
Apollo slayed him for his temerity, and converted 
him into the river of that name in Phrygia, 

8. Midas, king of Phrygia, having foohshly de^ 


termined the victory to Pan, when Apollo and he 
sang together, Apollo stretched his ears to the length 
and shape of asses' ears. IMidas endeavoured to 
hide his disgrace by his hair : but since it was im- 
possible to conceal it from his barber, he prevailed 
with him by great promises, not to divulge what he 
saw. But the barber went and dug a hole, and put- 
ting his mouth to it, whispered these words, " King 
Midas has asses' ears :" and the reeds that grew 
out of that hole, if they were moved by the least 
blast of wind, uttered the same words, viz. " King 
Midas has the ears of an ass." 

-" Secedit, humumqne 

Effodit, et domini quales conspexerit aures, 

Voce refert parva." Ovid Met. 15. 

He dug a hole, and in it whispering said, 

What monstrous ears sprout from king Midas' head! 


How was Apollo advanced to honour ? 

Repeat the description of himself, as given by Ovid. -. 

What occurred to Apollo, with regard to the Cyclops ? 

What is said of the music of his harp ? ^ 
^,How did he kill Hyacinthus, and ^at was the effect of it ? 
/ Repeat the lines from Ovid. ^ 

What is the story of Cyparissus ? 

Repeat the lines from Ovid. 

What is related of Daphne } 

What is related of Bolina .'' 

What happened to Leucothoe .' 

What became of Marsyas ? 

What is the story respecting Midas ? 


As the Latins call him Sol, because there is but 
one sun ; so some think the Greeks gave him the 
name of Apollo for the same reason. Though 
others think that he is called Apollo, either because 
he drives away diseases, or because he darts vigor- 
ously his rays. 

He was called Cynthius, from the mountain Cyn- 
thus, in the island of Delos ; wheqce Diana also was 
called Cvnthia^. 


And Delius, from the same island, because he wa» 
born there : or, as some say, because Apollo (who 
is the smi,) by his light, makes all things manifest ; 
for which reason he is called Phanaeus. 

He was named Delphinius, because he killed the 
serpent Python, called Delphis : or else, because 
when Castilius, a Cretan, carried men to the planta- 
tions, Apollo guided him in the shape of a dolphin. 

His title Delphicus comes from the city Delphi, 
m Boeotia. Here Apollo had the most famous tem- 
ple in the world, in which he uttered the oracles to- 
those who consulted him ; which he first received 
from Jupiter. They say that this famous oracle 
became dumb at the birth of our Saviour, and when 
Augustus, who was a great votary of Apollo, de- 
sired to know the reason of its silence, the oracle 
answered him, that in Judea a child was born, who 
was the son and image of the supreme God, and had 
commanded him to depart, and retui'n no more an- 

Me puer Hebrasus^jjdivos Deus ipse gubernans, 
Cedere sede jubet, tristemque redire sub orcum ', 
Aris ergo dehinc nostris abscedito, Csesar. 

Apollo was likewise called Didymseua, which 
word in Greek, signifies twins, by which are meant 
the two great luminaries of heaven, the sun and the 
moon, which alternately enlighten the world by day 
and by night. 

He was also called Nomius, which signifies either 
a shepherd, because he fed the cattle of Admetus ; 
or because the sun, as it were, feeds all things that 
the earth generates, by his heat and influence. Or 
perhaps this title may signify lawgiver; and was 
given him, because he made very severe laws, when 
he was king of Arcadia. 

He was styled Paean, either from allaying sorrows, 
oj from his exact skill in striking ; wherefore he is 


armed with arrows. And we know that the sun 
strikes us, and often hurts us with his rays, as with 
so many darts. 

He is accordingly referred to in this character by 
Homer : 

Bent was his bow, the Grecian hearts to wound, 

Fierce as he raov'd his silver shafts resound. 

Breathing revenge, a sudden night he spread, 

And gloomy darkness roll'd around his head. 

The fleet in view, he twang'd his deadly bow, 

And hissing fly the feather'd fates below. 

On mules and dogs th' infection first began ; 

And last the vengeful arrows fis'd on man. — Iliad. 

By this name Paean, his mother Latona, and the 
spectators of the combat, encouraged Apollo, when 
he fought with the serpent Python, crying frequently, 
** Strike him. Paean, with thy darts." By the same 
name the diseased invoke his aid, crying, " Heal us, 
Paean." And hence the custom came, that not only 
all hymns in the praise of Apollo were called Pceanes, 
but also, in all songs of triumph in the celebration 
of all victories, men cried out, " lo Paean." After 
this manner the airy and wanton lover in Ovid acts 
his triumph too : 

" Dicite lo Paean, et To, bis discite, Paean ! 
Decidit in casses prseda petita meos." Art. Am. 2. 

Sing lo Peean twice, twice lo say; 

My toils are pitch'd, and I have caught my prey. 

H^ was called Phoebus, from the great swiftness of 
his motion. 

He was named Pythius, not only from the serpent 
Python, which he killed, but likewise from asking 
and consulting ; for none among the gods was more 
consulted, or delivered more responses, or spake 
more oracles than he ; especially in the temple which 
he had at Delphi, to which all sorts of nations resort- 
ed, so that it was called "the oracle of all the earth." 
The oracles were first given out by a young virgin ; 
afterwards it was determined that an old woman 


should give the answers, in the dress of a young 
maid, who was therefore called Pythia, from Py- 
thius, one of Apollo's names, and sometimes Phoe- 
bas, from Phrebus, another of them. But as to the 
manner by which the woman understood the god's 
mind, men differ. 

There are also different opinions respecting the 
tripos on which the oracle sat. Some say that it 
was a table with three feet ; on which she placed 
herself when she designed to give forth oracles. 
But others say, that it was a vessel, in which she 
was plunged before she prophesied ; or rather, that 
it was a golden vessel, furnished with ears, and sup-* 
ported by three feet, whence it was called tripos ; 
and on this the lady sat down. It happened that 
this tripos was lost in the sea, and afterwards taken 
up in the nets of fishermen, who contended among 
themselves which should have it : the Pythian 
priestess being asked, gave answer that it ought to 
be sent to the wisest man of all Greece. Where- 
upon it was carried to Thales of Miletus ; who sent 
it to Bias, as to a wiser person ; Bias referred it to 
another, and that other referred it to a fourth, till, 
after it had been sent backward and forward to al? 
the wise men, it retured again to Thales, who dedi- 
cated it to Apollo, at Delphi. 

The seven wise men of Greece were, " Thales of 
MiletuSy^^ " Solon of Athens" " Chilon of Lacedce- 
mon^" *' Pittacus of Mytilene," " Bias of Priene^^' 
" Cleohulus of Lindi" and ^^ Periarider of Co- 
rinth." 1 will add some remarkable things con* 
cerniiig them : 

Thales was reckoned among the wise men, be- 
cause he was believed to be the first that brought 
geometry into Greece. He first observed the courses 
of the times, the motion of the winds, the nature of 
thunder, and the motions of the sun and the stars. 
Being asked what he thought the most difficult thing 


111 the world, he answered, " To know one's self." 
This perhaps was the occasion of the advice wTitten 
on the front of Apollo's temple, to those that were 
about to enter, " Know thyself," rvaSi c-euvrov. 

When Solon visited Croesus, king of Lydia, 
the king showed his vast treasures to him, and ask- 
ed him \\ hether he knew a man happier than he : 
" Yes," says Solon, " I know Tellus, a very poor, 
but a very virtuous man, at Athens, who lives 
in a little tenement, and he is more happy than 
your majesty : for neither can those things make us 
happy, which are subject to the changes of the times ; 
nor is any one to be thought truly happy till he 
dies." » It is said, when king Croesus was afterward 
taken prisoner by Cyrus, and laid upon the pile to 
be burni, he remembered this saying of Soloii, and 
often repeated his name ; so that Cyrus asked wdiy 
he cried out Solon, and who the god was whose as- 
sistance he begged. Croesus said, " I now find by 
experience that to be true, which he told me ;" and 
he then- related the story. Cyrus, on hearing it, 
was so touched with the vicissitude of human affeirs, 
that lie preserved Croesus from the fire, and ever af- 
ter had him in great honour. 

Chilo had tliis saying continually in his mouth : 
'' c/Ye quid nimium cupias," " Desire nothing too 
much." Yet when his son had got the victory 
at the Olympic games, the good man died with joy, 
and all Greece honoured his funeral. 
' Bias, a man no less famous for learning than no- 
bility, preserved his citizens a long time. . And when 
at last, says Cicero, his country Priene was taken, 
and the rest of the inhabitants, in their escape, car- 
ried away w ith them as much of their goods as they 
could ; one advised him to do the same, but he made 
aijswer. " Ego vero facio, nam omnia mea mecum>- 
jwrto." "It is what I do ali^ady; for all thing's 
that are mine I carry about me." He often said^ 


"Amicos i|a amare opertere, ut aliquando essent 
osuri, "That friends should remember so to love 
one another, as persons who sometimes hate one 
another." A sentiment very un\vortl)y of a wise 
and good man. 

Of the rest, nothing extraordinary is reported. 


What is tlie origin of the name Apollo ? 

Why was he called Cynthius, Delias, and Delphinius ? 

From what did he derive his title Delphicus r 

When did the oracle become dumb ? 

Why was he called Didymteus and Nomius ? 

Why was he styled Pajan ? 

On what account was he named Phcebus and Pythiu?"? 

What is said of the tripos ? 

Who were the seven wise men of Greece ? 

On what account was Thales celebrated P 

For what is Solon celebrated ? 

What was the famous saying of Chilo ? 

Why is Bias reckoned among the seven wise men ? 


Every one agrees, that by Apollo the Sun is to be 
understood ; for the four chief properties ascribed to 
Apollo, were the arts of prophesying, of healing, of 
darting, and of music ; of all which we may find, in 
the sun, a lively representation and image. 

It may be observed that Apollo's skill in music 
geems to agree with the nature of the sun, which, 
being placed in the midst of the planets, makes with 
them a kind of harmony, and as it were, a concert : 
and because the sun is thus placed the middlemost 
of the seven planets, the poets assert, that the instru- 
tnent which Apollo plays on, is a harp with seven 

Besides, from the things sacrificed to Apollo, it 
appears that he was the Smi : the first of these was 
the olive, the fruit of which cannot be nourished iu 
iiaces distaut from it. 3. The laurel, a tree always 


flourishing, never old, and conducing to divination ^ 
and therefore the poets aie crov. ned with laurel. 3, 
Among animals, swans were offered to him ; because, 
as was observed before, they have from Apollo, a 
iacultv of divination ; for they, foreseeing the hap- 
piness in death, die singing and pleased. 4. Grif- 
fins also, and crows, were sacred to him for the same 
reason ; and the hawk, wliicli has eyes as bright and 
piercing as the sini ; the cock, which foretells his 
rising, and the grasshopper, a singing creature i 
hence it was a custom among the Athenians, to fast- 
en golden grasshoppers to their hair, in honour of 

And especially, if we derive the name of Lato- 
na, the mother of Apollo and Diana, from the 
Greek ?^ccv$uva [lanthano, to lie hid] it will signify, 
that before the birth of Apollo and Diana, that is, 
before the production of the sun and moon, all thingg 
lay involved in darkness ; from which these two glo* 
rious luminaries afterward proceeded, as out of the 
womb of a mother. 

But notwithstanding all this, several poetical fa- 
bles have relation only to the sun, and not to Apollo, 
And of those therefore it is necessary to treat apart?. 


What were the chief properties of Apollo ? 

Why does Apollo's skill in music agree with the nature of the 
sun ? 

How is it inferred that he was the sun from tjie things sacri- 
ficed to him ? 

What is inferred from the name Latoha, mother of ApoNo 
and Diana ? 




This glorious suii, which ilhistrates all things with 
his light, is called Sol, as Cicero says, either be- 
cause he is the only star that is of that apparent mag- 
nitude ; or because, when he rises, he puts out all 
the other stars, and only appears himself. Vel quia 
Solus ex omnibus sideribus tantus est ; vel quia cum 
exortus est, obscuratis omnibus. Solus appareat. 
Cic. de Nat. Deor. 2. 3. Although the poets have 
said, tliat there were live Sols 5 yet, whatever they 
delivered concerning each of them severally, they 
commonly apply to one, who was the son of Hype- 
rion, and nephew to jEther, begotten of an unknown 

The Persians call the sun Mithra, accounting him 
the greatest of their gods, and worship him in a cave. 
IJis statue has the head of a lion, on \Yhich a turban 
Qalled tia7'a, is placed ; it is clothed with Persian at- 
tire, and holds with both hands a mad l>ull by the 
horns. Those that desired to become his priests, 
and understand his masteries, did first undergo a 
great many hardships before they could attain to the 
honour of that employment. It was not lawful for 
the kings of Persia to cU'ink immoderately, but upon 
that day in which the sacrifices were offered to 

The Egyptians called the sun Horus ; whence 
those parts into which the sun divides the day, are 
called horce, hours. They represented his power by 
a sceptre, on the top of which an eye was placed ; 
by which they signified that the sun sees, every thing, 
and that all things are seen by his mean^. 


These horcb were tlioiiglit to be the daughters oi 
Sol and Chronis, who early in the mornmg prepara 
the chariot and the horses tor their father, and open 
the gates of the day. 


What is Cicero's opinion with regard to Sol, and to whoiii 
does the name apply ? 

What is said of the Persians witli regard to the sun ? 

What ^\ as necessary to be done by those wlio would become 
the priests of tlie sun ? 

AVhat name did tlie Egyptians ;^!ve to the sun, and how did 
they represent hi.s power?' 

\Vho were the '• hone,"' and what was their business? 


The seven wonders of the world : 

1. The Colossus at Rhodes, a statue of the sun, 
seventy cubits high, placed across the mouth of the 
harbour ; a man could not grasp his thumb with 
both his arms. Its legs were stretched out to such 
a distance, that a large ship under sail might easily 
pass into the port between them. It was twelve 
years making, and cost three hundred "^talents. It 
stood fifty years, and at last was thrown down by 
an earthquake. And from this Colossus the people 
of Rhodes were named Colossenses ; andnoweverys 
statue of an unusual magnitude is called Colossus. 

2. The temple of Diana, at Ephesus, a work of 
tlie greatest magnificence ; which the ancients great- 
ly admired. jTwo hundred and twenty years were 
spent in finishing it, though all Asia was employed. 
It was supported i)y one hundred and twenty-seven 
pillars sixty feet high, each of which was raised by 
as many kings. Of these pillars thirty-seven were 
engraven. The iqiage of the goddess was made of 
ebony, as we learn from history. 

3. The Mausoleum, or sepulchre of Mausolus, 

' A Rhodian talent is w^ortli 322Z. 18*. 4d. English.- 
t Plia. 1. 7. c. 38. k 1, 16. c. 40. 



king of Caria, ^built by his queen Artemisia, of the 
purest marble ; and yet the workmanship of it was 
much more vakiable than the marble. It was from 
north to south sixty-three feet long, almost fotii* 
hundred and eleven feet in compass, and twenty-five 
cubits (that is, about thirty-five feet) high, surround- 
ed with thirty-six columns, which were beautified in 
a wonderful manner. From this Mausoleum all other 
iSumptuous sepulchres are called by the same name. 

4. A statue of Jupiter, in the temple of the city of 
f Olympia, carved with the greatest art by Phidias, 
out of ivory, and made of a prodigious size. 

5. The walls of Babylon (the metropolis of Chal- 
dea,) Jbuilt by queen Semiramis ; their circum- 
ference was sixty miles, and their bi>eadth fifty feet, 
so that six chariots might conveniently pass upon 
them in a row. 

6. The llpyramids of Egypt ; three of which, rsr- 
tnarkable for their height, still remain. The first 
has a square basis, and is one hundred and forty- 
three feet long, and one thousand feet high : it is 
made of great stones, the least of which is thirty feet 
thick ; and three hundred and sixty thousand men 
were employed in building it, for the space of twen- 
ty years. The other two, which are somewhat 
smaller, attract the admiration of all spectators. In 
these pyramids, it is reported, the bodies of the 
kings of Egypt lie interred. 

7. The palace of ^Cyrus, king of the Mede#, 
made by Menon, with no less prodigality than art j 
for he cemented the stones with gold. 


What is the first of the seven wonders of the world ; hoWls 
it described, and what name did the inhabitants of Rhodes ^- 
vive from it. 

Describe the second of the wonders of the world ? 

* Plin. 1. 36. c, 5. t Phil. 1. 36. c. S. | PUn. 1. 6. c. 26. 
^\ Plin. 1. 36. c. 13. gelo. h ^. c, 32. ^Cale^ip. V. ^rtiai^tir. 


Which was the third, and what technical term owf ? its ov'mm 
to it ? 

Which was the fourth ? 
- Describe the fifth ? 

Give some account of the sixth ? 

Which was the seventh ? 


The most celebrated of Sol's children was Pharton, 
who gave the poets an excellent opportunity of show- 
ing their ingenuity by the following action. Epa- 
phus, one of the sons of Ji^iter, quarrelled with 
Phaeton, and said that though he called himself the 
son of Apollo, he was not. This slander so pro- 
voked Phaeton, that by Clymene, his mother's ad- 
vice, he went to the royal palace of the Sun, to 
bring thence some indubitable marks of his nativity. 
The sun received him kindly, and owned him as his 
son ; and, to take away all occasion of doubting 
hereafter, he gave him liberty to a«;k a'iy thing, 
swearing by the Stygian lake, an oath which none of 
the gods dare violate, that he would not deny him. 
Phaeton then desired leave to govern his fjither's cha- 
riot for one day. This was the occasion of great 
grief to his father, who endeavoured to persuade him 
not to persist in his project, which no mortal was 
capable of executing. Phaeton, however, pressed 
him to keep his promise, and perform what he had 
sworn by the river Styx. The father was forced 
to comply with his son's rashness : he directed him 
how to guide the horses, and especially advised him 
to observe the middle path. Phaeton was transport- 
ed with joy, mounted his chariot, and taking the 
reins, began to drive the horses ; which, finding him 
unable to govern them, ran away, and set on fire 
Iboth the heaven and the earth. Jupiter, to put an 
end to the conflagration, struck him out of the chariot 
with tiiuader, and cast him headlong into the river 
Po. His 5i§t9rs, Lampethusa, Lampetia» and Pha- 


etliusa, lamenting his death, incessantly, upon the 
banks of that river, were turned, by the pity of the 
gods, into po})lars, from that time weeping amber in- 
stead of tears. This forms a subject of one of the 
most beautiful passages in Ovid. — Met. 2. 

Circe, the most skilful of all sorceresses, poisoned 
her husband, a king of the Sarmatians ; for which 
she was banished by her subjects, and flying into 
Italy, fixed her seat on the promontory Circa3um, 
where she fell in love with Glaucus, a sea god, who 
at the same time loved Scylla : Circe turned her into 
a sea monster, by poisoning the water in which she 
used to wash. She entertained Ulysses, who was 
driven hither by the violence of storms, with great 
civility ; and restored his companions, whom, ac- 
cording to her usual custom, she had changed into 
hogs, bears, wolves, and the like beasts, unto their 
former shapes. 

Pasiphae, the wife of Minos, king of Crete, loved 
an officer named 2'^aurus, hence the fable of her at- 
tachment to a hull, and of her giving birth to a mon- 
ster, half man and half beast, called Mino-Taurus, 
or, Minotaur. 

The Minotaur was shut up in a labyrinth, which 
Daedalus made by the order of king Minos. This 
labyrinth was a place diversified with very many 
windings and turnings, and cross paths, running in- 
to one another ; — see Theseus. Daedalus was an 
excellent artificer of Athens, and, as it is said, in- 
vented the ax, the saw, the plummet, the augur, 
and glue ; he also first contrived masts and yards 
for ships ; besides, he carved statues so admirably that 
they not only seemed alive, but could never stand still 
in one place ; nay, would fly away unless they were 
chained. This Daedalus, together with Icarus, his 
son, was shut up by Minos in the labyrinth which 
he had made, because he had assisted Pasiphae in 
her intrigues, and finding no way to escape, he meidfi 


wings for himself and his son, with wax and the 
feathers of birds ; fastening these ^ wings to their 
shoulders, Da?daliis flew out of Crete into Sicily, 
hut Icarus in his flight, neglecting his father's advice, 
observed not his due course, and out of juvenile 
wantonness flew higher than he ought ; upon which 
the wax was melted by the sun, the wings broke ifi 
pieces, and he fell into the sea, which is since, ac- 
cording to Ovid, named the Icarian sea, from him. 

<' Icarus Icariis nomina fecit aquis." — Trist. 1. 
Icarian seas from Icarius were called. 

To these children of the sun, we may add his 
niece and his nephew Byblis and C annus. Byblis 
was in love with Caunus, and followed him so long 
to no purpose, that at last, being quite oppressed 
with sorrow and labour, she sat down under a tree, 
and shed such a quantity of tears, that she was con- 
verted into a fountain. 

" Sic lachrymis constimpta suis Phoebeia Byblis 
Vertitur in fontem, qui nunc quoque vallibus illis ♦ 

JXoraen habet domina?, nigraque sub ilice manat." 

Ov. Met. 0. 
Thus the Phcebian Byblis, spent in tears, 
Becomes a living fountain, which yet bears 
Her name, and, under a black holm that grows 
In those rank valleys, plentifully flows. 

quEsrio.YS for EXmiLYJTWy. 

What is said of Phceton, one of the children of the sun ? 

What happened to Phteton ? 

Who were his sisters, and what happened to them ? 

Who was Circe, and Avhat is related of her ? 

Who was Pasiphae, and how is the fable of the Monitaur ex-» 
plained ? 

Who was Daedalus, and what circumstances are related of 
Ijim ? 

Who were the niece and nephew of Sol ? 




Mercury is represented witli a cheerful counte- 
nance and lively eyes ; having wings fixed to his hat 
and his shoes, and a rod in his hand, which is wing- 
ed, and bound about by two serpents. His face in 
partly black and dark, and partly clear and bright ; 
because sometimes he converses with the celestial, 
and sometimes with the infernal gods. He wears 
winged shoes, which are called Talaria, and wings 
are also fastened to his hat, which is called Petasus, 
beicause, since he is the messenger of the gods, he 
ought not only to run, but to fly. 

His wings are emblematical of the wings whicii 
language gives to the thoughts of men. His cha- 
racter, as the swift messenger of the gods, is thm 
referred to by Homer ; — 

* The god who mounts the winged winds 

Fast to his feet the golden pinions binds, 

That high through fields of air hi? flight sustain. 

O'er the wide earth, and o'er t)ie boundless main ; 

lie the w'and that causes jlcep to fly, 

Or in soft sltunbers seals the wakeful eye ; 

Then shoots from heav'n to high Pieria's steep, 

And stoops incumbent on the rolling deep. — Odyssey. 

His parents were Jupiter, and Maia, the daughter 
of Atlas ; and for that reason, the}' use<^i to offer sa- 
crifices to him in the month of jMay. They say that 
.Juno was his nurse, and once wl}en he took liis milk 
too greedily, it ran out of his mouth upon the hea- 
vens, and 'made that white stream w])irb they call 
'' The Milky-way." 

He had many 'offices. 1. The first and principal 
was' to carry t|ie commands of Jupiter 5 whence-- he 



is commonly called '' The messenger of the gods.'^ 
2. He swept the room where the gods supped, and 
made the beds ; and miderwent many other the like 
servile employments ; hence he was styled Camillas 
or Casmillus, that is, an inferior servant of gods ; 
for anciently ail boys and girls under age were call- 
ed'Camilli and Camillae : and the same name was 
afterward given to the young men and maids, who 
attended the priests at their sacrifices : though the 
people of Bceotia, instead of Camillus, say Cadmillus ; 
perhaps from the Arabic word ckadam, to serve ; or 
from the Phoenician word chachnel, god's servant or 
minister sacer. 3. He attended upon dying persons 
to unloose their souls from the chains of the body, 
and carry them to hell : he also revived, and placed 
in new bodies those souls which had completed their 
fid\ time in the Elysian fields. Almost all which 
things Virgil comprises in seven verses. 

-*'■ Dixerat. Ille patris magiii parere parabat 

ImperiO; et primum pedibus talaria nectit 

Aurea, qua; sublimem alls sivea^quora supra, 

ScHi tenam, vapldo pariter cum llaniine portant. 

Turn virgam cairit ; hac aniinas ille evocat Oreo 

Pallentes, alias sub ti'istia Tartara mittit.; 

Dat somnos, adimitque, et lumina morte resignat." «®n.4, 

Hermes obeys ; with golden pinions binds 
His flying feet, and mounts the western winds : 
An'\ whether o'er the seas or earth he flies, 
With rapid force they bear him down the skies. 
But ftrst he gmsps, within his awful hand, 
The niark of sov'reign pow'r, his magic wand : 
With this he draws tlie souls from hollow graves ; 
With this he drives them down the Stygian Avaves ; 
With this he seals in sleep tlie wakeful sight, 
And eyes, though clos'd in death, restores to light. 

His remarkable qualities were these : 1. He was 
the inventor of letters, and excelled in eloquence, so 
that the Greeks called him Hermes, from his *skill 
ia mterpreting or explaining ; and, therefore, he is 

"^ 'A?ro re l^urnviiu i.e. ab iiiterpretando. 


accounted the god of the rhetoricians and orator^i 

2. He is reported to have been the inventor of 
contracts, weights, and measures ; to have first taught 
the arts of buying, selHng, and trafficking ; and to 
have received the name of Mercury* from his under- 
standing of merchandise. Hence he is accounted the 
god of the merchants^ and the god of gain ; so that all 
unexpected gain and treasure, which comes of a sud- 
den, is from him called ip^elov or ep/Lccciov. 

3. In the art of thieving he certainly excelled all 
the sharpers that ever were, or will fbe ; and is the 
prince and god of tliieves. The very day on which 
he was born, he stole away some cattle from king 
Admetus' herd, although Apollo was keeper of them ; 
who complained much of the theft, and bent his bow 
against him : but, in the mean time. Mercury stole 
even his arrows from him. While he was yet an 
infant, and entertained by Vulcan, he stole his tools 
from him. He took away by stealth Venus' girdle, 
while she embraced him ; and Jupiter's sceptre : he 
designed to steal the thunder too, but he was afraid 
lest it should burn him. 

4. He was mightily skilful in making peace ; and 
for that reason was sometimes painted with chains of 
gold flowing from his mouth, with which he linked 
together the minds of those that heard him. And he 
not only pacified mortal men, but also the immortal 
gods of heaven and hell ; for whenever they quarrel- 
led among themselves, he composed their differences. 

'' Pacis et annorum, superis imisqiie Deorura, 
Arbiter, alato qui pede carpit iter." — Ovid Fast. 5. 

Thee, Aving-foot, all the gods, both high and low, 
The arbiter of war and peace allow. 

This pacificatory faculty of his is signified by the 
rod that he holds in his hand, which Apollo hereto- 

* A mercibus, vel a mercium cura, Philostrat, in Soph. 3. 
t Lucian. Diall. Apoll. et Vulc 


fore g#e him, because he had given Apollo a harp. 
This rod had a wonderful faculty of deciding all 
controversies. The virtue was first discovered by 
Mercury, who seeing two serpents fighting, as he 
travelled, he put his rod between them, a)id recon- 
ciled them presently ; for they mutually embraced 
each other ; and stuck to the rod, which is called 
Caduceus. ^Hence all ambassadors sent to make 
peace are called Caduceatores : for, as wars were 
denounced by jFeciales, so they were ended by 


How is Mercury represented ? 

Why does he ^vear wings, and what are they called ? 

Who were his parents ? 

What is said to be the origin of the Milky-way ? 

What are Mercury's principal offices ? 

What was the first remarkable quality belonging to Mercupy? 

What was the second ? 

"What Avas tiie third ? 

What was the fourth ? 

What emblem of peace does he carry ? 

How was this virtue discovered ? 

What Avas the rod called, and wdiat name is derived from it ? 


Of which the following are the most remarkable : 
Hermaphroditus, the son of Mercury and Venus, 
was a celebrated hunter. In one of his excursions 
through the forests, he was observed by a wood 
nymph called Salmacis, who, struck with his manly 
form and noble visage, both new to her, anxiously 
followed him wherever he Avent. But Hermaphro- 
ditus inured to solitude by the nature of his pursuits, 
and unaccustomed to the soft attractions of female 
society, as anxiously avoided her, until she had re- 
course to stratagem, and to hide in ambush to be- 
hold hiin. At length, however, they met at a favourite 
fountain in the midst of the forest, vA'here he usually 

^ Hom. in Hvm. f Lexic. Lat. in hoc Verbo. 


came to bathe during the heat of the da}^ rf^re the 
infatuated nymph imprudently disclosed her senti- 
ments. Such frankness merited a generous return, 
but the ungrateful and sturdy huntsman, unmoved 
by her advances, rejected her with disgust, upon 
which the indignant Salsnacis prayed the gods to 
avenge the insult by wedding him for ever to a fe- 
male form. Her pra3'er was granted, and the 
n retched Hermaphroditus, cquail}^ amazed and 
.shocked at the change, prayed then in turn, to alle- 
viate tlie poignancy of his misfortue by sending him 
companions of similar form. The gods always mer- 
ciful, listened to his entreaties, and decreed that 
whoever, thereafter, should bathe in that fountain, 
should resemble Hermaphroditus, and partake alike 
the form and qualities of either sex. 

A herdsmen, whose name was Battus, saw Mer- 
cury stealing Admetus' cows from Apollo their keep?- 
er. When Mercury perceived that his theft was 
discovered, he went to Battus, and desired that he 
would say nothing, and gave him a delicate cow. 
Battus promised him secrecy. Mercury, to try his 
fidelity, caine in another shape to him, and asked 
him about the cows ; whether he saw them, or knew 
the place where the thief carried them. Battus de- 
nied it ; but Mercury pressed him hard, and pro- 
mised that he would give him both a bull and a cow, 
if he would discover it. With this promise he was 
overcome ; upon which Mercury was enraged, and 
laying aside his disguise, turned him into a stone 
called Index. This story Ovid describes in very 
elegant verse. 

The ancients used to set up statues where the 
roads crossed : these statues they called Indices, be- 
cause with an ai'm or finger held out they showed 
the way to this or that place. The Romans placed 
some in public places and highways ; as the Athe- 
iiimis did at their doors to drive away thieves ; and 


they call these statues Heriufe, from IMercury, whose 
Greek name was Hermes : concerning which Her- 
mae it is to be observed : 

1 . That they have neither hands nor feet ; and 
hence Mercury was called Cyllenius, and by con- 
traction CylliiTs, which words are derived from 
a Greek word signify ing a man without hands and 
feet : and not from C3dlene, a mountain in Arcadia, 
on which he was educated. 

2. A purse was usually hung to a statue of Mer- 
cury, to signify that he was the god of gain and pro- 
fit, and presided over merchandising ; in which, be- 
cause many times things are done by fraud and 
treachery, the}^ gave him the name of 13olius. 

3. The Romans used to join the statues of Mer- 
cury and Minerva together, and these images they 
called Hermathenae ; and sacrificed to both deities 
upon the same altar. Those who had escaped any 
great danger, always offered sacrifices to Mercury ; 
they offered up a calf, and milk, and honey, and es- 
pecially the tongues of the sacrifices, which, with a 
great deal of ceremony, they cast into the fire, and 
then the sacrifice was finished. It is said that the 
Megarenses first used this ceremony. 


What is related of Mercury in connexion with Venus ? 

What is the story of Battus ? 

What were the ancient indices ? 

What were the Herm;« ? 

Why was Mercury called Cyllenius ^ 

Why w'as he called Dolius ? 

What were the Hermathenae ? 

What w^ere the sacrifices offered to Mercury^ and why? 




Bacchus, the god of ivine, and the captain and 
emperor of drunkards, is represented with svvoln 
cheeks, red face, and a body bloated and puffed up. 
He is crowned with ivy and wine-leaves ; and has 
in his hand a thyrsus, instead of a sceptre, which is 
a javelin with an iron head, encircled by ivy or vine- 
leaves. He is carried in a chariot, which is some- 
times drawn by tigers and lions, and sometimes by 
lynxes and panthers : and, like a king, he has his 
guards, who are a drunken band of satyrs, demons, 
nymphs that preside over the wine-presses, fairies of 
fountains, and priestesaes. Silenus oftentimes comes 
after him, sitting on an ass that bends under his 

He is sometimes painted an old man, and somet- 
times a smooth and beardless boy ; as Ovid and Ti- 
bullus describe him. I shall give you the reason of 
these things, and of his horns, mentioned also in 

-" Tibi inconsumpta juventa ? 

Tu puer astern us, tu fonnosissimus alto 
Conspiceris ccelo, tibi, cum sijie cornibus adstas^ 
Virgiiieum caput est." 

. Still dost thou f^njoy 

Uiiwastcd youth ? Eternally a boy 

Thou'rt seen in heaven, whom all perfections grace; 

And when unhonf d, thou hast a virgiji's face. 

According to tlie poets, the birth of Bacchus^ was 
both wonderful and ridiculous. 

They say, that when Jupiter was in love with Se- 
mele, it excited Juno's jealousy, who endeavoured to 
destroy her ; and in the shape of an old woman, 
visited Semele, and advised her to oblige him. when 



he came, by an inviolable oath, to grant lier a re- 
quest : then, says she to Semele, ask him to come to 
you as he is wont to come to Juno : and he will 
come clothed in all his glory, and majest}^, and ho- 
nour. Semele was greatly pica<ed Avith this advice ; 
and therefore, when Jupiter visited her next, she 
begged a favour of him, but did not expressly name 
the favour. Jupiter bound himself in the most so- 
lemn oath to grant her request, let it be what it 
would. Semele, little foreseeing what she desired 
would prove her ruin, made the rash request. What 
Jupiter had so solenmly sworn to perform, he could 
not refuse ; he accordingly put on all his terrors, ar- 
rayed himself with his greatest glorj^, and in the midst 
of thunder and lightning entered Semele's house. 
Her mortal body could not stand the shock, and 
she perished ; for the thunder struck her down and 
stupified her, and the lightning reduced her to ashes. 
So fatal are the rash desires of the ambitious ! Bac- 
cl)us, her son, not yet born, was preserved, taken 
from his mother, and se\A'ed into Jupiter's thigh, 
whence in fulness of time lie was born, and deliver- 
ed into the hands of Mercury to be carried into Eu- 
})<jen, to Macris, the daughter of Aristaeus, who im- 
mediately anointed his lips with honey, and brought 
him up with great care in a cave, to which there 
were two gates. Ovid. Met. 3. 


How is Bacchus represented ? 

By what is his chariot di'awii ? 

How is he painted ? 

GXve some account of Bacchus' birth r 

What was the consequence of that request? 

What did Macris do for Bacchus at }iis birth .'' 


Bacchus was so called from a Greek word, which 
signifies *' to revel ;" and for the same reason, the 


wild women^ his companions, are called Thyades 
and Mccnades, which words signify madness and fol- 
ly. They were also called Mimallones, that is, imi- 
tators or mimics ; because they imitated all Bac- 
chus' actions. 

Biformis, because he was reckoned both a young 
and an old man ; w ith a beard, and without a beard : 
or, because wine (of which Bacchus is the emblem) 
makes people sometimes cheerful and pleasant, 
sometimes peevish and morose. 

He was named Brisseus, either from the nymph 
bis nurse ; or from the use of the grapes and honey, 
which he invented, for biisa signifies a bunch of press^ 
ed grapes ; or else from the promontory Brisa, in 
the island of Lesbos, where he was w orshipped. 

Bromius, from the crackling of fire, and noise of 
thunder, that was heard when his mother was killed. 

Bimater, because he had two mothers : the first 
was Semele, and the other the thigh of Jupiter, into 
which he was received after he was saved from the 

He is called also by the Greeks Bugenes, that Is, 
born of an ox, and thence Tauriformis, or Tauri- 
ceps ; and he is supposed to have horns, because he 
first ploughed with oxen, or because he was the son 
of Jupiter Ammon, who had the head of a ram. 

Dcemon bonus ; the " good angel ;" and in feasf^; 
after the victuals were taken away, the last glass was 
drmik round to his honour. 

Dithyrambus, which signifies either that he was 
born twice, of Semele and of Jove ; or the double 
gate that the cave had, in which he was brought up i 
or perhaps it means that drunkards cannot keep se- 
crets ; but whatever is in the head comes in the 
mouth, and bursts forth, as fast as it would out o£ 
two doors. 

Dionysius or Dionysus, from his father Jupiter^ 
m from the nympjjs oaJlieyd ^ysfi§, by whom.he,w-as 

nursed, as tFiey say, or from a Greek word, signilyv 
ing " to prick," because he pricked his father's side 
with his horns, wlien he was born ; or from Jupiter's 
lameness, who hmped* when Bacchus was in his 
thigh ; or from an island among the Cyclades, call- 
ed Dia, or Naxos, which was dedicated to him when 
he married Ariadne ; or lastly, from the city of Ny- 
sa, ill which Bacchus reigned. 

Evius, or Evous : for, in the war of the giants, 
whtn Jupiter did not see Bacchus, he thought that 
he was killed, and cried out " Alas son !" or because 
when he found that Bacchus had overcome the giants, 
by changing himself into a lion, he cried out again, 
" Well done son." Ew uts 

Evan, from the acclamations of Bacchantes, whO 
were therefore called Evantes. 

Euchius, because Bacchus fills his glass plenti* 
fully, even up to the brim. 

Eleleus and Eleus, from the acclamation where-- 
with they animarted the soldiers before llie fight, or 
encouraged them in the battle itself. The same ac- 
clamation was also used in celebrating the Orgia, 
which were sacrifices offered up to Bacchus. 

laccus was also one of his names, from the noise 
"which men make when drunk : and this title is given 
him by Ciaudian ; from whose account of Bacchus, 
we may learn, that he was not always naked, but 
sometimes clothed w ith the skin of a tiger. 

Lenaeus ; because wine palliates and assuages the 
sorrows of men's minds; or from a Greek word, 
which signifies the " vat" or " press" in which Wine 
is made. 

Liber and Liber Pater, from lihero ; as in Greek 
they call him ExsvOepio^ [^Ehutherios'] the " Deliver- 
er ;" for he is the symbol of liberty, and was wor- 
shipped in all free cities. 

Lvaeus and Lyceus signify the same with Liber : 
Tor wine frees the mind ^qm ca«:es ; and those wko 


havp drank plentifully, ?peak wiiatevcr comos in tlien 
minds. * 

Tiic saoiincL's of Bacchus were celebrated in the 
liiglu, therefore he is called Nyctilius and Nysaeus, 
because he was educated upon the mountain N} sa. 

Rectus, '0^^s5 [Or^//o5,] because he taught a king 
of Athens to dilute his wme with water 5 thus men, 
who tlirough much drinking staggered before, by 
mixing water with their wine, begin to go straight. 

His mother Semele and his nurse were sometimes 
called Thyo : tlierefore from this they called him 

Lastly, he was called Triumphus ; because, when 
in triumph the conquerors went into the capitol, the 
soldiers cried out, " lo triumjjhe /" 


vFrom ^vhat is the name of Bacchus derived ? 

What are his companions called ? 

Why was Bacchus called Biformis ? 

Why, Bri.sanis f 

Why, Bromius ? 

Why, Bimater ? 

Why, Bnji;enes ? 

Why, Dithyrambus/ 

W hy, Dionysius ? 
Why, Evlus ? 
Why, Evan P 
"Why, Eleus ? 
Why, lacchus ? 
Why, Liber ? 
Why, Nyctilius r 
Why, Rectus ? 
Why, Triumphus? 


Bacchus invented so many things useful to man- 
kind, eidier in finishing controversies, in building 
cities, in making laws, or obtaining victories, that 
he was declared a god by the joint suffrages of the 
whole world. What Bacchus could not himself do, 
his priestesses were able to accomplish j for by stri- 


king the earth with their thyrsi, they drew foiit 
rivers of milk and honey and wine, and wrought se- 
veral other miracles, without the least labour. Yet 
these received their whole power from Bacchus. 

1 . He invented the use of wine : and first taught 
the art of planting the vine from which it is made j 
as also the art of making honey, and tilling the 
earth. This he did among the people of Egypt, 
who therefore honoured him as a god, and called 
him Osiris. The ass of Nauplia merits praise, be- 
cause by knawing vines he taught the art of pru- 
ning them. 

2. He invented commerce and merchandise, and 
found out navigation, when he was king of Phoe- 

3. At the time when men wandered about unset- 
tled, like beasts, he reduced them into society, he 
taught them to worship the gods. 

4. He subdued India, and many other nations, 
riding on an elephant : he victoriously subdued 
Egypt, Syria, Phrygia, and all the east ; where he 
erected pillars, as Hercules did in the west : he first 
invented triumphs and crowns for kings. 

5. Bacchus was desirous to reward Midas the king 
of Phrygia, because he had done him some service ; 
and bid him ask what he would. IMidas desired, 
that whatever he touched might become gold : Bac- 
chus was troubled that Midas asked a gift which 
might prove so destructive to himself; however, he 
granted his request, and gave him the power he de- 
sired. Immediately whatever Midas touched became 
gold, even his meat and drink ; he then perceived 
that he had foolishly begged a destructive gift : and 
desired Bacchus to take his gift to himself again. 
Bacchus consented, and bid him bathe in the river 
Pactolus ; IVIidas obeyed ; and hence the sand of 
that river became gold, and the river was called 
Clarysorrhoos, or Anrifluus, — Ovid Met. 11. - 


6. When he was yet a child, some Tyrrhenian 
mariners found him asleep, and carried him into a 
ship : Bacchus first stupified them, stopping the ship 
in such a manner that it was innnoveable ; afterward 
he caused vines to spring up the ship on a sudden, 
and ivy twining about the oars ; and when the sea- 
men were almost dead with the fright, he threw them 
headlong into the sea, and changed them into Dol- 
phins. Ovid Met. 3. 


Why was Bacchus declared a god ? 

What were his priestesses able to perforin ? 

What was the first invention attributed to him ? 

Why does the ass of Nauplia merit praise ? 

What were Bacchus' second and third inventions ? 

What did he do as a conqueror ? 

What was Midas' request ? 

What circumstance occurred when he was but a child ? 


In sacrifices there are three things to be consi- 
dered, mz. the creatures ofiered, the priests who offer 
them, and the sacrifices themselves, which are cele- 
brated with peculiar ceremonies. 

The fir, the ivy, bindweed, the fig, and the vine, 
were consecrated to Bacchus. So also were the 
dragon and the pie, signifying the talkativeness of 
drunken people. The goat was slain in his sacrifi- 
ces, because he is a creature destructive to the vines, 
the Egyptians sacrificed a swine to his honour be- 
fore their doors. 

2. The priests and priestesses of Bacchus were 
the Satyrs, the Sileni, the Naiades, but especially 
the reveling women called Bacchse, from Bacchus' 

3. The sacrifices themselves were various, and 
celebrated with difierent ceremonies, according to 
the variety of places and nations. They were cele- 
brated on stated days of the year, with the greatest 
regard to religion, a-s il w-^ks thgi professed* 


Oscophoria were the first sacrijfices offered up to 
Bacchus : they were mstituted by the PhxOenicians, 
and when they were celebrated, tlie bo3's, carrying 
vine-leaves in their hands, went in ranks praying 
from the temple of Bacchus, to the chapel of Pallas. 

The Trieterica were celebrated in the winter at 
night, by the Bacchge, who went about armed, 
making a great noise and pretending to foretell things 
to come. They were entitled Trieterica, because 
Bacchus returned from his Indian expedition after 
three years. 

The Epilena^aw^re games celebrated in the time 
of vintage, before the press for squeezing the grapes 
was invented. They contended with one another, 
in treading the grapes, who should soonest press out 
most must; and in the mean time they siuig the 
praises of Bacchus, begging that the must might be 
sweet and good. 

Apaturia v,ere feasts celebrated in honour of Bac- 
chus, setting forth how greatly men are deceived by 
wine. These festivals were principally observed by 
the Athenia.ns. 

Ambrosia were festivals observed in January, a 
month sacred to Bacchus ; for which reason this month 
was called Lena>us, or Lenreo, because the wine was 
brought into the city about that time. But the Ro- 
mans called these feasts Brumalia, Bruma, one of 
the names of Bacchus among them ; and tliey cele- 
brated them twice a year, in the months of Februa- 
ry and August. 

Ascolia, feasts so called from a Greek word sig- 
nifying a boraclio, or leathern bottle ; several of 
which were produced filled with air, or, as others 
say, with wine. The Athenians were v/ont to leap 
upon them with one foot, so that they would some- 
times fall down ; however, they thought they did a 
great honour to Bacchus hereby, because they 
trampled upon the skins of the goat, which animsd 


is the greatest enemy to the vines. But among the 
Romans, rewards were distributed to those who, by 
artificially leaping upon these leathern bottles, over^ 
came the rest ; then all of them together called aloud 
upon Bacchus confusedly, and in unpolished verse ; 
and putting on masks, they carried his statue about 
their vineyards, daubing their faces with the bark of 
trees, and tlie dregs of wine: and returning to his al- 
tar they presented him with their oblations in basins, 
and then burnt them. In the last place, they hung 
tipon the highest trees little wooden or earthen ima- 
ges of Bacchus, which from the smallness of their 
mouths were called Oscilla : they intended that the 
places, where tliese small images were set up in the 
trees, should be, as it were, so many watch-towers, 
from which Bacchus might look after the vines, and 
see that they suffered no injuries. These festivals, 
and the images hung up when they were celebrated, 
are elegantly described by Virgil, in the second 
book of his Georgics. 

-"Atque inter pocula Iseti 

Mollibus in pratis unctos saliere per utres : 
Nee non Ansonii, Troja gens missa coloni, 
Versibus incomptis ludunt, risuque soluto, 
Oraque corticibus surnnnl horrenda cavatis : 
Et te, Bacche, vocant per carmina heta, tibique 
Oscilla ex alta suspendunt mollia pinu. 
Hinc omnis largo pubescit vinea foetu, &.c." 

And glad with Bacchus, on the grassy soil, 
Leap VI o'er the skins of goats besniear'd with oil. 
Thus Roman youth, deriv'd from ruin'd Troy, 
In rude Satuniian rhymes express their joy; 
Deforni'd with vizards, cut from barks of trees, 
With taunts and huisrhter loud their audience please , 
In jolly hymns they praise the god of wine. 
Whose earthen images adorn the pine, 
And there are hung on high, in honour of the vine. 
A madness so devout the vineyard fill, &lc. 

Lastly, the Bacchanalia, or Dionysia, or Orgia, 
were the feasts of ]3acchus, among the Romans, 
which at first were solemnized in February, at mid- 


flay, by women only ; but afterward they were per- 
formed in the most scandalous manner by men and 
women, and young boys and girls, till the senate by 
an edict abrogated this festival, as Diagundus did 
at Thebes. Pentheus, king of Thebes, attempted 
the same thing, but the Bacchge barbarously killed 
him ; whence came the story, that his mother and 
sisters tore him in pieces, fancying he was a boar.. 
There is a story, that Alcidioe, the daughter of Nin- 
yas, and her sisters, despising the sacrifices of Bac- 
chus, staid at home spinning while the Orgia were 
celebrating, and on that account were changed into 
bats. — Ovid Met. 4. — And it is said that Lycurgas, 
who attempted many times to hinder these Baccha- 
nalia in vain, cut off his own legs, because he had 
rooted up the vines to tiie dishonour of Bacchus. 


What are the tlu'ee things to be considered in regard to sacri- 
lices ? 

What things were consecrated to Bacchus ? 

Who were the priests and priestesses of Bacchus ? 

Were the sarifices all of one kind ? 

Wliich were the first sacrifices ; by whom were they instituted, 
and how were tliey celebrated ? 

What were the Epilentea ? 

What were the Apaturia ? 

W1iat were the Ambrosia ? 

What were the Ascolia, and how were they celebrated ? 

What were the Oscilla ? 

Repeat the lines of Virgil on this subject ? 

What were the Bacchanalia ? 


Some writers say, that Bacchus is the same with 
Nimrod : the reasons of these opinions are : 1. The 
similitude of the words Bacchus and Bar('hus, which 
signifies the son of Chus, that is, Nimrod. 2. Thev 
think the name of Nimrod may allude to the He- 
brew word namiu'y or the Chaldee, namer, a ticker : 


and accordingly the chariot of Bacchus was drawn 
by tigers, and himself clothed with the skin of a ti- 
ger. 3. Bacchus is sometimes called Nebrodes, 
which is the very same as Ninn'odus. 4. Moses 
styles Nimrod " a great hunter," and we find that 
Bacchus is styled Zagreus, \^ hich in Greek signifies 
the same thing. Nimrod presided over the vines, 
since he was the first king of Bab) Ion, where were the 
most excellent wines, as the ancients often say. 

Others think that Bacchus is Moses, because ma- 
ny things in the fable of the one seemed derived 
from the history of the other. For, first, some feign 
that he was born in Egypt, and presently shut up in 
an ark, and thrown upon the waters, as Moses 
was. 2d. The surname of Binmtur, which belongs 
to Bacchus, may be ascribed to Moses, who, be- 
side one mother by nature, had anotlier by adoption, 
king Pharaoh's daughter. 3d. They were bodi 
beautiful men, brought up in Arabia, good soldiers, 
and had women in their armies. 4th. Orpheus di- 
rectly styles Bacchus a lawgiver, and calls him 
Moses, and further attributes to him the tAVO tables 
of the law. 5th. Bacchus vras called Bicornis ; and 
accordingly the face of oMoses appeared double horn- 
od, when he come dov»ii from the mountain, where 
lie had spoken to God ; the rays of glory that dart- 
ed from his brow, resenibling the sprouting out of 
horns. Cth. As snakes were sacrificed, and a dog 
given to Bacchus, as a companion ; so ?»Ioses had 
his companion Caleb, which in Hebrew signifies " a 
dog." 7th. As the Bacclue brought water from a 
rock, by striking it with their thyrsi, and tlie comi- 
try wherever they came flowed with wine, milk, and 
honey ; so the land of Canaan, into which Mo- 
ses conducted the Israelites, not only flowed with 
milk and honey, but with wine also; as appears 
from that large jjunch of grapes which two men car- 
ried between them upon a stafl'. 8th. Bacchus dried 


up the rivers Orontes and Hydaspes, by striking 
them with his thjrsis, and passed tln-ough them, as 
Moses passed through the Red Sea. 9di. It is said 
also, that a little ivy-stick, tliroAvn down b}^ one ol 
the Bacchfe upon the ground, crept like a dragon, 
and twisted itself about an oak. And, 10. That 
the Indians once were all covered with darkness, 
while those Baccha} enjoyed a perfect day. 

From this you may collect, that the ancient inven- 
tion of fables have borrowed many things from the 
Holy Scriptures, to patch up their conceits. Thus 
Homer says, that Bacchus wrestled with Pallene, to 
whom he yielded ; which fable is taken from the his- 
tory of the angel wrestling with Jacob. In like 
manner Pausanias reports, that the Greeks at Troy 
found an ark that was sacred to Bacchus ; which 
when Euripidus had opened, and viewed the statue 
of Bacchus laid therein, he was presently struck with 
madness : the ground of which fable is in the second 
book of Kings, where the Sacred History relates 
that the Bethshemites were destroyed by God, be- 
cause they looked with too much curiosity into the 
ark of the covenant. 

Wine and its efiects are understood in this fable 
of Bacchus. He was educated by the Naiades, 
nymphs of the rivers and fountains ; whence mei,i 
may learn to dilute their ^vine Avilh water. 

Bacchus is naked, he cannot conceal any things 
Wine always speaks truth, it opens all the secrets of 
the mind. 

The poet says Bacchus has horns. 

" Accedant capiti cornua, Bacchus eris." — Ov. Ep. Saph. 
But put on faorns, and Bacchus thou shalt be. 

Wine makes even the meanest people bold, inso- 
lent, and fierce, exercising their fury and rage againsi 
others, as a mad ox gores with liis horns. 

He is crowned with ivy ; because that plant, be- 


ing. always green and flourishing, by its natural 
coldness assuages the heat occasioned by too much 


In what respects do Bacchus and Nimrod resemble each other r 
In what respects is Bacchus like Moses : 
What does the fable of Bacchus teach r 



Mars is fierce and sour in his aspect ; terror is 
every where in his looks, as well as in his dress ; he 
iits in a chariot drawn by a pair of horses, which 
are driven by a distracted woman ; he is covered 
with armour, and brandishes a spear in his right 
hand, as though he breathed fire and death, and 
threatened every body with ruin and destruction. 

Mars, the god of war, who is often seen on horse- 
back, in a formidable manner, with a whip and a 
spear together. The dog was consecrated to him, 
for his vigilance in the pursuit of his prey ; the wolf, 
for his rap'dciousness ; the raven, because he dili- 
gently follows armies when they march, and watches 
for the carrasses of the slain ; and the cock, for his 
watchfulness, whereby lie prevents all surprise. But, 
that you may understand every thing in the picture, 
observe, that the creatures which draw the chariot 
are not horses, but Fear and Terror. Sometimes 
Discord goes before them in tattered garments, and 
Clamour and Anger go lieliind. Yet some say, that 
Fear and Terror are servants to Mars ; and accord- 
ingly, he is not more awful and imperious in his com- 
mands, than they are ready and exact m their obe- 


" Fer galeam, Bellona mihi, nexusqties rotarum 
Tende, Favor ; Frcena rapidos, Formido, jnc!;ales." 

Claud, in Ruf. 

My helmet let Bellona bring ; Terror my traces Mt ; 
And, panic Fear, do thou the rapid driver sit- 

SsEvit medio in certamlne Mavors, 

Co^latus ferro, tristesque ex tetliere Dira^, 

Et scissa gaudens vadit Discordia palla, 

Quam cum saugulneo sequiuir Bellona flageilo." 

Virg. ^n. 8. 

Mars in the middle of the shining shield 
Is grav'd, and strides along the liquid field. 
The Dirai come from heav'n with quick descent, 
And Discord, died in blood, with garments rent, 
Divides the press : her steps Bellona treads, 
^nd shakes her iron rod above their heads. 

Bellona is the goddess of war, and the companion 
of Mars ; or, as others say, his sister, or wife. She 
prepares for him his chariot and horses when he goes 
to fight. It is plain that she is called Bellona from 
helium. She is otherwise called Duellona from du- 
elfum, or from the Greek word fieMv)} yjelone] a 
^' needle," whereof she is said to be the inventress. 
Her priests, the Bellonarii, sacrificed to her in their 
own blood ; they hold in each hand naked swords, 
with which they cut their shoulders, and wildlv run 
up and down like men mad and possessed ; upon 
which people thought, that (after the sacrifice was 
ended) they were able to foretell future events. Clau- 
dian introduces Bellona combing snakes ; and 
another poet describes her shaking a burning torch, 
with her hair hanging loose, stained and clotted with 
blood, and running through the midst of the ranks of 
the army, uttering horrid shrieks and dreadful groans. 

" Ipsa faciem quatiens, et flavam sanguine multo 
Sparsa comam, medias acies Bellona pererrat. 
Stridet Tartarea nigro sub pectore Diva 
Lethiferum murmur." Sil. I. 5. 

Her torch Bellona waving through the air, 
Spriiildes with clotted gore her flaming hair. 

And through both armies up and down dotli flee , > 
While from her lionid breast Tissiphone 
A dreadful murmur sends. 

And ill Homer we have a description of a battle 
in which Mars, Minerva, and Discord, are engaged : 

Loud clamours rose from various nations round ; 
Mix'd was the mui-raur, and confus'd the sound : 
Each host now joins, and each a god inspires ; 
These Mars incites, and those Minerva fires. 
Pale Flight around, and dreadful Terror reign ; 
And Discord, raging, bathes the purple plain. 
Discord, dire sister of the slaught'ring pow"r, 
Small at her birth, but rising every hour ; 
While scarce the skies her horrid head can bound ; 
She stalks on earth, and shakes the world around ; 
The nations bleed where'er her steps she turns : 
The groan still deepens, and the combat burns. — Iliad. 

Before the temple of this goddess, there stood a 
pillar called Bellica, over which the herald threw a 
spear, when he proclaimed war. 

Mars is said to be the son of Jupiter and Juno, 
though, according to Ovid's story, he is the child of 
Juno only. 

He married Nerio or Nerione, which word in the 
Sabian language signifies " valour and strength," 
and from her the Claudian family derived the name 
©f Nero. 


How is Mars represented ^ 

How is his chariot drawn and driven ? 

What animals are consecrated to Mars ? 

Repeat the lines in Virgil. 

Who is Bellona ? 

Who is Bellonarii .' 

How is Bellona represented by Claudian > 

Who was Mars ? 

Whom did he marry ? 


The name of Mars sets forth the power and influ- 
ence he has in war, where he presides over the sol- 


tilers ; and his other name, Mavors, shows tha$ all 
great exploits are executed and brought about 
through his means. 

The Greeks call liim Af^r? \_Ares.'] either from the 
destruction and slaughter which he rauses ; or from 
the silence which is kept in war, where actions, not 
words, are necessary. But from v/hatever words 
this name is derived, it is certain that those famous 
names Areopagus and Areopaglta, are derived from 
A^r,i. The Areopagus, that is. the " hill" or " moun- 
tain" of Mars, was a place at Athens, in which IMars, 
being accused of murder and incest, was forced to 
defend himself in a trial before twelve gods, and was 
acquitted by six voices ; from which time, tiiat place 
became a court wherein were tried capital causes, 
and the things belonghig to religion. The Areopa- 
gitae were the judges, whose integrity and credit 
was so great, that no person could be admitted into 
their society, unless he delivered in public an ac- 
count of his past life, and was found in every part 
thereof blameless. And, that the lawyers who plead- 
ed, might not bhnd the eyes of the judges by their 
charms of eloquence, they were obliged to plead 
their causes without any ornaments of speech ; if 
they did otherwise, they were immediately com- 
manded to be silent. And, lest they should be 
moved to compassion by seeing the miserable con- 
ditions of the prisoners, they gave sentence in the 
dark, without lights ; not by words, but on paper ; 
hence, when a man speaks little or nothing, they 
used proverbially to say of him, that *' He is as si- 
lent as one of the judges in the Areopagus." 

His name Gradivus comes from his stateliness in 
marching ; or from his vigour in brandishing hit 

He is called Quirinus, from Curis or Quirts^ signi- 
fying a spear ; whence comes securis or semicuris, a 
piece of a spear. And this name was afterward attri* 


buted to Roiniihis, because be was esteemed tbe son of 
Mars ; fVoni w horn the Romans were called Quiiites. 
Gradi^ us ij: tlio name of Mars when he rages ; and 
Qnirinus, 'rvhen he is quiet. And accordingly there 
were t^vo temples at Rome dedicated to him ; one 
within the city, which was dedicated to Mars Quiri- 
ims, the keeper of the city's peace; the other with- 
out the city, near the gate, to Mars Gradivus, the 
warrior, and the defender of the city against all out- 
ward enemies. 

The ancient Latins applied to him the title of Sa- 
lisubsulus, or " dancer," from salio, because his tem- 
per is very unconstant and uncertain, inclining some- 
times to this side, and sometimes to that, in wars : 
whence we say, that the issue of battle is uncertain, 
and the chance dubious. But we must not think 
that Mars was the only god of war ; for Bellona, 
Victoria, Sol, Luna, and Pluto, used to be reckoned 
in the number of martial deities. It was usual with 
the Laca:^demonians to shackle the feet of the image 
of Mars, that he should not fly from them : and 
among the Romans, the priests Salii were instituted 
to look after the sacrifices of Mars, and go about 
the city dancing with their shields. 

The poets relate only one action of this terrible 
god : this is his attachment to Venus, and her treach- 
ery. Sol was the first that discovered it, and he 
innnediately acquainted Vulcan, Venus' husband. 
Vulcan instantly made a net of iron, whose links 
were so small and slender, that it was invisible. By 
this the lovers were caught, Alectryon, Mars' fa- 
vourite, sufi'ered punishment, because, when he was 
appointed to watch, he fell asleep, and so gave 
§ol an opportunity to slip in ; therefore Mars 
changed him into a cock, which to this day is so 
mindful of his old fault, that he constantly gives no- 
tice of the approach of the sun, by crowing. 

quESTioys for examlyation 

What does the name of Mars import ? 
What do the Greeks call him ? 
What names are der'ved from h^ns ? 
VV^ho Avere the Areopagitffi ? 

From what does Mars derive his name Gradivus ? 
Why is he called Quirinus ? 

On what account has he the title of Salisubsulus ? 
W'hat action is related of Mars ? 

Who discovered Venus' treacher\-, and what was done in con- 
sequence ? 
What happened to Alectryon ? 


Tereus, the son of Mars, by the nymph Bistonis^ 
married Progne, the daughter of Pandion, king of 
Athens, when he was king of Trace. This Progne 
had a sister called Philomela, a virgin in modesty 
and beauty inferior to none. She lived with her fa- 
ther at Athens. Progne, being desirous to see her 
sister, asked Tereus to fetch Philomela to her, with 
which he complied. Tereus fell desperately in love 
with Philomela ; and as they travelled together, be- 
cause she refused to favour his addresses, he over- 
powered her, cut out her tongue, and threw her into 
a gaol ; and returning afterwards to his wife, pre- 
tended that Philomela died in her Journey ; and that 
his story might appear true, he shed many tears and 
put on mourning. But injuries sharpen the wit, 
and a desire of revenge makes people cunning : for 
Philomela, though slie was dumb, found out a way 
to tell her sister the villany of Tereus. She de- 
scribed the violence offered to Iter in embroi- 
dery, and sent the work folded up to her sister. 
Progne no sooner viewed it, than she was so trans- 
ported with passion that she could not speak, her 
thoughts being \^'holly taken up in contriving how- 
she should avenge the affront. First, then, she has- 
tened to her sister, and brought her home without 


Tereus' knowledge. While she was thus medltatmg 
revenge, her young son It3's came and embraced his 
mother ; but she carried him aside into the remote 
parts of the house, and slew him while he hung 
about her neck, and called her mother. When she 
liad killed him, she cut him into pieces, and dressed 
the ilcsi], and gave it Tereus for supper, who fed 
lieartily on it. After supper he sent for his son itj-s : 
Progne told him what she had done, and Philomela 
>]iovved him his son's head. Tereus, incensed with 
rage, rushed on them both with his drawn sword ; 
but they fled away, and fear added wings to their 
tlight : so that Progne l^ecame a swallow, and Phi- 
lomela a nightingale. Tereus was also changed 
into a hoopoe [upujja,'] which is one of the filthiest 
of all birds. The gods out of pity changed Itys 
into a pheasant. Ovid Met. 6. 

To Mars were sacrificed the wolf for his fierce- 
ness ; the horse for his usefulness in war ; the wood- 
pecker and the vulture for their ravenousness ; the 
cock for his vigilance, which is a prime virtue among 
soldiers ; and grass, because it grows in towns laid 
desolate by war. 

Among the ancient rites belonging to Mars, the 
most memorable is the following : Whoever under- 
took the conduct of any war, went into the vestry of 
the temple of Mars ; and first shook the Ancilla, a 
holy shield, afterwards the spear of the image of 
Mars, and said " Mars, watchi" 

Qui belli alicujiis susceperat curam, sacrarium Martis ingres- 
?us, primo Aiicilia cominoveljat, post hastum simulacri ipsius ; 
dicciis, IMars, Vigila. Sereins 


Who was Tereus. and whom did he marry ? 

Give somi- ac.r.o'unt of the stoiy of Philomela. [The pupil 
might shut the book, and write the story from memory, in his 
own words.] 

Into what were Trogne, Philomela, Tereus. and Itys mef.a-- 
morphosed ? 


What were the sacrifices offered to Mars, and on whatac= 
count ? 

What rite did the ancient warriors perform before they went 
out to battle ? 



We have viewed the five celestial gods ; let us 
now look upon the goddesses that follow them in 
order. First observe Juno, riding in a golden cha- 
riot drawn by peacocks, holding a sceptre in her 
hand, and wearing a crown beset with roses and 

Juno's chariot is finely represented by Homer; 
and Hebe is mentioned as her attendant : — 

At lier command rush forth the steeds divine ; 

Rich with immortal gold their trappings shine: 

Bright Hc1)e Avaits : by Hebe, ever young. 

The whirling wheels are to th«8 chaiiot hung. 

On the bright axle turns the bidden wheel 

Of sounding brass ; the polish'd axle, steel : 

Eight brazen spokes in radiant order flame ; 

Such as the heav'ns produce : and round the gold 

Two brazen rings of work divine were roU'd. 

The bossy naves, of solid silver, .-hone ; 

Braces of gold suspend the moving throne ; 

The car, behind, an arching ligure bore ; 

The bending concave form'd an arch before : 

Silver the beam, th' extended yoke was gold, 

And golden reins th' immortal coursers hold. Homer. 

Juno is the queen of the gods, and botli the sister 
and wife of Jupiter : 

-" Jovisque 

Et soror et conjux." Virg. JEn. 1. 

Her father was Saturn, and her mother Ops ; she 
was born in the island Samos, and there lived 
till she was married. 


She seems very august and majestical. How 
beautiful is that face, how comely are all her limbs f 
how well does a sceptre become those hands, and a 
crown that head ? how much beauty is there in her 
smiles ? She is full of majesty, and worthy of the 
greatest admiration. 

Her :^'?rvaiit is Iris, the daughter of Thaumus and 
Electr: . -iid sister to the Harpies. She is Juno's 
messenger, and Mercury is Jupiter's ; though Jupi- 
ter and the other gods, the Furies, nay, sometimes 
men have sent her on messages. Because of her 
swiftness she is painted witli wings, and she some- 
times rides on a rainbow, as Ovid says : 

"EfFngit, et remeat per quos mndo venerat arcus.*' Mel. 3. 
On the same bow she went yhe soon returns. 

It is her office to unloose the souls of women from 
the chains of the body, as Mercury unlooses those 
of men. We have an example of this in Dido, who 
laid violent hands on herself, for when she was al- 
most dead, Juno sent Iris to loose her soul from her 
body, as Virgil describes at large, in the fourth book 
of his iEneid : 

" Turn Juno omnipotent longum miserata dolorem, 
Difficilesqne obitus, Irim demisit Olympo, 
Qua^ luctanfem aiiinuitn nexosrpie resolveret artus. 
Erffo Iris croceis per co^liini roscida pennis, 
Milie trabens varios adverso Sole colores, 
De/olat, et supi-a caput astitit : hunc ego Diti 
Sacrum jussa fero, teque isto corpore solve. 
Sic ait, et dextra crinem secat : omnis et una 
Dilapsus calor, at<jue in ventos vita recessit." 

Tken Juno, grieving that she should sustain 
A death so ling'ring, and so full of pain, 
Sent Iris down to free her from the strife 
Of lab'ring nature and dissolve her life. 
Downward the various goddess took her flight, 
And drew a thousand colours from the light ; 
Then stood about the dying lover's head, 
And said, I thus devote tiiee to the dead : 
This oft"nng to tlie gods I bear. 


Thus while she spoke, she cut the fatal haii*: 

The struggling soul was loos'd and life dissolv'd in air. 

But in this Iris differs from Mercury ; for he is 
sent both from heaven and hell, but she is sent from 
heaven only. He oftentimes was employed in mes- 
sages of peace, whence he w as called the peacema- 
ker ; but Iris was alwaAS sent to promote strife and 
dissension, as if she were the goddess of discord : 
and therefore some think that her name was given 
to her from the contention which she perpetually 
creates ; though others say, she was called Iris, be- 
cause she delivers her messages by speech, and not 
in w riling 


How is Juno represented ? 
Repeat Homer's description of her chariot ? 
Who is Juno, and what relation does she bear to Jupiter and 
Saturn ? 

How is she represented with regard to her figure ? 

Who is Iris, and for what purpose was she employed ? 

How' is she painted ? 

What office does Iris bear with respect to the souls of women ? 

In what does Iris dift'er from Mercury ? 


Vulcan, Mars, and Hebe, were the children of 
Juno by Jupiter. Although some say that Hebe 
had no other parent than Jimo. Hebe, on account 
of her extraordinary beauty was, by Jupiter, made 
goddess of youth, and held the oflice of cupbearer 
of Jupiter. But by an unlucky fall she offended 
the king of the gods, who turned her out from her 
office, and put Ganymede in her stead. 

Juno's w orst fault was jealousy, of which the fol- 
lowing are instances. Jupiter io'. ed lo, die daughter 
of Inachus. When Juno observed that Jupiter was 
absent from heaven she suspected tlie cause of his 
absence. Therefore she immediately Hew down to 
the earth after him. As soon as Jupiter perceived 


her coming, fearful of a chiding, he turned the young 
lady into a white cow. Juno seeing the cow, asked 
who she was, and what was her origin ? Jupiter 
said, she was born on a sudden out of the earth. 
The cunning goddess, suspecting the matter, de- 
sired to have the cow, which Jupiter coukl not re- 
fuse, lest he should increase her suspicion. So Ju- 
no, taking tlie cow, gave it to Argus to keep : this 
Argus had a hundred eyes, two of which in their 
turns slept, while the others watched. 

Sen-andain tradidit Ariro. 

Centum lumiuibus cinctuui caput Argus liabebat: 

Inde suis vlcibus capiebant bina (juletem ; 

CcBtera servabant, atque in statione manebant. 

Coustilerat quocinKpie inodo, spectabat ad lo ; 

Ante oculos lo, qnauivis aversus, habebat." — Ov. Met. t. 

The goddess tlien to Argus straigiit convey'd 
, Her gift, and him the watcliful keeper made. 

' Argus' head a hundred eye? j)osse,st, 

And only two at once reclin'd to rest : 

The others ualch'd, and,, in a constant round. 

Refreshment in alternate courses found. 

Where'er he turn'd he always lo view'd ; 

lo he saw, though she behind him stood. 

Thus was lo under constant confmement ; nor 
was the perpetual vigilance of her keeper the only 
misfortune ; for she was fed with nothing but insipid 
leaves and bitter herbs. This hardship Jupiter 
could not endure ; therefore, he sent Mercury to Ar- 
gus, to set lo free. Mercury, under the disguise of 
a shepherd, came to Argus, and with the ]uusic of 
his pipe lulled him asleep, and then cut olf his head. 
Juno was grieved at Argus' death, and to make him 
some amends she turned him into a peacock, and 
scattered his hundred eyes about the tail of the bird- 

-'* Ccntumque oculos nox occnpHt una 

Excipit hos, volucrisque sua) Saturnia pennis 
Collocat, et gemmis catidam stellantibus implet.*' 

There Argus lies ; and all that wond'rous light, 
Which gave his iuuidred eyes their useful sight, 
Lies buried no^'^ in one oternal night. 


But Juno, that she might liis pyes rotaiit, 
Soon lix'd them in her gaudy peacock's train. 

Nor did her rage against lo cease, lor she coinnnc- 
ted her to the furies to be tormented. Despair and 
Anguish made her flee into Eygpt, where she beg- 
ged of Jupiter to restore her to her former shape. 
Her request behig granted, she thenceforth took the 
name of Isis, the goddess of the Egyptians, and was 
worshipped with divine lionours. 

Juno ga\ e another evidence of her jealousy. Forj 
when lier anger against Jupiter was so violent that 
jiothing coidd pacify her, king Cithajron advised 
Jupiter to declare that he intended to take another 
wife. The contrivance pleased him, wherefore he 
takes an oaken image, dressed very beautiiully, and 
puts it into a chariot ; and declares publicly, that he 
is about to marry Platoea the daughter of jEsopus. 
The report came to Juno's ears, who immediately 
fell furiously upon the image, and tore its clothes, 
till she discovered the jest ; and laughing very hear- 
tily, she was reconciled to her husband. She was 
afterward called Citheroniaj from king Cithaeron, 
the adviser of the trick. 


Who were Jumo's children ? 

What was Hebe's office, how did she lose it, and who suc- 
ceeded her in it ? 

What Avas Juno's sjreat fault ? 

\\M\\ whom was Jupiter enamoured? 

Into what was lo nietamorphosed by Jupiter, and what «5^ 
coimt did he give of the matter to his wife ? 

What did Juno do with lo in her new form ? 

What became of the eyes of Argus after his death? 

Repeat the linos from Ovid- 

What became of lo ? 

To what was Jupiter advised by Citha;ron, and what was the 
result ? 

Juno was called Argiva, from the Argivi, among 
whom sacrifices were celebrated to her honour ; in 

which a hetacomb, that is, one hundred oxen, wei.e 
sacrificed to her. They made her image of gold 
and ivory, holding a pomegranate in one hand, and 
a sceptre in the other ; upon the top of which stood 
a cuckoo, because Jupiter changed himself into that 
bird, when he fell in love with her 

Bunea, from Bunseus the son of Mercury, who 
built a temple to this goddess at Corinth. 

Coprotina, or the nones J)f July, that is, on the 
seventh day, maid-servants celebrated her festival, 
together with several free women, and offered sacri- 
fices to Juno under a fig-tree (caprificus) in memo- 
ry of the extraordinary virtue, which enabled the 
maid-servants to preserve the honour of the Roman 
name. For, after the city was taken, the enemy, 
determined to oppress the Romans, sent a herald 
to them, saying, if they desired to save the remain- 
der of their city from ruin, they must send thera 
their wives and daughters. The senate was dis- 
tracted at the thought. A maid-servant named Phi- 
lotis or Tutela, took with her several other maid*- 
servants, some dressed like mistresses of families, 
and some like virgins, and went over to the enemy. 
Livy, the dictator, disposed them about the camp ; 
they incited the men to drink much, because it was 
a festival : the wine made the soldiers sleep soundly ; 
and a sign being given from a wild fig-tree, the Ro- 
mans came and slew them all. These maid-servants 
were made free, and portions out of the public treasu- 
ry were given them : the day was afterwards called 
Nonae Caprotinae, from the wild fig-tree, whence 
they had the sign : and they ordered an anniversary 
sacrifice to Juno Caprotina to be celebrated under 
a wild fig-tree, the juice of which was mixed with 
the sacrifices in memory of the action. 

Curis or Curitis, from her spear, called Curis in 
the language of the old Sabines. The matrons were 
understood to be under her guardianship ; whence. 


says Plutarch, the spear is sacred to her, and many 
of her statues lean upon spears, and she herself is 
called Quiritis and Curitis. Hence springs the cus- 
tom, that the bride combs her hair widi a spear 
found sticking in the body of a gladiator ; and taken 
out of him when dead, which spear was called Has- 
ta Celibaris. 

Crinis nubentium comebatur liasta celibari, quae scilicet in 
corpore gladiatoris stetisset abjecti occisique. Festus. Arnob 
contra Gentes. 

Cingula, from the girdle which the bride wore 
when she was led to her marriage ; for this girdle 
was unloosed with Juno's good leave, who was 
thought tlie patroness of marriage. 

Dominduca and Interduca, from bringing home 
the bride to her husband's house. 

Egeria, because she promoted, as they believed, 
the facility of the birth. 

Quod earn partui egerendo opitulari crederent. Festus. 

Februalis, Februata, Februa, or Februla, because 
they sacrificed to her in the month of February. 
Her festivals was celebrated on the same day with 
Pan's feasts, wlien the Luperci, the priests of Pan, 
the god of shepherds, running naked through the 
city, and striking the women with Juno's cloak (that 
is, with the skin of a goat) purified them. The ani- 
mals sacrificed to Juno were a white cow, a swine, 
and a sheep : the goose and the peacock were also 
sacred to her. 

Juga, because she is the goddess of marriage. A 
street in Rome, where her altar stood, was hence 
called Jugarius : and anciently people used to enter 
into the yoke of marriage at that altar. She is also, 
by some, called Socigena, because she assists in the 
coupling the bride and bridegroom. 

Lacinia, from the temple of Lacinium. built and 
dedicated to her by Lacinius, 


Lucina and Lucilia, either from tlic grove, in 
which she had a temple, or from the light of this 
world, into which infants are brought by lier. Ovid 
comprises both these significations in a distich. 

" Gratia Lacina, dedit hwc tibi iiomina lucus. 
Vel quia priucipiuni tu, dea, lucis habes." — Fast. 2. 

Lucina, hail, so nam'd from thy own grove, 
» Or from the light thou giv'st us from above. 

Nuptialis ; and when they sacrificed to her midei* 
this name, they took the gall out of the victim, and 
east it behind the altar ; to signify that there ouglit 
to be no gall or anger between those who are mar- 

Opigena, because she gives help to women in la- 

Parthenos the virgin ; she was so called, as we 
are told, from this circumstance : there was a foun- 
tain among the Argivi, called Canathus, where Ju- 
no washing herself every year was thought to re- 
cover her youth and beauty. 

Perfecta, that is, perfect ; for marriage was €Cs.- 
teemed the perfection of human life. 

She was called Pronuba; marriages were not 
lawful unless Juno was first called upon. 

Regina, queen ; which title she gives herself, as 
we read in Virgil : 

" Ast ego, qua divnm incedo regina, Jovisqile 
Et soror et conjux." — JE^u L 

But I who walk in awful state above, 

The queen of heav'n, sister and Avife of Jove. 

Sospita, because all the women were supposed t© 
fee under her safeguard, every one of which had a 
Juno, as every man had his Genius. 

Unxia was another of her names, because th^ 
posts of the door were anointed, where a new-mar- 
ried pair lived, whejjce the wife wqs c^e.d Uxor. 




Why was Juno called Argiva ? 
How did the Argivi represent lier r 
Give in writing the reasons for her name Caprotina. 
How did she obtain the name Curis and Curitis ? 
What custom arose from this 'f 
Why was she named Cingnla ? 

On what accounts was she named Dominduca and Interduca ? 
Why was she called Februalis ? 
What animals were sacrificed to her? 
On what acconnt was she named Juga, and Socigena ? 
Why is she called Lacinia and Lucina? 

What circumstances took place when they sacrificed to Juno 
under the name of Nnptialis ? 

Why was she called Parthenon, and why Perfecta? 
What title does she give herself in Virgil ? 
Why is she called Sospitaaud Unxia? 



Minerva — it may be asked why she is clothed with 
armour, rather than with women's clothes. What 
means the head piece of gold, and the crest that glit- 
ters so ? To what purpose has she a golden breast- 
plate, and d lance in her right hand, and a terrible 
shield in her left ? On her shield is a grisly head 
beset with snakes : and the cock and owl are paint- 
ed on it. 

Minerva is armed, rather than dressed in women^g 
clothes, because she is the president and inventress 
of war. The cock stands b}' her because he is a 
fighting bird, and is often painted sitting on her head- 

The head, which seems so formidable with snakes^ 
she not only carries on her shield, but sometimes alsQ 
in the midst of her breast ; it is the head of Medusa, 
one of the Grorgons, of wliich Virgil gives a beauti- 


ivA (l^srriplioTt. The Basilisk is also sacred ta hery 
to denote the great sagacity of her mind, and the 
dreadt'u] ejects of her courage, she being the god- 
iless both of wisdom and of war ; for the eye of the 
basilisk is not only piercing enough to discover the 
smallest object, but it is able to strike dead whatso- 
ever creature it looks on. She wears an olive crown, 
because it is the emblem of peace 3 and war is 
onh' made that peace may follow. Though there 
is another reason, too, why she wears the olive : for 
she first taught mankind the use of that tree. When 
Cecrops built a new city, Neptune and Minerva 
contended about its name ; and it was resolved, that 
whichsoever of the two deities found out the most use- 
ful creature to man, should give their name to the 
city. Neptune brought a horse ; and Minerva 
caused an olive to spring out of the earth, which 
v/as judged a more useful creature to man than the 
horse : therefore, Minerva named the city, and call- 
ed it Athenae, after her own name, in Greek ^Ahvet, 

The most celebrated of the statues of Phidias, 
«fter that of Jupiter Olympius, was the statue of Mi- 
nerva in her temple at Athens : it was thirty-nine 
feet high. 

History mentions five Minervas. We shall speak 
of that only which was born of Jupiter, and to whom 
the rest are referred. The account given of her 
birth was this : when Jupiter saw diat his wife Juno 
bad no children, he through grief struck his fore- 
head, and after thiee months brought forth Minerva • 
whence she was called Tritonia : Vulcan "'^striking 
his head with die blow of a hatchet, was amazed to 
see an armed virago leap out of the brain of her far- 
ther, instead of a tender infant. 

1 " De capitis fertur sine matre paterni 

Vertice, cum clyp€o prosiluisse suo. 

* Luclan. in Dial. Dear. 


€)at of her father's scull, as they report, 
Without a mother, all in arms leap'd forth. 

They say besides, that it rained gold in the island 
of Rhodes, when Minerva was born, an observation 
made by Claudian also. 

♦' Auratos Rhodiis imbres, nascente Minerva, 
Induxisse Jovem ferunt." 

At Pallas' birth, great Jupiter, we're told, 
Bestrevv'd the Rhodians with a shower of gold. 


From what does Minerva derive her name ? 
How is she represented, and what are the figures represented 
9n the shield ? 
Why is she armed, and what does the cock signify? 
Why is the basilisk sacred to Minerva ? 
Why does she wear an olive crown .'' 
How did Athens derive its name .'' 
Which is the most celebrated statue of Minerva ? 
What was the origin of Minerva ? 
What happened at Rhodes when Minerva was bom P 


Minerva is so called from diminishing, [a mintsJ] 
And it is very true, that she, being the goddess of 
war, diminishes the number of men, and deprives 
families of their head, and cities of their members. 
But the name may be derived from threatenings, be- 
cause her looks threaten the beholders with violence, 
and strike them with terror. Or, perhaps, she has 
her name from the good admonition she gives ; be- 
cause she is the goddess of wisdom. She is com- 
monly thought to be wisdom itself; hence, when 
men pretend to teach those that are wiser than them- 
selves, it is proverbially said, Sus Minervam, o-vt 
'A^^vav, Cic. 9. Epist. 18. " That sow teaches Mi- 

The Greeks call her Athena, because she never 
sucked the breast of a mother or nurse ; for she was 
born out of her father's head, in full strength, and 


was therefore called motherless. Plato says she had 
this name iVom her skilF in divine af.airs. Others 
think she was so named, f because she is never en- 
slaved, but enjoys the most perfect freedom, as the 
Stoics well observe, who say, The philosopher is 
the only freeman. 

Liber nemo est nisi sapiens, Tollius in Paradox, 

She is called Pallas, from a giant of the same name, 
whom she slew : or from the lake Pallas, where she 
was first seen by men; or, lastly, which is more 
probable, from brandishingj her spear in war. 

She had many other names ; but we shall only 
mention two or three, after we have given some ac- 
count of the Palladium. 

The Palladium was an image of Pallas, preserved 
in the castle of the city of Troy ; for w bile the cas- 
tle and temple of Minerva were building, they say, 
tliis image fell from heaven hito it, before it was co- 
vered with a roof. This raised every body's admi- 
ration ; and when the oracle of Apollo was consult- 
ed, he answered, " That the city should be safe so 
long as that image remained within it." Therefore, 
when the Grecians besieged Troy, they found that 
it was impossible to take the city, unless the Palla- 
dium was taken out of it. This business was left to 
Ulysses and Diomedes, who undertook to creep into 
the city through the common sewers, and bring away 
the fatal image. When they liad performed the task, 
Troy was taken without "ditHculty. Some say it 
was not lawful for any person to remove the Palla- 
dium, or even to look upon it. Others add, that 
it was made of wood, so that it was a wonder how 
it could move the eyes and shake the spear. Others, 

* 'Khcc quisii S£^y«y, vel 'H^^jt/ov, hoc est, qua? divlua cogni- 
Ecit. Plato in Clntylo. 

t Ab « non et &-/7<r««r^«* servire. ^ 

% Aro TH TpmWiiy ri h^f^, a vibrandu bast^'i. Serv. ra iER. l.> 


«n the contrary, report, that it was made of the 
bones of Pelops, and sold to the Trojans by the 
Scythians. The}- add, that jEneas recovered it, af- 
ter it had been taken by the Greeks, from Diomedes, 
and carried it with him into Italy, where it was laid 
np in the temple of Vesta as a pledge of the stability 
of the Roman empire, as it had been before a token 
of tlie security of Troy. And, lastly, others write, 
that there were two Palladia ; one of which Diome* 
des took, and the other JEneas carried with him. 

Parthenos, i. e. virgin, was another of Minerva's 
names : whence the temple at Athens, where she was 
most religiously worshipped, was called Parthenon. 
For Minerva, like Vesta and Diana, was a perpetual 
virgin ; and such a lover of chastity, that she de- 
prived Tiresias of his sight, because he saw her 
bathing in the fountain of Helicon : but Tiresias* 
mother, by her petitions, obtained, that since her 
son had lost the eyes of his body, the sight of his 
mind might be brighter and clearer, by having the 
gift of prophecy. Ovid, indeed, assigns a diiierent 
cause of his blindness. There is another illustrious 
instance of the chastity of IMinerva : when Neptune 
had successfully made love to the beautiful Medusa 
(whose hair was gold) in the temple of Minerva, the 
goddess changed into snakes that hair which had 
tempted him ; and decreed, that those v/Iio looked 
upon her therealter should be turned into stone. 

Her name Tritonia was taken from the lake Tri- 
ton, where she was educated ; as we also may learn 
from Lucian, who mentions the love which Pallas 
hears to this lake : , 

" Hanc et Pallas amat, patrio quod %erticc iiata 
Terraruni primam Lyl/ien (nam proxiiiia c(i?lo Cot,. 
Ut probat ipse calor) tcti£;it, stagnicpie quieta 
Vultus vidlt aqua, posuitque in margiiift plantas, 
Et se dejecta, Tritouida dixit, ab uiida." 

This Pallas love?, born of the biaiis of Jove, 
Who first on Lybia trod (the heat dolli prove- 


This land next heav'n :) slie standing by the sidcv 

Her face within the quiet water spied, 

And gave herself from the lov'd pool a name 


Or from rpira, or rptrejv ^triton] a word which in the 
•Id Boeotian and jEolic languages signifies a head, 
because she was born from Jupiter's head. Yet, 
before we leave the lake Triton, let me tell you the 
ceremonies that were performed upon the banks of it 
in honour of Minerva. A great concourse of peo- 
ple out of the neighbouring towns assembled to see 
the following performance : all the virgins came in 
companies, armed with clubs and stones, and on a 
sign being given, they assaulted each other ; she 
who was first killed was not esteemed a virgin, and 
therefore her body was disgracefully thrown into the 
lake ; but she who received the most and the deepest 
wounds, and did not desist, was carried home in tri- 
umph in a chariot, in the midst of the acclamations 
and praises of the whole company. 

Epyccriq ^Ergatis'] operaricty '* workwoman" was 
her name among the Samians, her worshippers ; 
because she invented divers arts, especially the art 
of spinning, as we learn from the poets : thus the 
distaft'is ascribed to her, and sometimes she is call- 
ed Minerva, from her name, because she was the in- 
ventress of it. Althougli Minerva so much excelled 
all others in spinning, yet Arachne, a young lady of 
Lydia, very skilful at spinning, challenged her in 
this art ; but it proved her ruin ; for the goddess 
tore her work, and struck her forehead with a spoke 
of the wheel. This disgrace drove her into despair, 
so that she hanged herself; but Pallas, out of com- 
passion, brought her again to life> and turned her 
into a spider, which continues still employed in 
spinning : 

" Froiitem percussit Arechnes ; 

fson tulit infiplix. ?aqtiPO(jue animosa ligavil 

GuUura, pendentem Pallas miscrala levavftf 
Atque ita, Vive quiJeni, pende taiiien, improba dixit." 

Ov. Met. 6. 

Arachne thrice upon the forehead smote ; 

Whose great heart brooks it not ; about her throat 

A rope she ties: remorseful Pallas staid 

Her falling weight: — Live wretch, yet hang, she said. 

She is called Musica ; because, says Pliny, the 
dragons or serpents on her shield, which, instead of 
hair encompassed the Gorgon's head, did ring and 
resound, as if the strings of a harp near them were 
touched. But it is more likel^that she was so na* 
med, because she invented thT^j^lpe ; upon which, 
when she played by the river-side, and saw iii the 
water how much her face was swelled and deformed 
b^' blowing it, she was moved \\ ith indignation, and 
threw it aside, saying, the sweetness of tlie music is 
too dear, if purchased with so much loss. 

Glaucopis was another of her names ; because 
her eyes, like the eyes of an owl, were gray or sky- 
coloured, that is, of a green colour mixed with white. 

She was also called Pylotis, from a Greek word, 
signifying a " gate :" for, a:^ the image of IMars was 
set up in the suburbs, so her efligy or picture was 
placed on the city gates, or doors of houses ; by 
which they signified, that we ought to use our wea- 
pons abroad, to keep the enenu' from entering our 
towns ; but in the town we must use the assistance 
of Minerva, not of Mars ; that is, the state ought to 
be governed at home by prudence, counsel, and law. 


What are the reasons given for the name Minerva ? 
What proveri) has her great wisdom furnished, and what does 
the term Minervale signify ? 
Why Ls she called Athena ? 
Why is she named Pallas ? 

Give somo account in writing of the Palladium. 
Wliy was she calied Pavtlicnos? 
What is the history of Tiresias ? 
What is related of Neptune and Medusa ? 


Why was Minerva named Tritonia ? 

What ceremony was performed on the banks of the lakp 
Triton ? 

Why is Minerva called Ergatis ? 

Repeat the lines from Ovid. 

Why is Minerva called Musica ? 

Why is she named Glaucopis ? 

Why is she called Pylotis ? 

What inference is drawn from the circumstance ? 


By the story of Minerva, the poets intended to re- 
present wisdom ; that is, true and skilful knowledge, 
joined with discreet and prudent manners. They 
hereby signify also the understanding of the noblest 
arts, and the accomplishments of the mind ; like- 
wise the virtues, and especially chastity : for, 

1. Minerva is said to be born out of Jupiter's 
brain : because the wit and ingenuity of man did 
Jiot invent the useful sciences, Vihicii, for the good of 
men were derived from the brain of Jupiter ; that is, 
from the inexhausted fountahi of the divine wisdom, 
whence not only the arts and sciences, Jntt the bless- 
ings of wisdom and virtue also proceed. 

2. Pallas was born armed ; because a wise man's 
soul being fortified with wisdom and virtue, is iuvin* 
cible : he is prepared and armed against fortune ; 
in dangers he is intrepid, in crosses unbroken, in 
calamities impregnable. Thus, though the image of 
Jupiter perspires in bad weather, \et as Ju})iter him- 
self is dry and unconcerned, so a wi^e man's mind 
is hardened against the assaults that fortune can 
make upon his body. 

3. She invented and exercised the art of spinning ; 
and hence other young women may learn, if they 
would preserve their good character, never to in- 
dulge idleness, but to employ themselves continu- 
ally in some sort of work ; after the example of 

4. As the spindle and the distafl' were the inven- 

' 1 


tioii of Minerva, so they are the arms of every vir- 
tuous woman. For which reason those instruments 
were formerly carried before the bride when she was 
brought to her husband's house ; and somewhere it 
is a custom, at tlie funeral of women, to throw the 
distaff and spindle into the grave with them. 

5. An owl, a bird seeing in the dark, was sacred 
to Minerva, and painted upon her images, which is 
the representation of a wise man, who, scattering 
and dispelhng the clouds of ignorance and error, i? 
clear sighted where others are stark blind. 


What do the poets represent by the story of Minerva ? 

Why is Minerva said to have originated from Jupiter's brain? 

Why was she said to be born armed ? 

What lesson should Minerva teach as the inventress of spin- 
ning ? 

Why were the spindle and distaff carried before the bride, 
when she went to her husband's house ? 

What does the owl represent as sacred to Minerva ? 



Turn your ey€s now to a sweet object, and view 
that goddess in whose countenance the graces sit 
playing, and discover all their charms. You see a 
pleasantness, a mirth, and joy in every part of her 
face. Observe with what becoming pride she holds 
up her head and views herself, where she finds 
nothing but joys and soft delights. She is clothed 
with a purple mantle glittering with diamonds. By 
her side stand two Cupids, and round her are three 
Graces, and after follows the lovely beautiful Ado- 
nis, who holds up the goddess' train. The chariot 
in which she rides is made of ivory, finely carved, 


and beautifully palmed and gilded. It is drawn b^ 
swans and doves, or swallows as Venus directs, 
when she pleases to ride. 

Venus, whom in more honourable terms men st}'!© 
the " goddess of the Graces," the author of elegance, 
beauty, neatness, delight, and cheerfulness, is in re-, 
ality the mistress, president, and patron of all manner 
of licentiousness ; and it should seem, by the wor- 
ship which was formerly paid to her, that men used at 
that period to erect altars to, and deify their vices ; 
that they hallowed the greatest impieties with frank- 
incense, and thought to ascend into heaven by the 
steps of their iniquities. 

You will see her sometimes painted like a young- 
virgin rising from the sea, and riding in a shell ; at 
Other times like a woman holding the shell in hex 
hand, her head being crowned with roses. Some- 
times her pictui'e has a silver looking-glass in one 
hand, and on the feet are golden sandals and buc- 
kles. In the pictures of the Sicyonians, she holds 
a poppy in one hand, and an apple in the other. 
At Etis she was painted treading on a tortoise^ 
showing thereby that young women ought not to 
ramble abroad ; and that married women ought to 
keep silence, love their home, and govern their fa- 
mily. She wore a girdle or belt, called Cestus ; 
in which all kinds of pleasures were folded, and 
which was supposed to excite irresistible aflection. 
Some give her arrows ; and make Python Suada^ 
the goddess of eloquence, her companion. 

We learn from several authors, that there were 
four Venuses, born of different parents, but this Ve- 
nus of whom we speak was the most eminent, and 
had the beauties as well as the disgraces of the 
others commonly ascri])ed to her. She sprang from 
the froth of the sea. She was by the Greeks called 
Aphrodite, ex u<p^o<; spuma. As soon as she was 
born, she was laid, like a pearl, in a shell instead of 


a cradle ; and was driven, by Zephjrus upon the 
island Cythera, where the Horae, or hours, re- 
«"eived, educated, accomplished, and adorned her ;, 
and, when she came of age, carried her into heaven, 
and presented her to the gods, all of whom, being 
taken with her beauty, desired to marry her : but 
she was at length betrothed to Vulcan, and married 
CO him, 


How is Venus described ? 

By whom is she attended ? 

How is her chariot drawn ? 

What different descriptions are given of her ? 

What may be inferred from the worsliip paid to Venus ? 

How is she painted ? 

How is she painted at Elis, and what does that denote ? 

What was she called by the Greeks ? 

What happened to her as soon as she was born ? 

By whom was she educated, and who did she marry ? 


She is called Venus, says Cicero, because all 
things are subject to the laws of love. Or ^Ise, as 
others say, her name is given her because she is emi- 
nently beautiful ; for she is the goddess of beauty* 
Or lastly, she is so called, because she was a stran- 
ger or foreigner to the Romans ; for she was first wor- 
shipped by the Egyptians, and from the Egyptians 
she was translated to tiie Greeks, and from them to 
the Romans. Let us now proceed to her other 

Amica, ET<*//j«e [Hetaira] was a name given her 
b}^ the Athenians ; because she joins lovers together ; 
and this Greek word is used both in good and bad 

Armata, because when the Spartan women sallied 
out of their town, besieged by the Messenians, and 
beat them, a temple was dedicated to Venus Ar- 



Apaturia, that is " the deceiver," for nothing is 
more deceitful than love, which flatters our eyes and 
pleases us, like roses in their finest colours, but at 
the same time leaves a thorn in tlie heart. 

She was called by the Romans Barbata ; because, 
when the Roman women were so troubled with a 
disease that caused their hair to fall off, they pray- 
ed to Venus, and their hair grew again ; upon 
which they made an image of Venus with a comb, 
and gave it a beard, that she might have the signs of 
both sexes. 

Cypris, Cypria, and Cyprogenia, because she 
was worshipped in the island of Cyprus : Cytheris 
and Cytherea ; from the island of Cythera, whither 
she was first carried in a sea-shell. 

There was a temple at Rome dedicated to VenuS 
Calva ; because when the Gauls possessed that city, 
jropes for the engines were made with the women's hair. 

Erycina, from the mountain Eryx in the island of 
Sicily ; upon which jEneas built a splendid and fa- 
mous temple to her honour, because she was his mo 

Horace makes mention of her under this name. 

She is properly called Ridens, and Homer calls 
her a lover of laughing : for she is said to be born 
laughing, and thence callecJ'the *' goddess of mirth." 

Hortensis, because she looks after the production 
of seed and plants in gardens. And Festus tells us_, 
that the word Venus is by Nsevius put for herbs, as 
Ceres is for bread, and Neptunus for fish. 

Idalia and Acidalia from the mountain Idalus-, 
in the island of Cyprus, and the fountain Acidaliug) 
in Boeotia. 

Marina, because she was born of the sea, to wbi.cft 
Ausonius refers in his poem. 

" Orta salo, suscepta solo, patre edida Ccelo.'* 
Heav'n gave her life, the sea a cradle gave. 
And earth's wWe regkma her with )qy rep^ivt,. 


She is called Aphroditus and.Anadyomiie. that is^ 
emerging out of the waters, as Apelles painted her ; 
and Pontia, from Poiitiis. Hence came the custom, 
that those who had escaped any danger b}^ water, 
used to sacrifice to Venus. Hence also the mari- 
ners observed those solemnities called Aphrodisia, 
which Plutarch describes in a treatise against Epi- 

Melanis, or Melpenis, that is dark and concealed ; 
whence the Egyptians worshipped a Venus, called 
Scoteia, a goddess to be admired in the night, 

Migonitis signifies her power in the managemem 
of love. Therefore, Paris dedicated the first temple 
to Venus Migonitis. 

Paphia, from the city Paphos in the island of Cy^ 
prus, where they sacrificed flowers and frankincense 
to her. And this is mentioned by Virgil ; 

" Ipsa paphum sublimis adit, sedesque revisit 

Leeta snas, ubi templum illi, ceiitumque Saba^o 

Thure caleiit ai-a;, sertisque receulibus halunt."-— »iE». !• 

This part perforrn'd, the goddess flies sublime 
To visit Paphos and her native clime ; 
Where garlands, evergreen and ever fair, 
With vows are otier'd, and with solemn pray'r: 
A hundred altars in her temple smoke, 
A thousand bleeding hearts her pou'r invoke. 

Mer name Verticordia, signifies the power of love 
to change hearts, and to ease the minds of men from 
all cares that perplex them. Ovid mentions this 
power, and for tlie same reason Venus is called in 
the Greek Epistrophia. 


Why is she called Arnica and Armata? 

Why was she called Apaturia and Barbata ? 

Why was she denominated Cypris and Cytheris ? 

Why was a temple dedicated to Venus Calva at Rome ? 

Why was she called Erycina and Ridens ? 

Why was sh« denominated Hortensis Idalia ? and AcidaliaP 


How di<i -lip iVrive ber ruunps Marina and Aphroditis* 
Why is she Ccilicni Aliilrt-uis, and wli)^ Migonitis ? 
WU\' is sho callrii Piiphia Hiid Verticordia ? 


Pygmalion, a statuary, considering the great m- 
conveniences ol' marrying, had resolved to live sin- 
gle ; but afterward making a most elegant and arti- 
ficial image of Venus, he fell so much in love with 
his own v.'orkmanslfip that he begged Venus to turn 
it into a womai:, and enliven the ivory. His wish- 
es were granted, and of her he had Paphos, from 
whom tlie island Paphos had its name. Ovid 
Met. 10. 

Pyramus and Tliisbe were both inhabitants of the 
city of Babylon ; equal in beauty, age, condition, 
and fortune. They began to love each other from 
their cradles. Their houses were contiguous, so 
that their love arose from their neighbourhood, grew 
greater Ijy their mutual play, and was perfected by 
their singular beauty. This love increased with 
their years, and in due time, they begged their pa- 
rents' consent ; which was refused, because of some 
former quarrels between the two families. And that 
the children might not attempt any thing against 
their parents' will, they were not permitted to see 
each other. There was a partition-wall between 
both houses, in which wall there was a small chink,, 
never discovered by any of the servants. This cre- 
vice the lovers found, and met here : their words 
and their sighs went through, but kisses could not 
pass ; which, when they parted, they printed on 
each side of the wall. By some contrivance they 
met and agreed upon an interview under the shade 
of a large mulberry tree, which stood near a foun- 
tain. When night came on, Thisbe deceived her 
keepers, and escapes first, and flies into the wood ; 
for love gave her wings. When she got to tlie ap- 


pointed place, a lioness fresh from the slaughter of 
some cattle, came to drink at the fountain. Thisbe 
was so frightened that she ran into a cave, and in her 
flight her veil fell from her head ; the lioness return- 
ing from the fountaia, found the veil, and tore it with 
her jaws besmeared with blood. Pyramus comes 
next, and sees the print of a wild beast's foot, and 
finds the veil of Thisbe blood}' and torn. He, ima- 
gining that she was killed and devoured by the wild 
beast, gi-ew distracted, and hastened to the ap- 
pointed tree ; but not finding Thisbe, he threw him- 
self upon his sword, and died. Tliisbe in the mean 
time, recovered from her fright, came to the mul- 
berry tree, where she saw Pyramus in the struggles 
of death : she embraced her dying lover, mingled 
her tears with his blood, and folding her arms about 
him, called upon him to answer her, but he was 
speechless, and looking up expired. Thisbe, dis- 
tracted with grief, tore her cheeks, beat her breast, 
rent her hair, and shed a deluge of tears upon his 
cold face ; nor did she cease to mourn, till she per- 
ceived her veil, bloody and torn, in Pyramus' hand» 
She then understood the occasion of his death, and 
drew the sword from the body of her lover, plunged 
it into her own, and falling accidentally on him, 
gave him a cold kiss, and breathed her last breath 
mto his bosom. The tree, warmed with the blood 
of the slain lovers, became sensible of their misfor- 
tune, and mourned. Its berries, which were before 
white, became red with grief, and blushed for the 
death of Pyramus ; when Thisbe also died, the ber- 
ries then became black and dark, as if they had put 
on mourning. Such were the fatal effects of love. 

In the next place hear the story of Atalanta and 
Hippomenes. She was the daughter of the king 
Scha^neus, or Ca^neus. It was doubted whether her 
beauty or swiftness in running were greater. When 
she consulted the oracle, whether she should marry 


or not, this answer was given, ** That inaniage 
would be fatal to lier." Upon which the virgin hid 
herself in the woods, and lived in places remote 
from tlie conversation of men. But the more she 
avoided them, the more eagerly they courted her ; 
for hoi* disdain inflamed their desires, and her pride 
raised their adoration. At last, when she saw she 
could not otherwise deliver herself from the impor- 
tunity of her lovers, she made this agreement with 
them : " You court me in vain ; he who overtakes 
me in running shall be my husband ; but the}^ who 
are beaten by me shall suffer death ; I will be the 
victor's prize, but the vanquislied's punishment. If 
these terms please, go with me into the field." They 
all agreed to these conditions : 

^' Venit ad banc legem temeraria tui-ba procorum." 

Ov. Met. 10. 
All her mad wooers lake the terms propos'd. 

They strove to outrun her ; but they were all 
beaten and put to death according to the agree- 
ment ; suffering the loss of their lives for the fault 
of their feet. Yet the example of these lovers did 
not deter Hippomenes from undertaking the race, 
who entertained hopes of winning the victory, be- 
cause Venus had given him three golden apples, 
gathered in the gardens of the Hesperides, and also 
told him how to use them. Hippomenes briskly 
set out and began the race ; and when he saw that 
Atalanta overtook him, he threw down a golden ap- 
ple ; the beauty of it enticed her so that she went 
out of her way, followed the apple, and took it up. 

" Decruiat cursus, aurumque voliiblle tollit." 

She, j^reedy of the shilling fruit, steps back 
To catch the roliing gold. 

Afterward he threw down another, which she 
pursued ali^o to obtain ; mid again a third ; so that 


while Atalanta was busied in gathering them up, 
Hippomeues reached the goal, and took the lady as 
the prize of his victory. But forgetful of the grati- 
tude and respect due to Venus, he met with a signal 
punishment. Himself and Atalanta were turned 
into a lion and lioness. 

Another proof of the fatal effects of love is the 
case of Paris and Helena. Paris was the son of 
Priamus, king of Troy, by Hecuba. His mother, 
when she was pregnant, dreamed that she brought 
forth a burning torch : and asking the oracle for an 
interpretation, was answered, " That it portended 
the burning of Troy," and that the fire should be 
kindled by her son. Therefore, as soon as the child 
was born, he was exposed upon tlie mountain Ida : 
where the shepherds brought him up privately, edu- 
cated him, and called him Paris. When he was 
grown to man's estate, he gave such tokens of singu- 
lar prudence and equity in deciding controversies, 
that on a great diflerence which arose among the 
goddesses, they referred it to his judgment to be de- 
termined. The goddess *Discordia was the occa- 
sion of this contention : for, because all the gods 
and goddesses, except herself, were invited to the 
marriage of Peleus, she was angr}-, and resolved to 
revenge the disgrace ; diere(bre, when they all met 
and set down at the table, she came in privately, 
and threw down upon the table an apple of gold, on 
which was this inscription, " Let the fairest take 
it." Hence arose a quarrel among the goddesses, 
for every one tliought herself the most beautiful. 
But at last, all the others yielded to the three supe"- 
rior goddesses, Juno, Pallas, and Venus ; who dis- 
puted so eagerly, that Jupiter himself was not able 
to bring them to agreement. He resolved Uierefore 
to leave the final determination of it to the judgment 

* Dion. Cluysost. Orat. 20. Philostrat. ia Icon, 
t Fuichrior accipiat. vel, Detur pulchriori. 


©f Paris ; so that she should have the fipple to whom 
Paris should adjudge it. The goddesses consent, 
and call for Paris, who was then feeding sheep 
upon a mountain. They tell him their business, 
and court his favour with great promises : Juno 
promised to reward him with power, Pallas with 
wisdom, and Venus promised him the most beautiful 
woman in the world. He pronounced Venus the 
fairest, and assigned to her the apple of gold. Ve- 
nus did not break her promise to Paris ; for in a 
little time Paris was owned to be king Priam's son, 
and sailed into Greece with a great fleet, under the 
rolour of an embassy^ to fetch away Helena, the 
most beautiful woman in tlie world, who was be- 
trothed to Menelaus, king of Sparta, and lived in his 
house. When he Cciine, IMenelaus was from home, 
and, in his absence, Paris carried away Helena to 
Troy. Menelaus demanded her, but Paris refused 
to send her back ; and this occasioned that fatal war 
between the Greeks and Trojans, in which Troy, 
the metropolis of all Asia, was taken and burnt, in 
tlie year of the world 2871. There were killed 
eight hundred sixty-eight thousand of the Grecians ; 
among whom Achilles, one of their generals, lost his 
life by the treachery of Paris himself. 

There were slain six hundred and seventy-six 
thousand of the Trojans, from the beginning of the 
war to the taking of the city, among whom Paris 
himself was killed by Pyrrinis or Philoctetes ; and 
his brother Hector, tlie pillar of his country, was 
killed by Achilles. When the city was taken and 
burnt, king Priamus, the father of Paris and Hector, 
at once lost all his children, his queen Hecuba, his 
kingdom and his life. Helena, after Paris was kill- 
ed, married his brother Deipliobus : yet she at length 
betrayed the castle to the Grecians, and admitted 
Menelaus into her chamber to kill Deiphobus : by 
which, it is said, she was reconciled to the favour of 


Menelaus again. These things, however, belong 
rather to history than to fable. 


What happened to Pygmalion ? 

Can you give in short the story of Pyramus and Thisoe ? 

Give the story of Atalanta and Hippomenes. 

Give-an abridged account of the fates of Paris and Helena, 


The first of Venus' companions was the god Hy- 
menaeus. He presided over marriage, and was the 
protector of young unmarried women. He was the 
son of Bacchus and Venus Urania, born in Attica, 
where he used to rescue virgins carried away by 
thieves, and restore them to their parents. He was 
of a very fair complexion ; c)-owned with the «ma- 
racus or sweet marjoram, and sometimes with roses ; 
in one hand he carried a torch, in the other a veil 
of flame colour, to represent the blushes of a virgin. 
Newly married women offered sacrifices to him, as 
they did also to the goddess Concordia. 

Cupid was the next of Venus' companions. He 
is called the god of love, and man}^ different parents 
are ascribed to him, because there were many 
Cupids. Plato says he was born of Penia, the 
goddess of poverty, by Poros, the son of Coun- 
sel and Plenty. Hesiod relates, that he was born of 
Chaos and Terra. Sappho derives him from Ve- 
nus and Ctt'lum. Alca^us says he was the son of 
Lite and Zephyrus. Simonides attributes him to 
Mars and Venus ; and Alcma^on, to Zephyrus and 
Flora. But whatever parents Cupid had, this is 
plain, he always accompanies Venus, either as a son 
or a servant. 

The poets speak of two Cupids. One of which is 
an ingenious youth, the son of Venus and Jupiter, a 
celestial deity ; the other tlie son of Erebus and Nox, 

110 ' 

l^Hell and JVight,'] a vulgar god, whose companions 
are drunkenness, sorrow, enmity, contention, and 
such kind of plagues. One ol^ these Cupids is call- 
ed Eros, and the other Anteros ; both of them are 
boys, and naked, and winged, and blind, and armed 
with a bow and arrows and a torch. They have 
two darts of di/lerent natures ; a golden dart which 
procures love, and a leaden dart which causes ha- 
tred. Anteros is also the god who avenges slight- 
ed love. 

Although this be the youngest of all the celestial 
gods, yet his power is so great, that he is esteemed 
the strongest, for he subdues them all. Without 
his assistance, his mother Venus Is Aveak, and can 
do nothing, as she herself confesses in Virgil. 

" Nate, mese vires, mea magna potenlia, solus." JEn. 4. 
Thou art my strength, sod, and povyer alone. 

He is naked because the lover has nothing of his 
own, but deprives himself of all that he has, for his 
mistress' sake. 

Cupid is a boy, because he is void of judgment. 
His chariot is drawn by lions, for the rage and 
fierceness of no creature is greater than the extrava- 
gance and madness of violent love. He is blind, 
because a lover does not see the faults of his beloved 
object, nor consider in his mind the mischief pro- 
ceeding from that passion. He is winged, because 
nothing flies sv,ifter than love, for he who loves to- 
day, may hate to-morrow. Lastly, he is armed 
with arrows, because he strikes afar off. 

The Graces called *Cliarites, were three sisters, 
the daughters of Jupiter and Eurynome, or Euno- 
mia, as Orpheus says, or rather, as others say, the 
daughter of Bacchus and Venus. The first was 

* Koiptr-zi dictpe «T(9 Tfis Kupuf i. e. a gaudio. 


called ^Aglaia, from iier cheerfulness, her beauty^ or 
her worth ; because kindness ought to be perform- 
ed freely and generously. The second, fThalia, 
from her perpetual verdure ; because kindness ought 
never to die, but to remain fresh always in the re- 
ceiver's memory. The third, JEuphrosyne, from 
Jier cheerfulness ; because we ought to be free and 
cheerful, as well in doing as in receiving a kindness. 

These sisters* were painted naked, or in transpa- 
rent and loose garments, young and merry, with 
hands joined. One was turned from the behelder, 
as if she was going from him ; the other two turned 
their faces, as if they were coming to him ; by which 
we understand, that when one kindness is done, thanks 
are t^vice due ; once when received, and again when it 
is repaid. The Graces are naked, because kindnesses 
ought to be done in sincerity and candour, and with- 
out disguise. They are young, because the memo- 
ry of kindness received ought never to grow old. 
They are virgins, because kindness ought to be pure, 
without expectation of requital. Their hands are 
joined, because one good tiuni requires another; 
there ought to be a perpetual intercourse of kind- 
ness and assistance among friends. 

Adonis was the son of Cinyras, king of Cyprus, 
and Myrrha. As he was very handsome, Venus 
took great delight in him, and loved his company. 
When he hunted, a boar gored him with his tusks, 
and killed him. Venus bewailed his death with 
much sorrow and concern, and changed his blood, 
which was shed on the ground, into the flower ane-^ 
mone, which ever since has retained the colour of 
blood. While she flew to assist him, being led by 
his dying voice, a thorn ran into her foot, and the 

* Ayluloi id e^i, splendor, honestas, vel dignitas. 
t <Qa.Xa.ia (ii^m ^xXtia est Ivlusse nomen) id est, veriditas et 
cinnitas a BxXKcj vireo. 
t Eviftfciruvny id est, Iwtitia et urbanitas. Vide Hesiod, iu Theogl 


blood that came thence fell on the rose, which be- 
fore was white, but thereby made red. 

Venus besought of, and obtained from Jupiter, 
that he should return to life for six months m every 
year ; so that Adonis revives and dies in incessant 
succession. In Greece, Phoenicia, and some other 
countries, festivals were appointed expressive of this 
circumstance : the solemnity continued several days ; 
the first part being spent in lamentations for his 
loss, and the second in joy for his restoration. 


Who was Hyraenaeus, and of whom was he the protector? 

Whose son was he, and how was he represented ? 

Who was Cupid, and whose son was he said to be ? 

How many Cupids do the poets describe, and how are th^y 
represented ? 

What is his character with regard to power ? 

Why is he represented naked ? 

Kow is his chariot drawn ? 

Why is he represented blind, winged, and armed with arrows? 

Who were the Graces, and what were their names ? 

How are they represented in paintings ? 

Why are they said to be ever young, naked, and with their 
bands joined ? 

Who was Adonis ? what was the cause and consequences ojf 
his death ? 



Latona was the daughter of Phoebe, by Cseus 
the Titan. So great was her beauty, that Jupiter 
fell in love with her, which excited the jealousy of 
Jimo, who caused her to be cast out of heaven to the 
earth ; not contented with this, she obliged Terra, 
by an oath, not to give her a habitation, and be- 
sides she set the serpent Python upon her, to per- 


seciite her wherever she went. Juno, however, was 
disappomted, for the island Delos received Latona, 
wliere, under a pahn or an oUve tree, she brought 
forth Diana ; who, as soon as she was born, nursed 
and took care of her brother Apollo. 

Her reception at Delos, notwithstanding the oath 
of Terra, is thus accounted for. This island for- 
merly floated in die sea, and they say that at the 
time it was hidden under the waters, when Terra 
took her oath, but that it emerged afterwards by the 
order of Neptune, and became fixed and immovea- 
ble for Latona's use, from which time it was called 
Delos, because it was visible like other places. 

The island Delos emerged for Latona's use, be- 
cause it was sister to Latona. Some say, that her 
name was formerly Asteria, whom Jupiter loved and 
courted, but she was converted into an island : others 
report that she was converted into a quail, (Ovid 
Met. 15,J and flew into this island, which was, 
tlierefore, among other names, called Ortygia. Ni- 
obe's pride, and the barbarity of the countrymen of 
Lycia, increase the fame of this goddess. 

Niobe was the daughter of Tantalus, and the wife 
of Amphion, king of Thebes. She was so enriched 
with all the gifts of nature and fortune, and her hap- 
piness so great, that she could not bear it : being 
pufl'ed up with pride, and full of self-conceit, she be- 
gan to despise Latona, and to esteem herself the 
greater, saying : " is any happiness to be compared 
to mine, who am out of the reach of fortune f She 
may rob me of much wealth, but she cannot injure 
me, since she must leave me still very rich. Does any 
one's wealth exceed mine ^ Is any one's beauty like 
mine ^ Have I not seven most beautiful daughters, 
and as many ingenious and handsome sons ? And 
have I not, therefore, reason to be ^.proud .'^" In 
this manner she boasted of her happiness, and de- 
spised others : but her pride, in a short time, depri- 


ved her of all the happiness which she possessed, 
and reduced her from the height of good fortune to 
the lowest degree of misery. For when Latona saw 
herself despised, and her sacrifices disturbed by Nio- 
be', she appointed Apollo and Diana to punish the 
injury that was oflered to their mother. Immediate- 
ly they went with their quivers well filled with arrows, 
to Niobe's house ; where first they killed the sons, 
then the daughters, and next the father, in the sight 
of Niobe, who by that means ^\ as stupified with 
grief, till at length she was turned into marble, 
which, because of this misfortune, is said to shed ma- 
ny tears to this day. — Ovid Met. 6. 

The rustics of the country of Lycia in Asia, did 
alsQ experience the anger of Latona to their ruin ; 
for when she wandered in the fields, the heat of the 
weather and toil of her journey brought such a 
drought upon her that she almost fainted for thirst. 
At last discovering a spring in the bottom of the val- 
ley, she ran to it with great joy, and fell on her knees 
fo drink the cool waters : 

" Gelidos potura liquores." 

To quench her thirst with the refreshing stream. 

But the neighbouring clowns hindered her, and 
bid her depart. She earnestly begged leave, and 
they denied it : she did not desire she said to injure 
the stream by washing herself in it, but only to 
quench her thirst. 

" Quid prohibetis aquae ? usus communis aquarum : 
Nee solera proprium natura, nee aera fecit, ^ 
Nee tenues uiidas. Ad publica munera veni. 
^ Quae tan:?n ut detis Eupplex peio. Non ego nostrojs 
Abluere hie artns, lassataque membra parabara : 
Sed relevare sitim. Caret os humore loquentis, 
Et fauces arent, vixque est via vocis in illis. 
Haustus aquce mihl liecter erit : vitaHique fatfiUof. 
Accepisae ^imul" 



-Whv hinder vou. paid she, 

The use of water that to all is free? 

The suJi. the air, tl>e pure and cooliitu; \vave. 

Nature made free. I claim tiie boon she gave ; 

Yet humbly I entreat it. not to drench 

My \veary limbs, but killiui^ thirst to (|ueiich. 

My tongue wants moisture, and my jaws avf dry. 

Scarce is there way for speech. For drink [ die, 

Water to me were nectar. If I live, 

'Tis by your favour. 

They reGjarded not lier entreaties, but with threats 
endeavoured to drive her awa}'. This great inhu- 
manit}' moved the indignation of Latona, who cursed 
tliem, and said, " May you always live in this wa- 
ter." Immediately they were turned into frogs, and 
leaped into the muddy water, where they ever aftei- 


Who was Latona, and what was the consequence of Jupiter's 
affection to her ? 

Where was Diana born, and how was she employed immedi- 
ately after her birth .•' 

How is Latona's reception at Delos accounted for ? 

What is said of her transmigrations into an ishuid and quail ? 

Who was iSiobe, and what is said of her pride and self-suffi- 
ciency ? 

What was Latona's conduct towards Niobe ? 

Into what was Niobe changed ? 

What happened to the rustics of Lycia, and why were they s*» 
pnniahed ? 



Aurora, the daughter of Terra ^nd Titan, the 
sister of the sun and moon, and mother of the stars 
and the winds, is a goddess drawn in a chariot of 
gold by white horses ; her countenance shines like 
gold ; her fingers are red like roses : so Homer de- 


scribes Aur(ir;i. Tlu' Orerk-; call Aurora by another 
name, and sone say that she was th*' claap;hter of 
Hyperion and ThJa, or of l^allas, from whom the 
poets also eall her Pallantias. S!)e by force carried 
iwo beautiful } oung men, Cephalus and Tithonus, 
nilo Iicaven. 

Cephalus married Procris, the daughter of the 
king of Athens. When Aurora could, by no per- 
suasion, move him to leave her, she carried him into 
heaven ; but even there she could not shake his con-, 
stancy ; therefore she sent him again to his wife 
Procris, disguised in the habit of a merchant. Af- 
ter this she gave him an arrow that never missed the 
mark, which she had received from Minoe. When 
Ce})hahis had this arrow, he spent his whole time in 
hunting and pursuin^g wild beasts. Procris, sus- 
pecting the constancy of her husband, concealed 
herself in a bush, to discover the truth : but when 
she moved carelessly in the bush, lier husband think- 
ing sonje wild Ijeast was there, drew his bow, and 
shot his wife to the heart. — Ovid Met. 7. 

Tithonus was the son of Laomedon, and brother 
of Priamus : Aurora, tor his singular beauty, carri- 
ed him up to heaven, and married him ; and, instead 
of portion, obtained from the Fates immortality for 
him. She had Memnon by him, but she forgot to 
ask the Fates to grant iiim perpetual youth, so that 
he became so old and det repid, that, like an infant, 
he was rocked to sleep in a cradle. Hereupon he 
grew weary of life, and wishing for death, asked 
Aurora to grant him power to die. She sa'd, that 
it was not in her power to grant it, but that she 
would do what she could : and therefore turned her 
husband into a grasshopper, which, they say, moults 
when it is old, and grows young again.— -Oi^tc? 
Met. 13. 

Memnon went to Troy, to assist the king Priam, 
where, in a duel with Achilles, he was killed } and, 


in the place where he fell, a fowntaih arose which 
every year, on the same day on which he died^ 
sends forth blood instead of water. But as his body 
lay upon the funeral pile to be burnt, it was changed 
into a bird by his mother Aurora's intercession ; and 
many other birds of the same kind flew out of the 
pile with him, which, from his name, were called 
Aves Memnonise : these, dividing themselves into 
two troops, and furiously fighting with their beaks 
and claws, with their own blood appeased the ghost 
of Memnoii, from whom they sprung. — Ovid 
Met. 13. 

There was a statue of this Memnon, made of 
black marble, and set up in the temple of Serapis at 
Thebes, in Egypt, of which they relate an incredi- 
ble story : for it is said that the mouth of the statue, 
when first touched by the ra3's of the rising sun, 
sent forth a sweet and harroonious sound as though 
it rejoiced when its mother Aurora came ; but at 
the setting of the sun, it sent forth a low melancholy 
tone, as lamenting her departure. 


Who was Aurora, how was her chariot drawn, and how is she 
described by Homer ? 

Who did she carry to heaven ? 

What is said of Cepbalus, and what became of his wife Pro- 
cris ? ^ 

Who is Tithon, and what is related of him ? 

Into what was he changed, and why ? 

What became of INIemnon, and w hat is said to have happened. 
where he was killed ? 

Into what was his dead body changed ? 

Where was his statue erected, and what is reported of it ? 

PART 11. 




Look upon the wall on the right hand. On that 
wall, which is the second part of the Pantheon^ as 
well as of our discourse, you see the terrestrial dei- 
ties divided into two sorts ; for some of them inhabit 
both the cities aud the fields hiditferently, and are 
called in general *" the terrestrial goddesses :" but 
the others live only in the countries and the woods, 
and are properly called |" the gods of the woods." 
We will begin with the first. 

Of the terrestrial gods, which are so called, be- 
cause their habitation is in the earth, the most cele- 
braied are Saturn, Janus, Vulcan, jEolus, and Mo- 
mus. The terrestrial goddesses are Vesta, Cybele, 
Ceres, the Muses, and Themis : they are equal in 
number to the celestial gods and goddesses. 

We Will begin with the eldest, Saturn, who is re- 
presented as a decrepid Jold man, with a long beard 
and hoarV head. His shoulders are bowed like an 
arch, his jaws hollow and thin, his cheeks sunk ; 
his nose is flat, his forehead full of furrows, and his 

* Dii tgrrestres urbes et campos promiscue incolunt. 
t Dii autem sylvestres rnre, lantum et in sylvis deguut. 
% Virg. ^u. 7<. 


chin turned up ; his right hand holds a rusty scythe, 
and his left a child, which he is about to devour. 
He is the son of Terra, or Vesta, and Coelum, 
Coelus, or Coelius, who was the son of ^ther and 
Dies, and the most ancient of all the gods. This 
Coelum married his own daughter Vesta, by whom 
he had many children. The most eminent of tliem 
was Saturn, whose brothers were the Cyclops, Ocea- 
nus. Titan, the hundred-handed giants, and divers 
others ; his sisters were Ceres, Tethys, and Ops, or 
Rhea, whom he afterwards married. The sisters 
persuaded their mother Vesta to exclude Titan, 
or Titanus, the eldest son, and to appoint Saturn 
heir of his father's kingdom. When Titan saw 
the fixed resolution of his mother and sisters, he 
would not strive against the stream, but voluntarily 
quitted his right, and transferred it to Saturn, under 
condition that he should not bring up- any male chil- 
dren, so that after Saturn's death, the kingdom 
might return to the children of Titan. 

His wife Ops, perceiving that Jier husband devour- 
ed all lier male children, when she brought forth the 
twins, Jupiter and Juno, she only sent Juno to him, 
and sent Jupiter to be nursed in Mount Ida, by the 
priestesses of Cybele, who were called Curetes, or 
Corybantes. It was their custom to beat drums 
and cymbals while the sacrifices were offered up, 
and the noise of them hindered Saturn from hearing 
the cries of Jupiter. By the same trick she also 
eaved Neptune and Pluto from her devouring hus- 

Titan, when he saw himself cheated, and the 
agreement broken, to revenge the injury, raised for- 
ces, and brought them against Saturn, and making 
both him and Rhea prisoners, he bound them, and 
shut -them together in hell, where they lay till Jupi- 
ter, a few years after, overcame the Titans, and set 
his father and mother agam at liberty. Alter tlii" 


Saturn strove to take away his life; because he 
heard by an oracle that he should be driven out of 
his kingdom by a son, as in reality he was after- 
Wards ; for Jupiter deposed him from the throne, 
and expelled him the kingdom ; because he had con- 
spired to take away his life. Beside this, when he 
found Saturn almost drunk with mead, he bound 
and maimed him, as Saturn had also maimed his 
father Coelum before, with his sickle. 

Saturn having thus lost his kingdom went into 
Italy, which was anciently called Saturnia. He 
lived there with king Janus ; and that part of Italy 
in which he lay hidden, was afterwards called La- 
tium, and the people Latini ; as Ovid observes : 

" Inde din Genti mnnsit Saturnia nomen : 

Dicta fuit Latium terra, latente Deo." Fast. 1. 

The name Saturnia thence this land did bear, 
Ahd Latium too, because he shelter'd here. 

King Janus made Saturn partner of his kingdom, 
upon which Saturn reduced the people to civil '"O- 
ciety, and joined them to each other, as it werf 'n 
chains of brass, that is, by the brass money which . i 
invented ; and therefore, on one side of the money 
was stamped a ship. 

" At bona posteritas pnppim signavit in sera, 
Hospitis adventuui testificata Dei." Fast. 3. 

A ship by th' following age was stamp'd on coin, 
To show they once a god did entertain. 

And on the other side was stamped a Janus Bifrons. 
But although the money was brass, yet this was the 
golden age in which Saturn lived, when, as the poets, 
who magnify the happiness of that age, would per- 
suade us, the earth without the labour of ploughing 
and sowing brought forth its fruits, and all things 
were common to all. Virgil hath given an elegant 
description of this happy age in the eighth book of 
his ^neid : 


" Primus ad a2thereo venit Saturnus Olympo, 
Arma Jovis fugiens, et regnis exul ademptis. 
Is genus indocile, ac dispersum montibus allis 
Composuit, legesque dedit. Latiumque vocari 
Maluit, his quoniam latuisset tutus in oris : 
Aurea, qua; ut perhibent, illo sub rege fuere 
Sajcula ; sic placida populos in pace regebat." 

Then Saturn came, who fled the pow'rs of Jove, 
Robbd of his realms, and banish'd from above. 
The men dispers'd on liills to town he brought, 
The laws ordain'd, and civil customs taught, 
And Latium call'd tlie land, where safe he lay 
From his unduteous son, and his usurping sway. 
With his wild empire, peace and plenty came ; 
And hence the golden times derived their name. 


How are the ten-estrial deities divided, and why ? 

Which are the most celebrated of the celestial deities ? 

How is Saturn described ? 

Whose son was he, and who were his brothers and sisters? 

W^hat was the conduct of his sisters to him ? 

HoAV did Titan act, and for what did he stipulate ? 

By what means did Jupiter escape, and who besides were sa 
ved in like manner ? 

Who were the corybantes ; and what was their custom in of- 
fering sacrifices ? 

How did Titan avenge himself upon Saturn ? 

Who released Saturn, and how did he requite the exertions of 
Jupiter in his behalf? 

How did Jupiter act afterwards ? 

What is the origin of the name Latini ? 

Repeat the two Latin and English lines. 

What did he perform at Latium ? 

How is the age in Avhich Saturn flourished described by the poetS? 

Repeat the lines from Virgil — 

" Primus ad sethereo venit," kc. 


Many derive the name Saturnus^ from sowing, 
because he first taught the art of sowing and tilling 
the ground, in Italy ; and therefore he was esteem- 
ed the god of husbandry, and called Stercutius by 
the Romans, because he first fattened the earth with 
manure : he is accordingly painted with a sickle, 

* Saturnus dictus est a Satu, sicut a Portu Portunus, et a Nep- 
tu Neptunus. Festus. Serv. in JEn. 7. Lips. Sat. 3. 


with which the meadows are mowed and the corn is 
cut down. This sickle was thrown into Sicily, and 
there fell within a city then called Trepanum, and 
since Trepano, from that circumstance ; though 
others affirm, that this city had its name from that 
sickle which Ceres had from Vulcan, and gave the 
Titans when she taught them to mow. But others 
say, the town had its name because it was crooked 
and hollow, like a sickle. Indeed Sicily is so fruit- 
ful in corn and pasture, that the poets justly imagin- 
ed that the sickle was invented there. 

Saturnus is derived from that ^fulness which is 
the eifect of his bounty when he fills the people with 
provisions ; as his wife was called f Ops, because 
" she helps the hungry." Others affirm, that he is 
called Saturn, Jbecause he is satisfied with the years 
that he devours, for Saturn and Time are the same. 

Men were sacrificed to Saturn, because he was 
delighted, as they thought, with human blood : 
therefore the gladiators were placed under his pro- 
tection, and fought at his feasts. The Romans es- 
teemed him an infernal god, as Plutarch says, be- 
cause the planet Saturn is malignant and hurtful. 
Those who sacrificed to him had their heads bare, 
and his priests wore scarlet garments. On this altar 
were placed wax tapers lighted, because by Saturn 
men were brought from the darkness of error to the 
light of truth. 

The feasts Saturnalia, in the Greek language 
Kpovix ICronia'] were instituted either by Tullus, 
king of the Romans, or, if we believe Liyy, by 
Sempronius and Minutius, the consuls. Till the 
time of Julius Caesar they were finished in one day, 
viz. on the 19th of December ; after this they began 
to celebrate them for three days ; and then, during 
four ©r five, by the order of CaUgula : and some 

* A saturando, quasi saturet populos annona. 

t Quod esurientibes opem ferat. 

i Quod ipse saturetur annis quos ipse de vorat . Nat. Deor. 2. 


write, that they lasted seven days. Hence they call- 
ed these days the first, the second, the third, Sic. 
festivals of Saturn : and when these days were added 
to the feast, the first day of celebrating it was the 
17th day of December. 

Upon these festival days, 1. The senate did not 
sit. 2. The schools kept holyday. 3. Presents 
were sent among friends. 4. It was unlawful to 
'proclaim war, or execute offenders. 5. Servants 
were allowed to be jocose and merry toward their 
masters ; as we learn from Ausonius : 

" Aurea nunc revocat Saturni festa December j 

Nunc tibi cum domino ludere, verna, licet." Ech de Men. 

December now br?iigs Saturn's merry feasts, 
When masters bear their sportive servants' jests. 

6. Nay, the masters waited on their servants, who 
sat at table, in memory of that liberty which all en- 
joyed in ancient times in Saturn's reign, when there 
was no servitude. 7. Contrary to the custom, they 
washed them as soon as they arose, as if they were 
about sitting down at table. 8. And lastly, they 
put on a certain festival garment, called synthesis, 
like a cloak, of purple or scarlet colour, and this 
gentlemen only wore. 


How is tlie name of Saturn derived, and why is he esteemed 
the god of husbandry ? 

Why is he often painted with a sickle in his hand ? 

How do others derive the name as an assistant to the poor? 

Why were gladiators put under his protection ? 

How was he esteemed by the Romans ? 

How were his sacrifices made ? 

When were the Saturnalia instituted, and how long did they 
last in each year ? 

What peculiarities were observed during the feasts ? 


Although it is generally said, that Saturn was 
Nimrod, the founder of the empire of Babylon, yet I 


am more inclined to believe the opinion of Bocliai- 
tus, who maintains that Saturn and Noah were the 
same. The reasons which he brings are these : 

1. In the time of Noah "^the whole earth spoke 
one language : and the ancient mythologists say, that, 
the beasts understood this language. And it is said, 
fthat in Saturn's age there was but one language, 
which was common to men and brutes. 

2. Noah is called in the Hebrew language Ja 
man of the earth, that is, a husbandman, according 
to the usual phrase of Scripture, which calls a sol- 
dier \\a man of war ; a strong man §« man of arms ; 
a murderer ITa mari of blood ; an orator **« man 
of words ; and a shepherd \\a7nan of cattle. Now 
Saturn is justly called a man of the earth, • because 
he married Tellus, whose other names were Rhea 
and Ops. 

3. As Noah was the first planter of vineyards, so 
the art of cultivating vines and fields is attributed to 
Saturn's invention. 

4. As Noah was once overcome with wine, be- 
cause perhaps he never experienced the strength of 
it before ; so the Saturnalians did frequently drink 
excessively, because Saturn protected drunken men. 

6. As Noah cursed his son Ham, because he 
saw his father's nakedness with delight ; so Saturn 
made a law that whoever saw the gods naked should 
be punished. 

6. Plato says, " that Saturn and his wife Rhea, 
and those with them, were born of Oceanus and The- 
tis :" and thus Noah, and all that were with him, 
were in a manner new born out of the waters of the 
deluge, by the help of the ark. And if a ship was 
stamped upon the ancient coins, because Saturn 

* Genesis xi. 1. § Job xxii. 3. 

i Plato in Politicis. II 2 Samuel xvi. 17. 

X Vir terra?, Gen. ix. 20. ** Exod. iv. 

II JoBhua V. 4. tt Gen. xlvi. 32. 


came into Italy in a ship ; surely this honour be- 
lonc^ed rather to Noah, who in a ship preserved the 
race of mankind from utter destruction. 

7. Did Noah foretel the coming of the flood ? so 
did Saturn foretel, *" that there should be great 
quantities of rain, and an ark built, in which men, 
and birds, and creeping things, should all gail to- 

8. Saturn is said to have devoured all his sons, 
except Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto. So Noah may 
be said to have condemned all men, f because he 
foretold that they would be destroyed in the flood. 
For in the scripture phrase, the prophets are said 
to " do the things which they foretel shall be done 
hereafter." But as Saturn had three sons left to him 
not devoured ; so Noah had three, Shem, Cham or 
H^m, and Japhet, who were not destroyed by the 

Furthermore, these reasons may persuade us that 
Noah's son Cham is Jupiter : 1. His Hebrew name 
Ham is by many called Cham, from which the 
Egyptians had the name 'a^sv ^^^Imouii] and the 
Africans had Amnion or Hammon. 2. Cham was 
the youngest son of Noah, as Jupiter was of Saturn. 
3. Jupiter is said to be lord of the heavens ; thus 
Cham had Africa, which country is esteemed nearer 
the heavens than any other countries, because it has 
the planets vertical. 

Japhet is the same with Neptune ; for as Nep- 
tune had the command of the sea, so the islands and 
peninsulas fell chiefly to Japhet's lot. 

Shem is supposed to be the Pluto of the ancients, 
which is thus accounted for : he was so holy, and so 

* Kjovos •r^offrfidiHi 'itn^eti -arXniog ofi^fuv hc. id est, Saturnus 
preenunciat magnam imbx'iura vim futuram, et fabricandam, 
esse arcam, et in ea cum volucribus, reptilibus, atque ju- 
mentis esse navigandum. Alex. Polyhistor. Apud Cyril, contra 
Julian, 1. 1. 

t Hebrews xi. 7. 



gi*eat an enemy to idolatry, that the idolaters hated 
him while he lived, and endeavoured to blacken his 
memory when he died, by sending him to the Sty- 
gian darkness, and putting into his hand the sceptre 
of hell. 

The Greek words signifying Saturn and Time, 
differ only in one letter, from which it is plain, that 
by Saturn, Time may be meant. And on this ac- 
count Saturn is painted devouring his children, and 
th^'owing them up again ; as time devours and con- 
sumes all things that it has produced, which at 
length revive and are renewed. Our days, months, 
or years, are the children of Time, which he con- 
stantly devours and produces anew. 

Lastly, as Satnrn has his scythe, so has Time too, 
with which he mows down all things ; neither can 
the hardest adamant withstand the edge thereof, 


With what scripture character has Saturn been identified ? 

What is the first reason for supposing Saturn and Noah to toe 
^he same person ? 

What is the second ' 

What is the third ? 

What is the fourth ? 

What is the fifth ? 

What is the sixth ? 

What is the seventh ? 

What is the eighth ? 

What are the reasons for supposing Noah's son Cham to be 
Jupiter ? 

With which of the scripture characters is Neptune compared ? 

How is it accounted for that Shem and Pluto are the same 
personages ? 

Point out the arguments to prove that Saturn and Time are 
the same ? 







Janus is the two-faced god ; holding a key in his 
right hand, and a rod in his left. Beneath his feet 
you see twelve altars ; some saA' he was the son of 
Coelus and Hecate ; and that this name was given to 
him ^from a word signifying to go or pass through. 
fWhence it is that thoroughfares are called in the 
plural number jani ; and the gates before the door 
of private houses, jaiiuce. A place at Rome w^as 
called Jani, in whicli were three images of Janus : 
and there usurers and creditors met always to pay 
and receive money. This place is mentioned both 
by JTully and || Horace. 

As he is painted with two faces, so he is called by 
Virgil, Bifrons, and by Ovid, Biceps : 

" Jane Biceps anni tacite labentis imago, 
Solus de superis, qui tua terga vitles." 

Thou double pate, the sliding year dost show, 
The only god that thine own back can view. 

Because so great was his prudence, that he saw- 
both the things past, and those whicli were future. 
Or by Janus the world was thought to be meant, 
viewing with two faces the two principal quarters^, 
Uie east and the west. 

When Romulus, king of the Romans, made a 

* Jan IS quasi Eanus ah eundo. 

t Unde fit ut transitiones perviee Jani (plurali numero) fore* 
que in limis profanarum aedium Januai dicerentur. Ctc. de NaL 

t Viri optimi ad medium Janum sedentes, Cic. de Offic. t, 
Dempster, in Paralip. 

Ij Imus et Summus Janus. Herat. !, I, ep. 1. 


league with Titus, king of the Sahines, tliey set up 
an image of Janus Bifrons, intendiiicr thereby to re- 
present both nations between which the peace was 
concluded. Numa afterwards built a temple, which 
had double doors, and dedicated it to the same Ja- 
nus. When Falisci, a city of Hetruria, was taken, 
there was an image of Janus found with four faces ; 
upon which the temple of Janus had four gates, but 
of that temple we shall speak by-and-by. 

He is called Claviger, " turnkey" or " club-bear- 
er," from the rod and the key in his hands. He 
held the rod, because he was the guardian of the 
ways, rector viarum ; and the key for these reasons : 

1. He was the inventor of locks, doors, and gates, 
which are called januce, after his name : and him- 
self is called Janitor, because doors were under his 

2. He is the Janitor of the 3'ear, and of all the 
months ; the first of which takes the name of Janu- 
ary from him. To Juno belongs the calends of the 
months, and she committed them to his care, there- 
fore he is called by some Junonius, and Martial takes 
notice, that the government of the year was com- 
mitted to him ; for which reason twelve altars were 
dedicated to him, according to the number of the 
months ; as there were also twelve small chapels in 
his temple. The consuls at Rome were inaugurated 
in the temple of Janus, who were from this said to 
open the year. Upon the calends of January (and 
as Macrobius says on the calends of March) a new 
laurel was hung upon the statue of Janus, and the 
old laurel was taken away ; to which custom Ovid 

" Laurea Flaminibus, quae toto perstitit anno 
Tollitur, et frondes sunt in honore novae." Fast. 3. 

The laurel that the former year did grace, 

T' a fresh and verdant garland yields his place. 


Pliny thought this custom was occasioned because 
Janus rules over the year ; " The statue," says he, 
" of Janus, which was dedicated by Numa, had its 
fingers so composed, as to signify the number of 
three hundred and sixty-five days ; to show that Ja- 
nus was a god, by his knowledge of the year, and 
time, and ages." He had not these figures described 
on his hand, but had a peculiar way of numbering 
them, by bending, stretching, or mixing his fingers, 
of which numeration many are the opinions of au- 

3. He holds a key in his hand, because he is, as 
it were, the door through which the prayers of man- 
kind have access to the gods : for, in all sacrifices, 
prayers were offered up to Janus. And Janus him- 
self gives the same reason, as we find in Ovid, why, 
before men sacrificed to any of the other gods, they 
first offered sacrifice to him : 

" Cur quamvis aliorum numina placem, 

Jane, tibi primum thura merumque fero ? 

Ut possis adJtum per me, qui limina servo, 

Ad quoscunque voles inquit ; habere deos." Fast. 1. 

Why is't that though I other gods adoi-e, 
I first must Janus' deity implore ? — 
Because I hold the door, by which access 
Is had to any god you would address. 

But Festus says, because men thought that all 
things took their being from Janus, therefore they 
first made their supplications to him as to a common 
father. For though the name father is given to all 
the gods, yet Janus was particularly called by this 

He first built temples and altars, and instituted 
rehgious rites ; and for that reason, among others, 
in all sacrifices they begin their rites by ofiering 
bread, corn, and wine, to Janus, before any thing is 
offered to any other deity. Frankincense was ne- 
ver offered to him, though Ovid mentions it, which 


therefore he inserts either by poetical license, or 
only in respect to the sacrifices which were in use 
in his time. For Pliny asserts, that they did not sa- 
crifice witii frankincense in the times of the Trojans. 
Neither does Homer i'n the least mention frankincense 
in any place where he speaks concerning sacrifices. 
He was also called Patulcins and Clusius, or Patu- 
lacius and Clausius ; from opening and shutting ; 
for in the time of war Janus' temple was open, but 
shut in the time of peace. This temple was found- 
ed by Romulus and Tatius. Numa ordained that 
it should be opened when the Romans waged war, 
but shut when they enjoyed peace. 

Ovid mentions both tliese latter names of Janus 
in a distich : and Virgil describes the manner and 
occasion of opening his temple, and also the conse 
quences of shutting it again : 

" Sunt geminae belli portae sic nomine dicunt 

Religione sacrse et saevi formidine martis. 

Centum aerei claudunt vectes eeternaque ferri 

Robora ; nee custos absistit limine Janus. 

Has ubi certa sedet patribus sententia pugnse, 

Ipse Quirinali trabeacinctuqueGabino 

Insignis, reserat stiidentia limina consul.'' ^n. 7. 

Two gates of steel (the name of Mars they bear, 
And htill are worshipped with religious fear) 
Before his temple stand : the dire abode 
And the fear'd issues of the furious god 
Are fenc'd with brazen bolts ; without the gates 
The weary guardian Janus doubtly waits. 
Then when the sacred senate votes the wars, 
The Roman consul their decree declares, 
And in his robes the sounding gates unbars. 

It is remarkable, that within the space of seven 
hundred years, this temple of Janus was shut only 
thrice : once by Numa ; the second time by the 
consids Marcus Attilius and Titus Manlius, after the 
Carthaginian war ; and lastly, by Augustus, after 
the victory at Actium. 

In this story of Janus, we may behold the repre- 
sentation of a very prudent person ; whose wisdom 


consists *' in the remembrance of tilings past, and in 
the foresight of things to come." 

'• Aspera turn positis mitescent saecula bellis : 
Cana fides, et Vesta, Rerao cum fratre Quiriflus 
Jura dabunt ; dirae ferro et compagibus arctis 
Claudentur belli portae, Furor impius intus, 
Sceva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus ahenis 
Post tergum nodis, fremet horridus ore cruento." 

Then dire debate, and impious war shall cease, 
Then the stern age be soften'd into peace : 
Then banish'd faith shall once again return, 
And vestal fires in hallow'd temples burn ; 
And Remus with Quirinus shall sustain 
The righteous laws, and fraud and force restrain. 
Janus himself before his fane shall wait, 
And keep the dreadful issues of his gate, 
With bolts and iron bars. Within remains 
Imprison'd Fury, bound in brazen chains ; 
High on a trophy rais'd of useless arms 
He sits, and threats the world with vain alarms. 

The prudent man ought therefore to have, as it 
were, two faces ; that, according to his natural sa- 
gacity of mind, and ripeness of judgment, observing 
both things past and future, he may be able to dis- 
cern the causes, beginnings, and progresses of all 
events and things. 


Who was Janus, and from what is his name derived ? 
Who mentions the place called the Jani at Rome, and for 
what was it used ? 

What is he named by Virgil and Ovid, and why .? 

What happened in the reigns of Romulus and Numa : 

Why was he called Claviger ? 

Why was he named Janitor .'' 

Which monCn is said to be named after him 

Why is {>3 ceiled Junonius ? 

Why tvera i'-^. R.-raan coasi'ls said to open the year? 

To what cuslem does Ovid refer 1 

What does Pliny say op. this subject .' 

Why does he hold a key in his hand 1 

What did Janus do ? 

What sacrifices were ottered to him ? 

Why was he called Patulcius and Clusius ? 


By whom was the temple of Janus founded ? 
In how long was it only thrice shut? 
What does the story of Janus teach ? . 



Vulcan is both a smith and a god, and had a 
shop in the island Lemnos, where he exercised his 
trade, and where, though he was a god himself, he 
made Jupiter's thunder and the arms of the other 
gods. He was born of Jupiter and Juno, some say of 
Juno only ; and being contemptible for his deformity, 
was cast down from heaven into the island Lemnos, 
whence he is called Lemnius : he broke his leg with 
the fall, and if the Lemnians had not caught him when 
he fell, he had certainly broke his neck : he has ever 
since been lame. "^In requital of their kindness, he 
fixed his seat among them, and set up the craft of a 
smith ; teaching them the manifold uses of fire and 
iron ; and from softening and polishing iron, f he re- 
ceived the name Miilciber, or Mulcifer. He was the 
god of fire, the inventor and patron of the art of 
fabricating arms and all kinds of utensils from the 
metals. His most celebrated works are the famous 
palace of the sun ; the armour of Achilles and Mne- 
as ; the beautiful necklace of Hermione, and the 
crown of Ariadne. According to Homer, the shield 
of Achilles was enamelled with metals of various co- 
lours, and contained twelve historical designs, with 

Cupid is Vulcan's son, Venus his wife, 
No wonder then he goes lame all his life. 

\ A mulcendo ferro. Vide Lucan. 1. 1. 

// I/. .,. .1,1 



groups of figures of great beauty : the seats which 
Vulcan constructed for tlie gods were so contrived, 
that they came self-moved from the sides of the 
apartment to the place where each god seated him- 
self at the table when a council was to be held. He 
is described by Homer in the midst of his works : 

-the silver footed dame 

Reach'd tlie Vulcanian dome, eternal frame ! ' 

High-eminent, amid the works divine, 

Where heaven's far beaming brazen mansions shine. 

There the lame Architect the goddess found, 

Obscure in smoke, his forges flaming round ; 

While bath'd in sweat, from fire to fire he flew, 

And, pufl5ng loud, the roaring bellov»s blew. 

Then from his anvil the lame artist rose ; 

Wide with distorted legs obli»jue he goes, 

And stills the bellows, and, in order laid, , 

Locks in their chest the instruments of trade. 

Then with a sponge the sooty A\nrkman drest 

His brawny arms imbrown'd, and hairy breast: 

With his huge scejitre grac'd; and red attire, 

Came halting forth the sov'reign of the lire. — Homer. 

He obtained in marriage the most beautiful god- 
dess Venus ; who behaved treacherously towards 
him, as has been already noticed. He desired to 
marry Minerva, and Jupiter consented, if he could 
overcome her modesty. For when Vulcan made 
arms for the gods, Jupiter gave him leave to choose 
out of the goddesses a wife, and he chose Minerva ; 
but he admonished her at the same time to refuse 
him, as she successfully did. 

At Rome were celebrated the Vulcania, feasts in 
honour of Vulcan ; at which the}- tirrew animals 
into the fire to be burnt to death. Tlie Athenians 
instituted other feasts to his honour, called Chalsea. 
A temple besides was dedicated to him upon the 
mountain ^tna, from which he is sometimes named 
iEtnaeus. Tins temple was guarded by dogs, whose 
sense of smelling was so exquisite, that they could 
discern whether the persons that came thither were 
chaste and religious^ or whether thev wfre w icked ; 


they used to meet, and flatter and follow the good, 
esteeming diem the acquaintance and friends of Vul- 
can their master. 

It is feigned, that the first woman was fashioned 
by the hammer of Vulcan, and that every god gave 
her some present, whence she was called Pandora. 
Pallas gave her wisdom, Apollo the art of music, 
Mercury the art of eloquence, Venus gave her beau- 
ty, and the rest of the gods gave her other ac- 
complishments. They say also, that when Prome- 
theus stole fire from heaven, to animate the man 
which he had made, Jupiter was incensed, and sent 
Pandora to Prometlieus with a sealed box, but Pro- 
metheus would not receive it. He sent her with the 
same box again to the wife of Epimetheus, the bro- 
ther of Prometheus ; and she, out of a curiosity na- 
tural to her sex, opened it, which as soon as she 
had done, all sorts of diseases and evils, with which 
it was filled, flew among mankind, and have infest- 
ed them ever since. And nothing was left in the 
bottom of the box but Hope. 

Vulcan's servants were called Cyclops, because 
they had but one eye, which was in the middle of 
their foreheads, of a circular figure ; Neptune and 
Amphitrite were their parents. The names of three 
of them were Brontes, Steropes, and Pyracmon : 
besides these there were many more, all of whom 
exercised the art of smithery under Vulcan, as we 
are taught by Virgil. — ^n. 8. 

Cacus, so called from his wickedness, tormented 
all Latium with his fires and robberies ; living like a 
beastJn a dismal cave. He stole Hercules' oxen, 
and dragged them backward by their tails into his 
cave, tiiat the track of their feet might not discover 
this repository of his thefts. But Hercules passing 
by, heard the lowing of the oxen in the cave, broke 
open the doors, and seizing the villain, put him to 
» death.— FzVg-. *^n. 8. 


His cave was so dark, that it admitted not the 
least ray of light; the floor of it was red with the 
blood perpetiially shed upon it, and the heads and 
hmbs ot the men he had murdered were fastened to 
the posts of the doors. 

Caeculus also lived by plunder ^nd robbery. He 
was so called from the smallness of his eyes • it is 
thought the noble family of the CcTcihi at Rome de- 
rived then- origin irom him. He was the founder 
ot the city Praeneste. Others sav, that the shep- 
herds found Cceculus unhurt in the midst of the fire 
as soon as he was born ; from which he was thought 
to be the son of Vulcan. ^ 

To these servants and sons of Vulcan, add the 
shepherd Polyphemus, a monster not unlike them 
oorn of Neptune. For he had but one eve in his 
orehead, like the Cyclops, and he procured his 
Jiving by murders and robberies, like Cacus and 
Caeculus. This monster drew Ulysses and some of 
his companions into his den in Sicily, and devoured 
them. He thought, too, that the rest of Ulysses' 
servants could not escape his jaws. But Ulysses 
made him drunk with wine, and then with a fire- 
brand qmte put out his sight, and escaped. 

« Visceribus miserorum, et sanguine vescitur atro, 
Vxcli egomet, duo de numero cum corpora nostro 
^rensa manu magna, medio resupinus in antro 
±: rangeret ad saxum, sanieque aspera natarent 
l^imina: vidi, atro cum membra fluentia tabo 
Mauderet, et tepidi tremereut sub dentibus artus. 
Haud impune qu.dem : nee talia passus Ulysses, 
Oblitusve sui est Tthacus discrimine tanto 
rsam simul expletus dapibus, vinoque sepultus 
Immen!;?.' ''^"' I'Osuit, jacuitque perantrum 
Immensus, saniem eructans, ac frusta cruento 
t-er somimm commixta mero ; nos ma^na nrecati 
^umma, sortitique vices, una undique Ivcum 
Fundimur, et te!o lumen terebramus JZ 
Ingens; quod toiva solum sub fronte latebat 
Argolic, .lypei aut Phcebea. lampa^is ins^ar ''_ 

Virg. Mn. 3 

. 136 

The joints of slaughter'd wretches are his food* 

And for his wine he quaffs the streaming blood. 

These eyes beheld, when with his spacious hand 

He seiz'd two captives of our Grecian band ; 

Stretch'd on his back, he dash'd against the stones 

Their broken bodies and their crackling bones. 

With spouthig blood the purple pavement swims, 

While the dire glutton grinds the trembling limba. 

Not unreveng'd Ulysses bore their fate, 

Nor thoughtless of his own unhappy state ; 

For gorg'd with flesh, and drunk with human wiQC, 

While fast asleep the giant lay supine. 

Snoring aloud, and belching from his maw 

His undigested foam and morsels raw ; 

We pray, we cast the lots ; and then surround 

The monstrous body, stretch'd along the ground > 

Each as he could approach him, lends a hand 

To bore his eyebald with a fiaming bi-and ; 

Beneath his frowning forehead lay his eye, 

For only one did this vast frame supply, 

But that a globe so large, his front it fill'd. 

Like the sun's disk, or like the Grecian shield. 


Who was Vulcan, and where did he exercise his trade? 
Whose son was he, and what accident happened to him ? 
How was his iife saved, and how did he requite the kindness 
of his benefactors f 
Who did he marry ? 

Did he wish to marry any one besides, and was he successful ? 
What were the Vulcania, and how were they celebrated ? 
What other feasts ; and what temple was dedicated to him ** 
What is said of the dogs that guarded that temple ? 
What story is told of Vulcan with respect to Pandora ? 
Who were Vulcan's servants, and what was their business ' 
What is said of his son Cacus ? 
What is said of Cseculus, another son ? 
How is Folyphernus described ? 



He who stands next him is ^ohis, the " god of 
the winds," the son of Jupiter and Acesta or Seges- 
ta, the daughter of Hippotas, from whom he is na- 


med Hippotades. He dwelt in one of those seven 
islands, which irom him are called ^oliae, and some- 
times Vulcanise, He was a skilful astronomer, and 
an excellent natural philosopher : he understood 
more particularly the nature of the winds ; and, by 
observing the clouds of smoke of the ^olian islands, 
he was enabled to foretel winds and tempests a 
great while before they arose, and it was* generally 
believed they were under his power : so that he 
could raise the winds, or still them as he pleased. 
Hence he was styled emperor and king of the winds, 
the children of Astrseus and Aurora. Virgil de- 
scribes Juno coming to him, at his palace, of whicli 
he gives a description in beautiful verse : 

" Nimborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus Austris, 
iEoliam venit. Hie vasto rex ^olus autro 
Luctantes ventos, tempestatesque sonoras 
Imperio premit, ac vinclis et carcere frcenat. 
Illi indignantes magno cum murmure monlis 
Circum claustra tVemuiit. Celsa sedet iEolus arce, 
Sceptra tenens ; mollitqne aiiimos, et temperat iras. 
ISi far.iat, inaria ac terras, c<p}iim(]ue profundum 
Quippe forant rapidi secum, verrantque per auras, 
Sed pater omnlpoteus speluncis abdidit atris, 
Hoc metuei;s ; inoleaKine, et montes insuper altos, 
imposiiit ; regemque dedit, qui foedere certo, 
Et premere, et laxas sciret dare jussus habenas." 

Itius rag^M the goddess, and with fury fraught, 
The restless regions of the storms she sougiit. 
Where, in a spacious cave of livijig stone, 
The Tyrant ^olus, from his airy throne, 
With pow'r imperial curbs the struggling winds,. 
And sounding tempests in dark prisons binds. 
This way and that, th' impatient captives tend. 
And, pressing for relief, the mountains rend- 
High in his hall th' undaunted monarch stands, 
And shakes his sceptre, and their i-age commands^ 
Which did he not, their unresisted sway 
Would sweep the v.orld before them in their way -. 
Earth, air and seas, through empty space would roil, 
And h«av'n would fly before the driving soul. 
Ill fear of this, the father of the gods 
Confined their fury to these dark abodes. 
And lock'd thera safe, oppressed with mouutain-loads ; 



Impos'd a king with arbitrary sway, 

To loose their fetters, or their force allay. 


Who was j5]o1us, and where did he live ? 
What was his character as a philosopher ? 
What was generally believed of him ? 
How was he styled in consequence of this ? 
Give Virgil's tine description — 



The name of the god Momus is derived from the 
Greek, signifying a jester, mocker, or mimick ; for 
that is his business. He follows no particular em- 
ployment, but lives an idle life, yet nicely observes 
the actions and sayings of the other gods, and when 
he. finds them doing amiss, or neglecting their duty, 
he censures, mocks and derides them with the great- 
.est liberty. . 

Neptune, Vulcan, and Minerva, may witness the 
truth of this. They all contended for the mastery 
as the most skilful artificer : whereupon Neptune 
made a bull, Minerva a house, and Vulcan a man : 
Momus was appointed judge between them ; but he 
chid them all three. He accused Neptune of impru- 
dence, because he did not place the bull's horns in 
his forehead before his eyes : for then the bull mifrht 
give a surer and a stronger blow. He blamed Mi- 
nerva, because her house was immoveable ; so that it 
could not be carried away, if by chance it was pla- 
ced among bad neighbours. But he said that Vul- 
can was the most imprudent of them all, because he 
did not make a window in the man's breast, that we 

^ rf 


might see what his thoughts were, whether he de- 
signed some trick, or whether he intended w hat he 

The parents of Momiis were Nox and Somnus. It 
is a sign of a dnli, drowsy, sottish disposition, when 
we see a man satirizing and censuring the actions of 
all other men, because none but God is wholly per- 
fects some imperfections attaches to every other be- 
ing, so that every thnig is defective and liable to. 


What-does the name of Moinus signify ? 

How is he employed ? 
. For what did IVeptune, Vulcan, and Minerva contend ? 

What was the decision of Momus with respect to their seve- 
ral performances ? 

Who were the parents of Moraus ? • 

What does a satirical temper indicate 



Vesta, whom you see sitting and holding a drum 
is the wife of Calum, and the mother of Saturn. 
She is the eldest of the goddesses, and is placed 
among the terrestrial goddesses, because she is the 
same with Terra, and has her name from ^clothing ; 
plants and fruits being the garments of the earth. 
Or, faecording to Ovid, the eaith is called Vesta 
from its stability, because it supports itself. She 

* Quod plantis frugibusque terra vestiatur. 

t " Stat vi terra sua, vestando Vesta: vocatur." Fast. 6. 

By its own strength supported Terra stands ; 

•Hence it is Veita uamd. ' . 


^its, because the earth is immo\ eahle, and wa^ sup* 
posed to be placed in the cejitre of the world. Ves- 
ta has a drum, because the earth contains the bois' 
terous winds In its bosom ; and divers flowers weave 
themselves into a crown, Avith which her head is 
crowned. Several kinds of animals creep about and~ 
fawn upon her. Because the earth is round, Ves- 
ta's temple at Rome was also round, and some say 
that the image of Vesta was orbicular in some pla- 
ces, but *Ovid says her image was rude and shape- 
less. And hence round tables were^ anciently called 
vesta, because, like the eartji, they supply all neces- 
saries of life for us. It is no wonder that the first 
i^blations in all sacrifices were offered to her, since 
whatever is sacrificed springs from the earth. And 
the Greeks both began and concluded their sacrifi- 
ces with Vesta, whom they esteemed as the mother 
of all the gods. 

There were two Vestas, the elder and the young- 
er. The first of whom I have been spealiing was 
the wife of Coelum and the mother of Satura. 
The second w as the daughter of Saturn hy his wife 
Rhea. And?., as the first is the same with Torrei, 
so the othe ' is the same with Ignis ; and her power 
was exercised about altars and houses. The woi'd 
vesta is often put ior fire itself, for it is derived from 
a Greek word which signifies a chimney, a house, or 
household goods. She is esteemed the president 
and guardian of houses, and one of the household 
deities ; not without reason, since she invented the 
art of building houses : and, therefore, an image of 
Vesta, to which they sacrificed every day, was pla- 
-ced before the doors of the houses at Rome : and 
the places where these statues were set up were call- 
ed vesiihula, from Vesta. 

* " EJiigiem nullam Vesta nee ignis habet" 

No image Vesta's shape can e'er eiprea^ 

Or $re's ( '' ■ ■'■' 


Tins goddess was a virgin, and so great an ad- 
mirer of virginity, that when Jupiter, her brother, 
gave her liberty of asking what she would, she beg- 
ged that she might always be a virgin, and have the 
first oblations in all sacrifices. She not only ob- 
tained her desire but received this further honour 
among the Romans, that a perpetual fire was kept 
in her temple, among the sacred pledges of the em- 
pire ; not upon an altar, or in the chimnies, but in 
earthen vessels, hanging in the air ; which the ves- 
tal virgins tended with so much care, that if by 
chance this fire was extinguished, all public and pri- 
vate business was interrupted, and a vacation pro- 
claimed till they had expiated the unhappy prodigy 
tv'ith incredible pains j and if it appeared that the 
virgins were the occasion of its going out, by care- 
lessness, they were severely pmiished, and sometimes 
with rods. 

In recompense for this severe law, the vestals ob- 
tained extraordinary privileges and respect : they 
had the most honourable seat at games and festi- 
vals : the consuls and magistrates gave way when- 
ever they met them : their declarations in trials were 
admitted without the form of an oath ; and, if they 
happened to encounter in their path a criminal go^ 
ing to the place of execution, he immediately ob- 
tained his pardon. Upon the calends of March, 
every year, though it was not extinguished, they 
used to renew it with no other fire than that which 
was produced by the rays of the sun. 

It has been conjectured, that when the poets say 
that Vesta is the same with fire, the fire of Vulcan's 
forge is not understood, nor yet the dangerous flames 
of Venus, but a pure, unmixed, benign flame, so ne- 
cessary for us, that human life cannot possibly sub- 
sist without it ; whose heat being difliised through 
all the parts of the body, quickens, cherishes, re- 
freshes, and nourishes it ; a llame really sacred, hea- 


venly, and divine ; repaired daily by die food which 
we eat, and on which the safety and welfare of our 
bodies depend. This llame moves and actuates the 
•whole body ; and cannot be extinguished but when 
life itself ceases with it. 


Who Avas Vesta ? 

Why is she placed among the terrestrial goddesses 

What reasons are assigned for the ornaments \ritli which she 
is decked ? 

Whv is Vesta's temple round ? 

What are the Vesta? f 

Why were tlie first sacrifices offered to Vesta? 

Why did the Greeks begin and conclude their sacriiices wltli 
Vesta ? 

Who were the two Vestas ? 

For what is the word '' vesta" put ? 

Why is she esteemed the president and guardian of houses : 
and why was her image placed before the doors of the houses 
at Rome ? 

What favour did she ask of Jupiter ; and what other honour 
did she obtain among the Romans ? 

What was the dutj'^ 6f the vestal virgins ? 

What was the punishment inflicted on them if they suffered 
the fire to go out ? 

What respect was paid them, by way of recompense for the 
.?everity of this law ? 

When and how was the vestal fire renewied ? 

What is understood by the vestal nre ? 



Cybele is the goddess not of cities only, but of 
all things which the earth sustains. She is the 
Earth itself. On the earth are built many towers 
and casdesT so on lier head is placed a crown of tow- 
ers. In her hand she carries a key, for in winter 


the earth locks up those treasures which she brhigs 
forth and, dispenses with so much plenty in summer. 
She rides in a chariot, because die earth hangs 
suspended in the kir, balanced and poised by 
its own weight. But that chariot is supported by 
wheels, since the earth is a revolving body, and turns 
round ; and it is drawn by lions, because nothing is 
so lierce, so savage, or so ungovernable, but a mo- 
therly piety and tenderness is able to tame it, and 
make it submit to the yoke. I need not explain 
why her garments are painted with divers colours, 
and figured witli the images of several creatures, 
since every body sees that such a dress is suitable 
to the earth. 

She is called C^bele, and Ops, and Rhea, and 
Dindymene, and Berecynthia, and Bona Dea, (the 
good goddess,) and Idaea, and Pessinuntia, and 
Magna Deoiiim Mater, (the great mother of the 
gods,) and sometimes also Vesta. All these names, 
for different reasons, were given to the same god- 
dess ; who was the daughter of Coelum by the elder 
Vesta, and Saturn's wife. 

She is called Cybele, from the mountain Cybelus 
in Phrygia, where sacrifices were first instituted to 
her. Or the name was given her from the behaviour 
of her priests, who used to dance upon their heads, 
and toss about their hair like madmen, foretelling 
things to come, and making a horrible noise. These 
were named Galli, and this fury and outrage in pro- 
phesying is described by Lucian in his first book. 

Others again derive the word Cybele from a cube, 
because the cube, which is a body every way square, 
was dedicated to her by the ancients. 

She is called Ops, because she brings help and 
assistance to every thing contained in this world. 

Her name ^Rhea is derived from the abundance 

* A fcio, fluo, quod bonis omnibus circumfluat. 


of benefits, which, without ceasing, flow from her 
on every side. 

Dindjmene and Dindyme, is a name given her 
from the mountain Dindymus, in Phrygia. 

Virgil calls her mater Berecynthia, from Bere- 
cynthus, a castle in that country ; and in the same 
pl^ce describes her numerous and happy offspring. 

Qualis Berecvntiiia mater 

Invehitur curru Phrygice turrita per urbes / 

L^ta Deum partu, centum complexa nepotes, 

Omnes coelieolas, omnes supera alta tenentes." — Mix. 6. 

High as the mother of the gods in places, 

And proud, like her, of an immortal race , 

Then, when in pomp she makes the Phrygian round^ 

With golden turrets on her temple crown'd, 

A hundred gods her sweeping train supply, 

Her offspring all, and all command the sky. 

She was by the Greeks called *Pasithea ; that iSy 
as the Romans usually named her, the mother of all 
the gods ; and from the f Greek word signifying a 
mother. Her sacrifices were named Metroa, and to 
celebrate them was called Metrazein, in the same 

Her name Bona Dea implies that all good things 
necessary for the support of life proceed from her. 
She is also called Fauna, Jbecause she is said to fa- 
vour all creatures ; and Fatua, because it was 
thought that new born children never cried till they 
touched the ground. It is said, that this Bona Dea 
was the wife of king Faunus ; who beat her with 
myrtle rods till she died, because she disgraced her- 
self, and acted very unsuitable to the dignity of a 
queen, by drinking so much wine that she became 

■* Pasitheu, id est, waj* ^lois fznrtjp, omnibus diis maters. 
Luc. 1. 2. 

t A f^riTfip, mater, derivantur f^ccrpua Cyboles sacra, et ^»j- 
rpA^t/v sacra ea celebrare. Ccel. Rhod. 1. 8. c. 17. 

i Fauna fjuod animantibus favere, dicattir. 


drunk. But the king afterwards repenting of his 
severit}', deified his dead wife, and paid her divine 
honours. This is the reason assigned why it was 
forbidden tliat any one sliould bring m^Ttle into her 
temple. In her sacrifices, the vessels of wine were 
covered ; and wlien the women drank out of them 
they called it milk, not wine. "^The modesty of 
this goddess was so extraordinary, that no man ever 
savv her except her husband ; or scarce heard her 
name : wherefore her sacrifices were performed in 
private, and all men were excluded from the temple. 

" Sacra bonae maribus non adeunda De». — Tib. I. el. 6. 
iS'o men admitted were to Cybele"s rites. 

From the great privacy observed by her votaries, 
the place in wliich her sacrifices were performed was 
called Opertum, and the sacrifices tliemselves were 
styled Opertanea, for the same reason that Pluto is 
by the poets called Opertus. Silciice v/as observed 
in a most peculiar manner in the sacrifices of Bona 
Dea, as it was in a less degree in all other sacrifices ; 
according to the doctrine of the Pythagoreans and 
Egyptians, who taught, that God was to be worship- 
ped in silence, since from this, at the first creation, 
all things took their beginning. To the same pur- 
pose, Plutarch says, "fMen were our masters to 
teach us to speak, but we learn silence from the 
gods : from those we learn to hold our peace, in 
their rites and initiations." 

She was called Idaea Mater, from the mountain 
Ida, in Phrygia, or Crete, for she was at both pla- 
ces highly honoured : as also at Rome, whither they 
brought her from the city Pessinus in Galatia, by a 

Juvenal. Sat. 9. 
I Loqnendi magistros homines liabemu?, tacendi Decs: ab 
illis silentium accipientes in initiationibus et mysteriis : — Plut 
de Loquac. 



remarkable miracle. For when the ship in whicli 
she was jcarried, stopped in the mouth of the Tiber, 
the vestal Claudia (wliose fnie dress and free beha- 
viour made her modesty suspected) easily drew the 
ship to shore with her girdle, vvhere the goddess was 
received by the hands of virgins, and the citizens 
went out to meet lier, placing censers with frankin- 
cense before their doors ; and when they had lighted 
the frankincense, they pra^^ed that she would enter 
freely into Rome, and be favourable to it. And be- 
cause the Sybils had prophesied that Ida^a Mater 
should be introduced by the " best man among the 
Romans, the senate *vvas a little busied to pass a 
judgment in the case, and i-esolve who was the best 
man in the city : for every one was ombitious to get 
the victory in a dispute of that nature more than if 
the}" stood to be elected to any connnands or honours 
by die voices either of the senate or people. At last 
the senate resolved that P. Sci-^ilo, the son of Cneus, 
who was killed in Spain, a young gentleman who 
had never been quaestor, was the best man in the 
whole city." 

She was called Pessinuntia f from a certain field 
in Phrygia, into which an image of her fell from hea- 
ven ; from this the place was called Fessiiius^ and 
the goddess Pessinuntia. And here the Phrygrans 
first began to celebrate the sacrifices Orgia to this 
goddess, near the liver Gallus, from which lier priests 
were called Galli. When these priests desired that 
great respect and adoration should be paid to any 
thing, they pretended that it fell from heaven ; and 

* Haud parvae rei judicium senatum tenebat, qui vir oittimus 
in civitate esset : vei'um certe victoriam ejus rei sibi quisque 
mallet, quam uUa imperia, hoaoresve, suttragio seu Fatrum, seu 
Plebis, delates. Patres conscripti P. Sci[»iouem, Cnei filium 
ejus, qui in Hispania occidebatur, adolesceutem, nondum Quaes- 
torem, judicaverunt in lota civitate virum optimum esse. 

t Hesiod. I 1. 

they called these images Aistt^th^ ^Diopete^l that is, 
" sent from Jupiter." Of wliich sort were the Ancile, 
the Palladiiun, aiir! the eiligies of this goddess, con- 
cerning which we now speak. 


Who was Cybele ? 
How Js she represented ? • 
Fn what does she ride, and how is she drawn ? 
Why are her garments of divers colours? 
Why is she called Cybele ? 
What were her priests called ? 
Why is she called Ops and Rhea ? 

Why and by whom is siie called Dindyme and Berecynthia? 
What was she called by the Greeks, and why ? 
What does the name of Bona Dea imply ? 
Who was Bona Dea? 

Why is myrtle prohibited from her temple ? 
What was observed in her -acrifices, and why? 
What was the saying of Plutarch ? 
Why was Cybele called Idaea Mater ? 
Why was she called Pessinuntia ? 

Why were her priests called Galli ; and under what pretence 
were they able to get particular respect paid to any thing ? 



Her sacrifices, like the sacrifices of Bacchus, were 
celebrated with a confused noise of timbrels, pipes, 
and cymbals ; and the sacrificants howled, as if they 
were mad ; they profaned both the temple of their 
goddess, and the ears of their hearers, with their vile 
words and actions. The following rites were pecu- 
liarly observed in her sacrifices : her temple was open- 
ed, not by hands, but by prayers ; none entered who 
had tasted garlic ; the priests sacrificed to her sitting, 
and touching the earih, and oiicred the hearts of the 
victims. And lastly, among the trees, the box: and 
the pine were sacred to her. The box, because the 
pipes used in her sacrifices were made of it : the 
pine, for the sake of Atys, Attes, or Attynes, a bo3^ 
that Cybele much loved, and made him "president of 


her rites, upon condition that he always pres4>rvtul 
his chastity inviolate. But iie forgot ]ii.s vow, and 
lost that virtue ; wherefore the ollended goddess 
threw him into sucli a madness, that he was about 
to lay violent hands upon himself, but.Cybele, in 
pity, turned him into a pine. 

There was, however, a true Atys, the son of Croe- 
sus, king of Lydia. He was born- dumb ; biiJ when 
he saw in the fight a soldier at his father's back, 
with a sword lifted up to kill him, the strings of his 
tongue, which hindered his speech, burst ; and by 
speaking clearly, he prevented bis father's destruc- 

The priests of Cybele were named Galli, from a 
river of Pln-ygiii. • Such w^as the nature of the wa- 
ter of this river, that whoever drank of it immedi- 
ately grew mad. The Galli, as often as they sacri- 
ficed, furiously cut and slashed their arms with 
knives ; and dience all furious and mad people were 
called Galantes. Beside the name of Galli, they 
were also called Curetes, Corybantes, Telchines, 
Cabiri, and Idrei Dactyli. Some say that these 
priests were ditlerent from the Galli ; but most peo- 
ple believe them to be the same, and say that they 
were priests of Cybele. 

The Curetes were either Cretans, or iEkoliaus, or 
Euboeans : and had their names from shaving ; so 
that Curetes and Detonsi signify almost the same 
thing. For they shaved the hair of their heads be- 
fore, but wore hair behind, that they might not be 
taken (as it has often happened) by the forelocks, 
by the enemy ; or, perhaps they were called Cure- 
tes, ^because they were habited in long vests, like 
young maidens ; or lastly, fbecause they educated 
Jupiter in his infancy. 

^ K-Tto TVii xapij;, a puella, quod puellarum stolam induebant. 
t A-ro rvi xaporp'xplcci, ab educatione juvenum, quod Jovem 
iwfautem alnisse nerhibentur. Strabo. 


Her priests were also called Corybantes ; because 
in the sacrifices of their goddess they tossed their 
heads and danced, and butted with their foreheads 
like rams, after a mad fashion. Thus, when they 
initiated any one into their sacrifices, "^they, placed 
him in a chair, and danced- about him like fools. 

Another name of her priests was Telchines. 
These were famous magicians and enchanters ; and 
they came from Crete to Cyprus, and thence into 
Rhodes, which latter island was called Telchines 
from them. Or, if we believe others, they were de- 
serving men, and invented many arts for the good of 
the public, and first set up the statues and images of 
the gods. 

The Cabiri, or Caberi, so called from Cabiri, 
mountains of Phrygia, were either tlie servants of 
the gods, or gods themselves, or rather daemons, or 
the same with the Corybantes ; for the people's 
opinions concerning them are different. 

The Idcei Dactyli were the servants and assistants 
of Magna Mater ; called Idcci from the mountain Ida, 
Vvhere they lived ; and Dactyli from the fingers, for 
the priests were ten, like the fingers : they served 
Rhea every where, and in every thing, as if they 
were finders to her. f Yet many affirm, that there 
were more than ten. 


How were the sacriiices of Cybele celebrated ? 
What peculiar rites were observed in them ? 
W hy were the box and pine sacred to Cybele ? 
On what condition was Atys made president of her rites, and 
what happened to him on his breaking his vow ? 
Who was the ti-ue Atys, and what is his history ? 
What property belonged to the river Gallus? 
What was the origin of the word " gallantes ?" 

Av6 rou KO'.uTTiiv, a cornibus feriendo, et flalmv incedendO> 
Strabo. 1. 1. Plato in Eiitliid. 
I Qi-a^( 



What other names have been given to the priests of Cybele ? 

From what did the Curetes derive their name ? 

From what circumstance were the Corybantes named ? 

Who were the Telchines ? 

Who were (he Cabiri ? 

Who was the Idaei Dactyli ? 



Ceres is a tall majestic lady; who stands beau- 
tified with yellow hair, and crowned with a turban 
composed of the ears of corn ; her bosom swells with 
breasts as white as snow ; her right hand is full of 
poppies and ears of corn, and in her left is a lighted 
torch. She is the daughter of Saturn and Ops ; 
whose singular beauty made the gods themselves her 
lovers and admirers. Her brothers Jupiter and Nep- 
tune fell m love with her. She had Proserpine by 
Jupiter. And by Neptune it is uncertaian whether 
she was the mother of a daughter, or a horse called 
Ancn. Upon the mountain -(Eleus, in Arcadia, an 
al-n • was dedicated to Ceres ; her image had the 
body of a woman, but the head of a horse ; it re- 
ma led perfect and entire in the midst of fire. Yet 
others have told us that Ceres did not bring forth. 
a horse, but a daughter. The Arcadians thought it a 
wielded thing to call this daughter by any other 
name' than " the lady," or "the great goddess,*' 
ivhirh were the usual names of her mother Ceres. 

Ctjes was greatly ashamed of this disgrace, an<J 
testified her sorrow by the mourning clothes which 
she afterwards wore ; ' whence she was named Meloe- 
na, MeXsctvfi nigra; she retired into the dark recess- 
es'of a cave, where she lay so privately that none of 



the gods knew where she was, till Pan, the god of the 
woods, discovered her by chance, and told Jupiter ; 
who, sending the Fates to her, persuaded her at last 
to lay aside her grief, and rise out of the cave, 
which was a happy and joyfid thing for all the world. 
For in her absence a great infection reigned through- 
out all sorts of hving creatures, which sprang from 
the corruption of the fruits of the earth, and the gra- 
naries every where. She is the goddess of the fruits, 
and her name is derived *from the care which she 
exerts in producing or preserving them. It is sup- 
posed that she first invented and taught the art of 
tilling the earth, and sowing corn, and of making 
bread therewith, v/hen before mankind only ate 

"Prima Ceres nnco glebam dimovit aratro, 
Prima dedit fruges alimeiitaqiie mitia terris, 
Prima dedit leges. Cereris sunt omnia munus." 

Ceres was ehe who first onr furrows plough'd : 
Who gave sweet fruits, and easy food allow'd. 
Ceres first tam'd us with her gentle laws ; 
From her kind hand the world subsistence draws. 

This may be learned from Ovid, who tells us that 
Ceres was the first that made laws, provided whole- 
some food, and taught the art of husbandry, of 
ploughing and sowing. 

For, before her time, the eartii lay r<>iigh and un- 
cultivated, covered with briers and unprofitable 
plants ; when there wej'e no proprietors of land, they 
neglected to cultivate it } when nobody had any 
ground of his own, they did not care to fix land- 
marks ; but all things were common to all men, till 
Ceres, who had invented the art of husbandry, 
laught men how to exercise it ; and then they began 

* Ceres dicitur quasi Ceres a gerendis fmctibus : aut quasi Ser 
rens, vel ab antique verbo Cereo, quod idem est ac Creo, quo4 
eunc.taruia fruguna ereati'ix sit et. altrix, Cic. JVat. Deo. £. 



to contciiJ and dispute abont the limits of those 
fields fro'.i the culture of which the}' reaped so much 
profit ; and hence it was necessary that laws should 
be enacted to determine the rights and properties of 
those who contended. For this reason Ceres was 
named the foundress of laws : and hence she is 
crowned with corn. 

1. Ceres is beautiful and well shaped ; because 
the earth, which she resembles, appears beautilul 
and delightful to the beholders ; especially when it 
is arrayed with plants, diversified with trees, adorn- 
ed with flowers, enriched with fruits, and covered 
with greens ; when it displf^ys the honours of spring, 
and pours forth the gifts of autumn with a bountiful 

2. Her hair is 3 ellow, and when the ears of corn 
are ripe, they are adorned with a golden colour. 

3. Her breasts swell with milk, whence she is 
styled Mammosa sometimes, ^because, after the earth 
is impregnated with seed, and big with the fruit 
thereof^ it brings forth all things out of itself in 
abundance, and like a mother, feeds and nourishes 
us 5 and hence she is called fAlma, and JAltrix 

4. She holds a lighted torch, because, when Pro- 
serpine was stolen away by Pluto, her mother || Ce- 
res was greatly afriicted at die loss of her daughter, 
and. being very desirous to find her again, she kind- 
led her torches with the flames which burst from the 
mountain Mtn^ ; and with them sought her daughter 
through the whole world. 

5. She carries poppy, because, when through 
grief she could not obtain the least rest or sleep, Ju- 
piter gave her poppy to eat : for this plant is endu- 
ed with a power to cause sleep and forgetfulness. 
Her grief was a little allayed by sleep, but she for- 

* Cic. Nat. Deor. 2 and 3. t Virg. Geo. 1. 
$ Cic. Nat. Deor. 2. 1| Cic. ia Verrem. 


got not her loss, and, after many voyages and jour- 
neys, she at last heard where Proserpine was ; as we 
shall hear m its proper place. 

We often see a young man sitting in a chariot 
drawn by flying serpents. It is TripLolemns, in the 
chariot which Ceres gave him. He was the fton of 
Celeus, king of Eleusis in Attica. Ceres brought 
him up from his infancy, upon this occasion : while 
she was seeking Proserpine by sea and land, upon 
the way she came into the city Eleusis, where king 
Celeus entertained her ; whose kindness she requited 
by bringing up his young son, whom, in the day time 
she fed with celestial and divine xnilk, but in the 
night covered him all over with fire. The child in 
a few days became a beautiful 3'oung man by this 
extraordinary manner of education. IMeganira,^ his 
mother, greatly wondering at this speedy progress, was 
very desirous to know how Ceres dealt with her son ; 
she therefore looked through a small hole, and saw 
Ceres cover her son Triptolemus with burning coal. 
This affrighted her so, that she cried out that Ceres 
was murdering her son ; and ran into the room to save 
him. Ceres punished her imprudent curiosity with 
death ; then putting Triptolemus into a splendid cha- 
riot, she sent him throughout the world, to show 
mankind the use* of corn. He executed her com- 
mands so faithfully, and taught men the art of hus- 
bandry, of sowing, reaping, and of thrashing the 
corn so well, that hence he obtained his name *Trip- 
tolemus, Ovid gives us an excellent description of 
this in the fifth book of his jMetamorphoses. 

Ceres once changed a boy into a lizard : for, be- 
ing very weary with travelling, and thirsty, she came 
to a cottage, and begged a little water to wash her 
mouth, of an old woman that lived there ; the old 
woman not only gave her water, but also barley 

* Triptolemus dictitur quasi Tpi^xf rxs v>.a.i^ id est, hordeum 
terens. Hygiu. fac. 147. 


broth ; which, wl:en the godtless took greedil}', the 
woman's son, Stellio, a saucy bo}, mocked her. 
This so raised Ceres' indignation, that in a rage she 
flung some of the broth into the boy's face, who was 
thereby changed hito an evet, or lizard. 

We may notice here Erisichthon, w^io, in con- 
tempt of the sacrifices of Ceres, defiled her groves, 
and cut down one of her oaks ; for which he was 
punished w^ith perpetual hunger : so that, when he 
has devoured ail the meat and food which he can by 
any means procure, he is forced to eat his own flesh 
to support his body ; and to bring upon himself a 
horrible death, the better to sustain life. 

Among all the Cerealia, or sacrifices instituted to 
the honour of Ceres, these which follow are the chief: 

1. The Eleusian mysteries Avere of two sorts,* 
the greater and the lesser ', one qualification requisite 
to both was to be able to keep a great secret. Though 
Triptolemus had appointed that no stranger should 
be initiated into the great mysteries, yet Hercules, 
to whotii they dlirst Jrnise nothing, demanded to be 
admitted to them, and upon his account other cere- 
monies were instituted, which they called the lesser 
mysteries, and these were celebrated afterwards at 
Apra and Athens. Those who were ambitious to be 
admitted to them, repaired to this place in the month 
of iVovember, sacrificed to Jupiter, and kept the 
skins of the victims to lay upon their feet when they 
w^ere purified upon the banks of the river Ilissus. 
We know not exactly what sort of ceremonies were 
made use of in those purifications. These lesser 
mysteries served as a preparation for the greater 

* I\Ir. Tooke is very brief on the subject of the Elensiiilan 
mysteries, which were the most important mentioried in the 
history of the ancient rites ; and as many fancy that the an- 
cient order of free Masonry is a branch of the Elensinian order,^ 
we have thohtcht proper here to j^ive a more full account of 
these rerealia than can be found in any edition of Tooke's Pan- 
tfaean heretofore published, jim. Ed. 


ones, which were celebrated at Eleusis; and by 
tlielr means persons were itiitiated into the secret ce- 
remonies of Ceres. After having- passed through a 
good many trials, the person was Mystes, that is, 
qualified for being very soon initiated into the great- 
er Mysteries, and to become Epoptes, or the witness 
of the most secret mysteries, which were not procu- 
red till after five years probation ; durin.g which he 
might enter into the vestibule of the temple, but not 
into the sanctuary. 

When one was initiated, he was introduced by 
night ii;to the temple, after having his hands wash- 
ed at the entr\', and a crown of myrtle put upon him. 
Then was opened a little box wherein were the laws 
of Ceres, and the ceremonies of her mysteries ; and 
after having given him these to read, he was made 
to transcribe them. A slight repast, in memory of 
that wiiich the goddess had got from Baubo, suc- 
ceeded this ceremony ; after which the IMystes en- 
tered into the sanctuary, over which the priest drew 
the veil, and then all was in darkness in the twink- 
Ihig of ai> eye. A bright light succeeded and ex- 
liibited to view the statue of Ceres magnificently 
adorned ; and while they were attentive in consider- 
ing it, the light again disappeared, and all was once' 
more wrapped in profound darkness. The peals of 
thunder that were hQard, the lightnings that flashed 
from all hands, the thunder that broke in the midst 
of the sanctuary-, and a thousand monstrous figures 
that appeared on all sides, filled the initiated with 
horror and consternation ; but the next moment a 
calm succeeded, and there appeared in broad day 
light a charming meadow, where all came to dance 
and make merry together. 

It is probable that this meadow was in a place en- 
closed with walls behind the sanctuary of the temple, 
which they opened all of a sudden, when the day- 
light was let in ; aiid this scene appeared the more 

. 156 

agreeable, that it succeeded a iilglit wlien nuthing 
but doleful and hideous objects were to be seen. 
There it»was tliat amidst Jollity and mirth, all the 
secrets of the mysteries were revealed. But after all, 
we know not well what passed there, these myste- 
ries having been long kept an impenetrable secret ; 
and had it not been for some libertines, who got 
themselves initiated in order to divulge them, they 
had never been brought to light. In both the greater 
and the lesser, a perpetual and wonderful silence was 
observed : to publish any thing concerning them was 
a crime, hence came the proverb concerning silent per- 
sons, ATr«x.« E^evcriva [^Attico Eleusina,'] and the word 
mysterium signifies a " religiqus rite," irom/>cva [muo^ 
OS claudo. This much is true, that the greatest 
modesty, and even a pretty severe chastity was ex- 
acted from the mysta:? and women who presided 
over the feasts of this goddess. The purifications 
and oblation tliat were practised, would make one 
imagine they were not so dissolute as some authors 
have alleged ; unless we will say that the abuses 
which the fathers of the church speak of were not 
in the primitive institution, but had only crept into 
them afterwards. This night being spent in these 
ceremonies, the priest dismissed the assembly with 
some barbarous words, which showslthat they had 
been instituted by people who spoke another lan- 
guage, namely, by the Egyptians. 

After having spoke of the initiated, we must, be- 
fore we be done, say something of the ministers who 
officiated in the festivals. The first was a Hiero- 
phantes or a Mystagogos, that is, a man who shows 
the sacred things, and the initiated were not per- 
mitted to mention his name to the profane. The 
second was a Daduchus, or 2'orch-Bearer, The 
third a Sacred Htrald. The fourth a Minister of 
the Altar ; this was a young man who put up pray- 
ers in behalf of the assembly, and was subject to the 


superior ministers. Besides these four ministers 
there were two prophets to do sacrificey and five 
delegates, to see that all things were performed in 
on-der ; the first was called the king, and the other 
four Epimeletes. 

The Thesmophoria was instituted by Triptole- 
mns ; and those women who vowed perpetual chas- 
tity were initiated in them. For some days a fast 
was kept ; and wine was altogether banished from 
her altar ; whence this expression came, Cereri nujp- 
tias fcicere, which (among the ancients) signifies a 
feast where there was no wine. Swine were sacri- 
ficed to this goddess, because they hurt the fruits of 
the earth : 

•Prima Ceres avida? gavisa est sanguine porcae, 
Ulta suas merita ca^de nocentes opes." Ovid Fast. 1. 

Ceres Avith blood of swine we best atone, 
Which thus requite the mischief they have done. 

And garlands, composed of ears of corn, were of- 
fered to her : 

' " Flava Ceres, tibi sit nostro de rure corona 

Spicea, quae templi pendeat ante fores." Tibullus. 

To thee, fair goddess, we'll a garland plait 
Of ears of corn, to adorn thy temple gate 

Ambarvalia were instituted to purge the fields, 
and to beg fi'uitfulness and plenty. They were so 
called, because the sacrifices were led about the fields; 
as the suburbs \amhurhici\ were esteemea sacred, 
because the sacrifice was carried round the city. 
These sacrifices were performed by husbandmen, 
who carried a sow witJi young, or a cow-calf, through 
the corn and the ha\;, in the beginning of harvest, 
thrice ; the countrymen following him with dancing 
and leaping, and acclamations of joy, till all the 
fields rung with the noise. In the mean time, one 


0f tliem, adorned with a crown, sung the praises of 
Ceres ; and after they had offered an oblation of 
wine mixed witli honey and milk before the}^ began 
to reap, they sacrificed the cow to her. The rites of 
the Ambarvalia are beautifully described by Virgil t 

" Can eta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret : 
Cui tii lacte fav'os, et miti dilue Baccho, 
Terque novas circum felix eat hostia fniges ; 
Omnis quam chorus ot socii comitantur ovantes, 
Et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta : neque ante 
Falcem maturis quisqimrn supponat aristis, 
Quani Cereri, torta redimitus tempera quercu, 
Det motus incompositos, et carmina dicat." Geo:. 1. 

Let ev'ry swain adore her power divine, 
And milk and honey mix witli sparkling wine: 
Let all the choir of clowns attend this show, 
In long procession, shouting as they go; 
Invoking her to bless their yearly stores. 
Inviting plenty to their crowded floors. 
Thus in the spring, and thus in summer's heat, 
Before the sickles touch the ripning wheat, 
On Ceres call ; and let the lab'ring hind 
With oaken wreaths his hollow temples bind : 
On Ceres let him call, and Ceres praise, 
WitlrVincouth dances, and with country-lays. 


How is Ceres represented ? 

Who is she, and who were her brothers ? 

What kind of altar was dedicated to her on the moUntaib 
iEleus ? 

What were the usual names of her mother Ceres r 

Why wiis she named Melaena? 

Where did she conceal herself; wIk) discovered her ; and who 
persuaded her to come out of her retirement ? 

What happened to the world duriug her absence ? 

What inventions are ascribed to her? 

In what respects does she resemble the earth ? 

Why does she carry a poppy ? 

What is the history of Triptolemus ? 

What is the history of Stellio ? 

What is the history of Erisichthon ? 

What were the Eleusinia '' 

From what is the word " mystery" derived? 

Who instituted the Thesraophoria, and who were initiated 111. 
him I 

p. I,H* 


Why were the Ambarvalia iiislitiited ? 

Repeat the lines from Virgil in w hi^h these sacrifices are '4e 



The muses are nine virgins, crowned with palms ;.. 
their dress is decent and hecoming. They sit to- 
gether in the shade of a laurel arbour. Some of them 
play on the harp, some upon the cithern, some upon 
the pipe, some upon the C3'mbal, and some harmo- 
niously sing and play at once. Methinks I hear 
them with united minds, voices, and hands, make an 
agreeable concord arise from their different instru- 
ments, governing their several voices in such a man- 
ner as to produce the most noble harmony. 

They are the mistresses of all the science!, the 
presidents of the musicians and poets, and the go- 
vernors of the feasts and solemnities of the gods. 
They are the daughters of Jupiter and the nymph 
Mnemosyne, and were born on the mountain Pieri- 
us. Some affirm that they had other parents, and 
ancient writers say, that they lived before Jupiter, 
and were the daughters of Coelum. They are call- 
ed the daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne (which 
in Gieek signifies " memory,") because all students 
and scholars ought not only to have great ingenuity, 
but ready memories. 

The MuscC were formerly called Mosae, and 
were so named from a ^Greek word that signifies 
*• to inquire," because men, by inquiring of them 

• 'Aira 7a y.uaa.ty id estj ab inquirendo. Plato in Cratylo. 


learn the thing's of which they were before ignorant. 
But others say, they had their name from *their 
resemblance, because there is a similitude, and an 
affinity and relation between all the sciences ; in 
which they agree, and are united with one another. 
Wherefore the Muses are often painted with their 
hands joined, dancing in a ring ; in the middle of 
them sits Apollo, their commander and prince. The 
pencil of nature described them in that manner upon 
the agate which Pyrrhus, who made war against the 
Romans, wore in a ring ; for in it was a representa- 
tion of the nine Muses, and Apollo holding a harp : 
and these figures w ere iiot delineated by art, but by 
the spontaneous handywork of nature : and the 
veins of the stone were formed so regularly, that 
every Muse had her particular distinction. 

They had each a name derived from some parti- 
cular accomplishment of their minds or bodies. 

The first, Calliope, was so called from fthe sweet- 
ness of her voice ; she presides over rhetoric, and is 
esteemed the most excellent of all the nine. 

The second, CHo, is so named from Jglory. For 
she is the historical Muse, and takes her name from 
the excellence of the things she records. 

The third, Erato, has her name from §love, be- 
cause she sings of amours, or because learned men 
are beloved and praised by others. She' is also 
called Saltatrix; for she first invented the art of 
dancing, over which she presided. She wa« also 
the inventress of poetry. 

The fourth, Thalia, from ||her gayety, briskness, 

* Muffett, quasi e/i.oi'ovffz:, id est similes. Cassiodor. 

f 'Arc T»5 xeiXyis oTm a suavitate vocis. 

'AW9 r» xXesj, a gloria sc. rerum gestarum quas memo. Scho!. 
Ap. 1. 

§ 'A^to rv ipuTo?, ab more. Ovid Art. Am. 3. 

II 'Awa <r»J9-aAX£«v. id est. virere. gevmiuare ; et florere, Procl- 
»n Hesiod. 


and pleasantry. Some ascribe to her the invention 

of comedy, others of geometry. 

The fifth, Melpomene, from *ihe excellency of her 

song and the melody she makes when she sings. 

She is supposed to have presided over tragedy, and 

to have invented sonnets. 

The sixth, Terpsichore,-f has her name from the 

pleasm'e she takes in dancing, because she delights 

in balls. Some call her Citharistria. 

The seventh, Euterpe, or Euterpia, from {the 

sweetness of her singing. Some call her Tibicina, 

because, according to them, she presides over the 

pipes : and some say logic was invented by her. 
The eighth, Polyhymnia, or Polymnia, or Poly- 

menia, from §her excellent memory : and therefore 

the invention of writing history is attributed to her, 
which requires a good memory. It was owing to 
her, II that the songsters add to the verses that they 
sing, hands and fmgers which speak more than the 
tongue ; an expressive silence ; a language witliout 
words 5 in short, gesture and action. 

The ninth, *f[Urania, was so called either because 
^he sings of divine things ; or because, through her 
assistance, men are praised to the skies, or because, 
by the sciences, they become conversant in the con- 
templation of celestial things. 

Bahusius, a modern poet, has comprised the names 
of all the Muses in a distich ; that is, he has made 
the nine Muses to stand, which is something strange, 
but upon eleven feet. Perhaps ^^ou-will rememjjer 

* A /iciX-srsfAui canto et modalor, vcl xsro m f^iXo? wauv con- 
centum facere. 

t ' A.'^o TipcTiiv TOii ^opots quod clioreis delectetui*. 

t Ab ivripz!Tyi;, jucunda nempe in concentu. 

§ AzjoXvi multus et (/.viiu. memoria. 

II Quod carminibus addstce sint orchestrarum loquacissimas ma- 
nus, linquosi digit!, silentium clamosum, eipositio tacita, imo 
verbo gestus et actio. 

H Atto tk » «v», a cckIo. 


their names better, when they are thus joined tO* 
gether m two verses : 

" Calliope, Polymneia, Erato, Clio, atque Thalia, 
Melpomene, Euterpe, Terpsichore, Urania." /. 4. ep. 1. 

The most remarkable of the names which are com- 
mon to them all are : 

Heliconides, or Heliconiades, from the mountain 
Helicon, in Boeotia. 

Parnassides, from the mountain Parnassus, in 
Phocis, which has two heads, where, if any person 
slept, he presently became a poet. It was anciently 
called Larnassus, from Larnace, the ark of Deu- 
calion, which rested here, and was named Parnassus 
after the flood, from an inhabitant of this mountain^ 
so called. 

Citherides, or Citheriades, from the mountain Ci- 
theron, where they dwelt. 

Aonides, from the country Aonia. 

Pierides, or Pieriae, fom the mountain Pierus, oj» 
Pieria, in Thrace ; or from the daughters of Pierius 
and Anippe, who, daring to contend with the Muses, 
were changed into pies, 

Pegasides and Hippocrenides, from the famous 
fountain Helicon, which by the Greeks is called 
*Hippocrene, and by the Latins, f Caballinus, both 
which words signify the horse's fountain : it was 
also named Pegaseius, from Pegasus, the winged 
horse, wliich by striking a stone in this place with 
liis foot, opened the fountain, Jand the waters be- 
came vocal. 

Aganippides, or Aganippeae, from the fountarij 

Castalides, from the fountain Castalius, at the- 
foot of Parnassus, . 

*» Al) tzB-sros eques, et xpnvn fons, 

t Caballinus, a Caballus, id eat, equal!* 

i Ovid Met. 6. 


Some write, that there were but three in the Le'« 
^nnmg ; because sound, out of whicli all singing is 
^ormed, is naturally threefold : either made by the 
voice alone ; or by blowing, as ui pipes, or by 
striking, as in citherns or drums* Or it may be. 
because there are three tones of tlie voice, or other 
instruments, the bass, the tenor, and the treble. Or 
lastly, because all the sciences are distributed into 
three general parts ; philosophy, rhetoric, and ma- 
thematics ; and each of these parts is subdivided 
into three other parts ; philosophy into logic, ethics, 
and physics ; rhetoric into the demonstrative, de* 
liberative, and judicial kind : mathematics into mu- 
sic, geometry, and arithmetic : and hence it came 
to pass, that they reckoned not only Three Muses, 
but Nine. 

Others give a diilerei " reason why tiiey are Nine. 
When the citizens of Sicyon appointed thiee skilful 
artificers to make the statues of the Three Muses, 
promising to choose those three statues out of the 
jiine which tiiey liked best, they were all so well 
made that they could not tell which to prefer ; so 
that they bought them all, and placed them in the 
temples : and Hesiod afterward assigned to them 
the names mentioned above. 

Some affirm tiiat they were virgins, and others 
deny it, who reckon up their children. Let no per- 
son, however, despise the Muses, unless he design 
to bring destruction upon himself by the example of 
Thamyras or Thamyris ; who, being conceited of 
his beauty and skill In singing, presumed to chal- 
lenge the Muses to sing, upon condition, that if he 
was overcome, they should punish him as they pleas- 
ed. And after he was overcome, he was deprived 
at once both of his harp and his eyes. 

Qf/£5r/0J\'6 FOR EX,9MmATI0JY. 

Who are the Muses, and how are they dressed f- 
What is their employment ? 


. Over what do they preside ? 

^Vho weie their parents, and why are they called daughters 
of Jupiter and Mnemosyne ? 

Why were they tornierly called Mosse ? 

How were the Muses represented on Pyrrhus' I'ing" 

From what were tlieir names derived? 

How did Calliope derive her name ? 

Who was Clio ? 

What does Erato derive her name from ? 

Why is Thalia st> called ? 

What are the peculiar excellencies of Melpomene and Terpsi 
4*,hore ? 

In what. does Euterpe excel ? 

From what does Polyhymnia derive her name ? 

Why was Urania so named? 

■Repeat the distich of Bahusias. 

Give some account of the names common to all the Muses. 

How many Muses were there at first, and how were the three 
Convei't?d into iXine ? 

What other reason is given ? 

What should the exampl9 of Thamyris teach ? 



Are three goddesses, who contrive and consult 
together on affairs of great moment. 

Thernis, the first of them, is the daughter of Coe- 
lum and Terra. According to the ^signification of 
her name, her office is to instruct mankind to do 
things honest, Just, and right. Therefore her images 
were brought and placed before those who were 
about to speak to the people, that they might be ad- 
monished thereby to say nothing in public but what 
was just and righteous. Some say she spoke ora- 
cles at Delphi, before Apollo ; though Homer says, 
that she served Apollo with nectar and ambrosia, 
i'here was another Themis, of whom Justice, Law, 

* &ift,is enim siguificat fas. 


and Peace, are said to be born. Hesiod, by way 
of eminence, calls her modest, because she was 
ashamed to say any thing that was done against 
right and equity. Eusebius calls her Carmenta; 
^because by Jier verse and precepts she directs eve- 
ry one to that which is just. But here he means a 
different Carmenta, who was the mother of Evander, 
otherwise called Themis Nicostrata, a prophetical 
lady. She was worshipped by the Romans, because 
she prophecied ; and was called Carmenta, either 
from the verse in which she uttered her predictions,' 
or from the madness which seemed to possess her 
when she prophecied. To this lady an altar was 
dedicated near the gate Carmentalis, by the Capi- 
tol ; and a temple was also built to her honour upon 
this occasion : When the senate forbade the married 
women tlie use of litters or sedans, they combined 
together, and resolved that they would never bring 
children, unless their husbands rescinded that edict ; 
they kept to this agreement with so much resolution, 
that the senate was obliged to change their sentence, 
and yield to the women's will, and allow them all se- 
dans and chariots again. And when their wives 
conceived and brought f3rth fine children, they 
erected a temple in honour of Carmenta. 

Astreea, the daughter of Aurora and Astrseus the 
Titan, (or, as others say, the daughter of Jupiter 
and Themis,) was esteemed the princess of Justice. 
The poets feign, that in the Golden Age she de- 
scended from heaven to the earth ; and being of- 
fended at last by the wickedness of mankind, she 
returnt^d to heaven again, after all tlie gods had 
gone before her. She is many times directly called 
by the name of Justitia ; as particularly by Virgil. 
And when she had returned to heaven again, she 
was placed where we now see the constellation Virgo. 

* Quod carminibus edictisqiie suis pra?cipiat unicuique quod 
mstum est. Eusub. Prcep. Evang. I. 3. 


*rhe parents of Nemesis were Jupiter and Neces- 
f;ity ; or, according to others, Nox and Oceanus. 
She was the goddess that rewarded virtue, and pun- 
ished vice : and she taught rnen their duty, so that 
she received her name '^from the distribution that 
she made to every body. Jupiter deceived her, as 
the story says, in the shape of a goose ; and that 
slie b]-ought forth an ec;g, which she gave to a shep- 
herd whom she met, to be carried to Leda. Leda 
laid up the egg in a box, and Helena was soon af- 
ter produced of that G^^g- But others give us quite 
diilerent accounts of the matter. The Romans cer- 
tainly sacrificed to this goddess, when they went 
to war ; whereby the}^ signified that they never took 
up arms unless in a just cause. She is called by 
another name, Adrastsea, from Adrastus, king of 
the Argives, who first built an altar to her ; or, per- 
haps from f the difficulty of escaping from her : be- 
cause no guilty person can flee from the punishment 
due to his crime, though Justice sometimes over- 
takes him late. She has indeed wings, but does not 
alwa^^s use them ; but then the slower her foot is, 
the harder is her hand : 

''' Ad scclerum pcenas ultrix venit ira tonantis, 
Hoc graviore uiauu, quo graviore pede." 

Vengeance divine to punish sin moves slow, 
The slower is its pace, the surer is its blow. 

Rhamnysia is another name of this goddess ; from 
Rhamnus, a town in Attica, where she had a tem- 
ple, in \\ hich there was a statue of her made of one 
stone, ten cubits high ; she held the bough of an ap- 
ple-tree in her hand, and had a crown upon her 

* Aw<5 TK utaffTHimnv i/z^ffiui, a distributione qua^ uniculque sit. 
Plato de Legilms Dial. 

t Ab a non et l.if.rzffx.oj fugio, quod videlicet neiijO noceuotti 
e.ffu^ere queat po.'iium suit scele'ibus dcbilam,- 

head, in which many images of deer were engraven. 
She had also a wheel, which denoted her swiftness 
when she avenges. 


Who are the goddesses that are consulting together on im- 
portant bujwness ? 

Who was Themis ; and what was her business ; and why were 
her images placed before public speakers ? 

Who were the children of the other Themis ? 

Why was Themis styled modest by Hesiod ; and Carmenta by 
Xusebins ? 

Why was a temple erected in honour of Carmenta ? 

Who was Astriea ? 

Who were the parents of Nemesis ? 

What did the Romans sacrifice to her.? 

Why was she called Adrastaea ? 

Why is she named Rhamnusia ? 



We are now come to the images of the gods and 
goddesses of the woods. Here you may see the 
gods Pan, Silvanus, the Faimi, the Satyri, SilenuSj 
Priapus, Aristceus, and Terminus. 

And there you see the goddesses, Diana, Pales, 
Flora, Feronia, Pomona, and an innumerable com- 
pany of Nymphs. 

Pan is called by that name, either, as some tell 
us, because he exhilarated the minds of all the gods 
with the music of the pipe, v/hich he invented ; and 
by the harmony of the cithern, upon which he play- 
ed skilfully as soon as he was born. Or, perhaps, 
he is called Pan, because he governs the afiairs of 


the universal world by liis mind, as he represents it 
by his body. 

The Latins called him Iniius and Incubus, the 
" nightmare ;" and at Rome he was worshipped, 
and called Lupercus and Lyceus. To his honour 
a temple was built at the foot of the Palatine hill, 
and. festivals called Lupercalia were instituted, in 
which his priests, the Luperci, ran about the streets 

His descent is uncertain, But the common opinion 
IS, that he was born of Mercury and Penelope. 
For when Mercury fell violently in love with her, 
and tried in vain to move her, at last, by changing 
himself into a white goat, succeeded. Pan, after he 
was born, was wrapt up in the skin of a hare, ai;d 
carried to heaven. 

He is represented as a horned half goat, that re- 
sembles a beast rather than a man, much less a god. 
He has a smiling, ruddy face, his nose is flat, his 
beard comes down to his breast, his skin is spotted, 
and he has the tail, legs, and feet of a goat ; his 
head is crowned or girt about with pine, and he 
holds a crooked stall' in one hand, and in the other 
a pipe of uneven reeds, with the music of which he 
can cheer even the gods themselves. 

When the Gauls, under Brennus, their leader, 
made an irruption into Greece, and were just about 
to plunder the city Delphi, Pan, so terrific in ap- 
pearance, alarmed them to such a degree, that they 
all betook themselves to flight, though nobody pur- 
sued them. Whence we proverbially say, that men 
, are in panic fear, when we see them affrighted with- 
out a cause. 

Now hear what the image of Pan signifies. Pan 
is a symbol of the world. In his upper part he re- 
sembles a man, in his lower part a beast ; because 
the superior and celestial part of the world is beau- 
tiful, radiant, and glorious : as is the face of this 


^^ ^^. 



i .^ ^^-^- 






god, whose horns resemble the raj's of the sun, and 
the horns of the moon : the redness of his face is 
like the splendour of the skj ; and the spotted skin 
that he wears, is an image of the starry lirmament. 
In his lower parts he is shagged and deformed, 
which represents the shrubs and wild beasts, and the 
trees of the earth below : his goats' feet signify the 
solidity of the earth ; and his pipe of seven reeds, 
that celestial liarmony which is made by the seven 
planets. He has a sheep-hook, crooked at the top, 
in his hand, which signifies tke turning of the year 
mto itself. 

The nymphs dance to the music of tlie pipe; 
which instrument Pan first invented. You will won- 
der when you hear the relation wliich the poets give 
to this pipe, namely, as oft as Pan blows it, the 
dugs of the sheep are filled with milk : for he is the 
god of the shepherds and hunters, the captain of the 
nymphs, the president of the mountains and of a 
country- life, and the guardian of the flocks that 
graze upon the momitains : 

-'' Pan curat oves, oviumque magistros." 

Virg. Eel 2. 

Pan loves the sheplierds. and their flocks he feeds. 

The nymph Echo fell in love with him, and brought 
him a daughter named Irinc^es, who gave Medea 
the medicines with which he charmed Jason. He 
could not but please Dryope, to gain whom, he laid 
aside his divinity and became a shepherd. But he 
did not court the nymph Syrinx witli so much suc- 
cess : for she ran away to avoid, her lover; till 
coming to a river (where her flight was stopped,) 
she prayed the Naiades, the nymphs of the waters, 
because she could not escape her pursuer, to change 
her into a bundle of reeds, just as Pan was layiiig 
hold of lier, who therefore caught the reeds in hi? 


arms instead of her. The winds moving these reeds 
backward and forward occasioned mournful but mu- 
sical sounds, which Pan perceivhig, he cut them 
down, and made of them reeden pipes : 

" Dumque ibi susplrat, motos in arundine ventos 
Eifecisse sonum tenuerU; similemqne querenti. 
Arte nova, vocisque Deuin dulcedine captum, 
Hoc mihi concilium tecum, dixisse, manebit; 
Atque ita disparibus calamis compagine cerae 
Inter se junctis nomen tennisse puellae," 

He siglis, his sighs the tossing reeds return 

In soft small notes, like one that seem'd to mourn, 

The new, but ydeasant notes the gods surprise, 

Yet this shall make us friends at last, he cries: 

So he this pipe of reeds unecjual fram'd 

With wax ; and Syrinx from his mistress nam'd. 

But Lucretius ascribes the invention of these pipes 
not to Pan, but to some countrymen, who had ob- 
served, on another occasion, the whisthng of the wind 
through reeds : 

" Zepliyri cava per calamorum sibila primura: 

Agrestes docuere cavas in flare cicutas ; 

Inde minutatim dulces didicere querelas, 

Tibia quas fundit digitis pulsata canentum : 

Avia per ncmora ac sylvas saltusqtie reperta, 

Per loca pastorum deserta atque otia Dia." Lucr. 1. 5. 

And while soft ev'ning gales blew o'er the plains, 

And shook the sounding reeds, they taught the swains; 

And thus the pipe was framd, and tuneful reed: 

And while the tender flocks securely feed, 

And harmless shepherds tune their pipes to love * 

And Amaryllis sounds in ev'ry grove. 

In the sacrifices of this god, they offered to him 
milk and honey in a shepherd's bottle. He was 
more especially worshipped in Arcadia, for which 
reason he is so often called Pan, Dcus Arcadise. 

Some derive from him Hispania, Spain, formerly 
called Iberia ; for he lived there, when he returned 
from the Indian war, to which he went with Bacchus 
and the Satyrs. 


From -wliat does Pan derive iii:> nairve ? 

What was lie called by the Latins, and under what title was 
lie worshipped at iiome ? 

What is the origin of Pan r 

How is he represented ? 

What is the origin of the phrase " panic-struck?" 

What does the image of Pan signify? 

What instruments did he invent, and what occurs when he 
?)}ows his pipe ? 

What do'^s Lucretius say of the invention of the pipes ? 

Repeat the lines. 

What were used in the sacrifices of Fan ? 

W^hence is he derived ? 



Although many writers confound Silvanus the 
Fauni, Satyri, and Sileni, witJi Pan, yet, as others 
distinguish them, we shall treat of them separately^ 
and begin with Silvanus. 

Silvanus, who is placed next to Pan, with the feet 
of a goat, and the face of u man, of little stature. 
He holds cypress in his hand stretched out. He is 
so called from silva, the woods ; for he presides 
over them. He loved the boy Cyparissus, who had 
a tame deer, in which he took great pleasure. Sil- 
vanus by chance killed it ; upon which the youth 
died for grief. Therefore Silvanus changed him 
into a cypress-tree, and carried a branch of it always 
in his hand, in memory of his loss. 

Silenus follows next, with a flat nose, bald head, 
large ears, and a small flat body ; he derives his 
name from his jocular temper, because he perpetu- 
ally jests upon the people. He sits upon a saddle- 


backed ass : but when he walks, he leans upon a 
staff. He was foster-father to Bacchus his master, 
and his perpetual companion, and consequently was 
almost always drunk, as we find him described in the 
sixth Eclogue of Virgil. The cup which he and 
^Bacchus used, was called Cantharus; and a staff 
with which he supported himself, Ferula ; this he 
7.ised when he was so drunk, as it often happened, 
that he could not sit, but fell from his ass. 

The Satyrs were not only constant companions of 
Silenus, but were assistants to him ; they held him 
in great esteem, and honoured him as their father ; 
and when they became old, they were called Sileni 
too. And concerning Silenus' ass, they say, that 
be was translated into heaven, and placed among 
the stars ; because in the giant's war, Silenus rode 
on him, and helped Jupiter very much. 

* When Silenus was asked, " What was the best 
ihing that could befall man.^" he, after long silence, 
linswered, " It is best for all never to be born, but 
being born, to die very quickly." Which expres- 
sion Pliny reports nearly in the same words : f There 
have been many who have judged it happy never to 
have been born, or to die immediately after one's 


How is Silvanns represented? 
From what is his name derived ? 

Why is he represented with a branch of cypress in his hand? 
How is Silenus represented ? 
TVhat are his cap and stalF called ? 
Who were his companions ? 
What became of his ? 

What was the decision of Silenus with respect to the best 
thing that can befall man ? 

*Rogatus quidnam, esset hominibus optimum : respondit om- 
nibus esse optimum non nasci, et natos quam citissime inteire. 
Plut in Consolatione Apol. 

t Multi extitere qui non nasci, optimum censerunt, aut quara 
citissime aboleri. In Prefat. 1. 7 



Behold ! Those are Satyrs who dance under tlie 
shade of that tall and spreading oak ; they have 
heads armed with horns, goat's feet and legs, crook- 
ed hands, and tails not much shorter than horses' 
tails. There is no animal in nature more libidi- 
nous than these • gods. Their * name itself shows 
their nature. 

The Fauns, whom you see joined with the Satyrs, 
difler from them in the name only ; at least they are 
not unlike them in their looks : for they have hoofs 
and horns, and are crowned with the branches of 
the pine. When they meet drunken persons, they 
stupify them with their looks alone. The boors of 
the country call them the " rm-al gods ;" and pay 
them the more respect because they are armed with 
horns and nails, and painted in terrible shapes. 

Faunus, or Fatuellus, was the son of Picus, king 
of the Latins. He married his own sister, whose 
name was Fauna or Fatuella : he consecrated and 
made her priestess ; after which she had the gift of 
prophec}'. History likewise tells us that this Fau- 
nus was the father and prince of the other Fauns and 
Satyrs. His name was given him from his skill in 
prophecying ; and thence also fatus signifies both 
persons that speak rashly and inconsiderately, and 
enthusiasts ; because they who prophecy, deliver the 
mind and will of another, and speak things which 
themselves, many times, do not understand. 

Priapus, painted with a sickle in his hand, was 
the son of Venus and Bacchus, born at Lampsacus ; 
horn whence he was baiiished, till by the oracle'? 

* Satyras derivatur a.To ms 9a9rts a veretro. Euseb. Praep 


command lie was recalled, and made god. of the 
gardens, and crowned with garden herbs. He car- 
ries a sickle in his hand, to cut off from the trees all 
superfluous boughs, and to drive away thieves and 
beasts, and mischievous birds ; whence he is called 
Avistupor. His image is usually placed in gardens, 
as we may learn from Tibullus, Virgil, and Horace. 
He is called Hellespontiacus by the poets ; because 
the city Lampsacus, where he was born, was situ- 
ate upon the Hellespont. He was very deformed, 
which misfortune was occasioned by the ill usage 
that his mother suffered while pregnant, from Juno. 
He was named Priapus, Phallus, and Fascinum, 
from his deformity. All these names have an in- 
decent signification ; though by some he is called 
Bonus Daemon, or the good Genius. 

Aristaeus ; whom 3 ou see busied in that nursery of 
olives, supporting and improving the trees, is em- 
ployed in drawing oil from the olive, which art he 
first invented. He also found out the use of honey, 
and therefore, you see rows of bee-hives near him. 
For these two profitable inventions, the ancients 
paid him divine honours. 

He was otherwise called Nomius and Agrseus, and 
was the son of Apollo by Cyrene ; or, as Cicero 
says, the son of Liber Pater, educated by the nymphs, 
and taught by them the art of making oil, honey, 
and cheese. He fell in love with Euridice, the wife 
of Orpheus, and pursued her into a wood, where a 
serpent stung her so that she died. On this account 
the nymphs hated him, and destroyed ill his bees to 
revenge the death of Euridice. The loss was ex- 
ceedingly deplored by him ; and asking his mother's 
advice, he was told by the oracle that he ought by 
sacrifices to appease Euridice. Wherefore he sacri- 
ficed to her four bulls and four heifers, and his loss 
was supplied ; for suddenly a swarm of bees burst 
forth from, the carcases of the bulls. 


Another god, greatl}^ honoured in the city of 
Rome, is Termmiis, because they imagine that the 
boundaries and hmits of men's estates are under his 
protection. His name, and the divine honours paid 
to him by the ancients, are mentioned by Ovid, Ti- 
buUus, and Seneca. The statue of this god was 
either a square stone, or a log of wood planed; 
which they usually perfumed with ointment, and 
crowned with garlands. 

And, indeed, the Lapides Terminales (that is, 
" land-marks,") were esteemed sacred ; so that who- 
ever dared to move, or plough up, or transfer them 
to another place, his head became devoted to the 
Diis Terminahbus, and it was lawful for any body 
to kdl him. 

And further, though they did not sacrifice the lives 
of animals to those stones, because they though 
that it was not lawful to stain them \/ith l;iood; yet 
they offered wafer made of flour to them, and the first 
fruits of corn, and the like : and upon the last day 
of the year, they always observed festivals to their 
honour, called Terminalia. 


How are the Satyrs represented ? 

How are the Fauns represented, and what are they called l^ 
the country-boors ? 

What does history say of Faunus ? 

How did he obtain his name ? 

Who was Priapus, and where was he born ? 

How is he repre?ented, and for what is the sickle in bis hand? 

Wh}' was he called Hellespontiacus? 

Where is his ima^e placed ? 

W^hat is Aristaeus's einployment? 

What did he invent ? 

Why was he called Nomins? 

What is the story of Euridice ? 

How did Terminus derive his name ' 

What was his statue ? 

What is said of the Lapides 'x erminales ? 

What did tjtie ancients offer as sacrifices to these stones? 




Here comes a goddess, taller than the other god- 
desses, in whose virgin looks we may ease our eyes, 
which have been wearied with the horrid sight of 
those monstrous deities. Welcome, Diana ! your 
hunting habit, the bow in your hand, and the quiver 
full of arrows, which hang down irom your should- 
ers, and the skin of a deer fastened to your breast, 
discover who you are. Your behaviour, which is 
free and easy, but modest and decent ; your gar- 
ments, which are handsome and yet careless, show 
that you are a virgin. Your name indicates your 
modesty and honour. 

Acta?on, the son of Aristaeus, the famous hunts- 
man, unfortunately observing jou, whilst bathing, 
was changed into a deer, which was afterwards torn 
*in pieces by the dogs. 

Further honour is due to you; because you repre- 
sent the Moon, the glory of the stars, and the only- 
goddess who observed perpetual chastity. 

Nor am I ignorant of that famous and deserving 
action which you did to avoid the fl^iiTies of Alpheus, 
when yoti so hastily fled to your nymphs, who were 
altogether in one place ; and so besmeared both 
yourself and them with dirt, that when he came he 
4id not know you : whereby your honest deceit suc- 
ceeded according to your intentions ; and the dirt 
which injures every thing else, added a new lustre 
to your virtue. 

Diana is called Triformis and Tergemina. First, 
because though she is but one goddess, yet she has 
three different names, as well as three diflerent offi- 
ces. In the heaven* she is called Luiia> oi^ the 






earth she is named Diana ; and in hell she is called 
Hecate or Proserpine. In the heavens she enlight- 
ens every thing by her rays ; on the earth she keeps 
under her power all wild beasts by her bow and her 
dart ; and in hell siie keeps all the ghosts and the 
spirits in subjection to her by her power and au- 
thority. The several names and offices are com- 
prised in an ingenious distich : 

'' Terret, lustrat, agit ; Proserpina, Luna, Diana ; 
Ima, suprenia, feras ; sceptro, fulgore, sagitta." 

Dempier in Paralip. 

But although Luna, Diana, and Hecate, are com- 
monly thought to be only three diiFerent names of 
the same goddess, yet Hesiod esteems them three 
distinct goddesses. Secondly, because she has, as 
the poets say, three heads ; the head of a horse on 
the right side, of a dog on the left, and a human 
head in the midst : whence some call her three- 
headed, or three-faced. And others ascribe to her 
the Hkeness of a bull, a dog, and a lion. Virgil 
and Claudian also mention her. three countenances. 
Thirdly, according to the opinion of some, she is 
called Triformis, because the moon hath three phases 
or shapes : the new moon appears arched with a 
semicircle of light ; the half moon fills a semicircle 
with light ; and the full moon fills a whole circle or 
orb with its splendour. But let us examine these 
names more exactly. 

She is named Luna, from shining, either because 
she only in the night time sends forth a glorious 
light, or else because she shines by borrowed light, 
and not by her own ; and therefore the light with 
which she shines is always * new light. Her chariot 
is drawn with a white and a black horse; or with 
two oxen, because she has got two horns ; some- 

* Quod luce aliena splendeat, unde Graece dicitur :Ss^»?v57 a 
riXai niov^ id est, lumen novum. Id. ibid-. 


times a mule is added, because she has no children, 
and shines by tiie lii^litot'the sun. Some say, that 
Luna' oi' both sexes have been worshipped, especial- 
ly among the Egyptians ; and indeed they give this 
property to all the other gods. Thus both Lunus 
and Luna were worshipped, but with this difference, 
that those who worshipped Luna were thought sub- 
ject to the \\ omen, and those who worshipped Lunus 
were superior to them. We must also observe, that 
the men sacrificed to Venus, under the name of Luna 
in women's clothes, and the women in men's clothes. 

'This Luna had a lover who was named Endy- 
mion, and he was courted by her, insomuch, that 
to kiss him, she descended out of heaven, and came 
to the mountain Latmus, or Lathynius, in Caria ; 
he lay condemned to an eternal sleep by Jupiter ; 
because, when he was taken into heaven, he at- 
tempted to make love to Juno. In reality, Endy- 
mion was a famous astronomer, wlio first described 
the course of the moon, and he is represented sleep- 
ing, because he contemplated nothing but the plane- 
tary motions. 

Hecate may be derived from i>tx6£v \JiekaiJien] 
eminus ; because the moon darts her rays or ar- 
rows afar off. She Ts said to be the daughter of 
Ceres by Jupiter, who being cast out by her mo- 
ther, and exposed in the streets, was taken up by 
shepherds, and nourished by them j for which rea- 
son she was worshipped in the streets, and her 
«tatue was usually set before the doors of the houses, 
whence she took the name Prop} Isea. Others de- 
rive her name from Uarov [hecaioiC\ ccnium, because 
they sacrificed a hundred victims to her : or, be- 
cause, by her edict, those who die and are not buri- 
ed, wander a hundred years up and down hell. 
However, it is certain that she is called Trivia, from 
triviis, "the streets;" for she was believed to pre- 
side over the streets and ways ; so that they sacri- 


ficed to her in the streets ; and the Athenians, every 
new moon, made a sumptuous supper for her there, 
which was eaten in the night b}^ the poor people of 
the city. They say that she was excessively tall, 
her head was covered with fri?^htful snakes instead of 
hair, and her feet were like serpents. She was re- 
presented encompassed with dogs ; because that ani- 
mal was sacred to her ; and Hesychius sa3's, that 
she was sometimes represented b}^ a dog. We are 
told that she presided over enchantments, and that 
when she was called seven times she came to the 
sacrifices : as soon as these were finished, several 
apparitions appeared, called from her Hecatgea. 

She was called by the Egyptians, Bubastis ; her 
feasts were named Bubast<ie ; and the city where 
they were yearly celebrated was called Bubastis. 

She is called Chitone and Chitonia, * because 
women after childbirth used first to sacrifice to Ju- 
no, and then oiler to Diana their own and their chil- 
dren's clothes. 

She was named Dictynna, not only from the 
f nets which she used, for she was a huntress, and 
the princess of hunters (for which reason all woods 
were dedicated to her,) but also because Britomar- 
tis the virgin, whom she hunted ioil into the nets, 
and vowed, if she escaped, to br.rid a temple for 
Diana. She did escape, and then consecrated a 
temple to Diana Dictynna. Others relate the story 
thus • When Britomartis, whom Diana loved be- 
cause she was a huntress, fled from Minos her lover; 
and cast herself into the sea ; she fell into the fish- 
ermen's nets, and Diana made her a goddess. The 
ancients thought that Diana left off hunting on the 
ides of August, therefore at that time it was not 

^ XiTuvn. quasi tunicata a ;^triiv, tunica ; solebant enim fcBmi- 
nae partus iaboribus perfunctae Junoni sacriticare ; sues autem fit 
infantium vestes Dianae coiisecrare. Flat. 3. Symp. c. ult. 

t Retia enim hKurx dicuutur. 


lawful for ail}' one to hunt, but they crowned the 
dogs with garlands, and by the light of torches, 
made of stub])le, hung up the hunting instruments 
near them. 

We shall only adjoin, to what has been said, the 
-two stories of Chione and Meleager. 

Chione was the daughter of D?edalion, the son of 
Dsedalus : she was beloved by Apollo and Mercu- 
ry, and was the mother of twins ; namely, Philam- 
mon, a skilful musician, and Autolychus, who prov- 
ed a famous juggler, and an artful thief. Slie was 
so far from thinking this a shame, that she grew 
very proud ; nay, openly boasted, that her beauty 
had charmed two gods. Besides, she was so bold 
as to speak scornfully of Diana's beauty, and to pre- 
fer herself before her : but Diana punished the in- 
solence of this boaster, for she drew her bow, and 
shot an arrow through her tongue, and thereby put 
her to silence : 

Se prieferre Dianae 

Sustinuit, facienique Dece culpavit. At illi 
Ira ferox mota est, factisque placabimus, inquit, 
Nee mora curvavil cornu, nervusque saglttam 
Impulit, et ineritam trajecit arundine linguam." 

She to Diiuia's durst her face prefer, 

And blame her beauty. Wiih a cruel look, 

She said our deed shall right us. Forthwith took 

Her bow, and bent it ; which she strongly drew, 

And through her guilty tongue the arrow flew. 

Meleager was punished for the fault of his father 
Oeneus, who, when he offered his first fruits to the 
gods, wilfull}^ forgot Diana ; therefore she was an- 
gry, and sent a wild boar into the fields of his king- 
dom of Caledonia, to destroy them. Meleager, 
accompanied with many chosen youths, immediately' 
undertook either to kill this boar, or to drive him 
out of the country. The Virgin Atalanta was among 


the hunters, and gave the boar the first wound ; and 
soon after Meleager killed him. He valued Atalan- 
ta more who wounded him, than himself who killed 
him, and therefore oifered her the boar's skin. But 
the uncles of Meleager were enraged that the hide 
was given to a stranger, violently took it from her ; 
upon which Meleager killed them. As soon as his 
mother Althaea understood that Meleager had killed 
her brothers, she sought revenge like a mad woman. 
In Althaea's chamber was a billet, which, when Me- 
leager was born, the Fates took, and threw into the 
fire, saying. The new-born infant shall live as long 
as this stick remains unconsumed : 

" Tempora, dixerunt, eadem lignoque tibique, 
O modo nate, damns : quo postquam carmine dicto, 
Excessere Dex ; flagrantem mater ab igne 
Eripuit ramum, sparsitque liquentibus undis ; 
Servatusque diu juvenis servaverat annos." 

O lately born, one period we assign 

To thee and to the brand. The charm they weave 

Into his fate, and then the chamber leave. 

His mother snatch'd it with a hastv hand 

Out of the fire, and quench'd the flaming brand, 

This in an inward closet closely lays, 

And by preserving it prolongs his days. 

The mother snatched it out of the fire and quench- 
ed it, and laid it in a closet. But now, moved with 
rage, she goes to her chamber, and fetching the 
stick, she threw it into the fire : 

'' Dextraque aversa tremenfl, 

Funereum torrem raedios conjecit in ignes. 

With eyes turnd back, her quaking hand 

lo trembling flames exposd the fun'ral brand, 

As the log burned, Meleager, though absent, felt 
fire m his bowels, which consumed him in the same 
manner that the wood was consiuned ; and when at 


last the log was quite reduced to ashes, and the fire 
quenched, Meleager at the same time expired, and 
turned to dust. 


How is Diana described ? 

What is said of Actaeon ? 

Why does Diana represent the moon ? 

What is said of her with regard to Alpheus ? 

Why is she called Triformis ? 

How is she named in the heavens, in the earth, and in hell J 
and why so'^ 

Repeat the Latin distich. 

Why is she named Lunae ? 

How was Lunae worshipped among the Egyptians? 

What is said of Endymion ? 

What is said of Hecute ? 

Why was she called Trivia ? 

Why is she represented as encompassed with dogs ? 

Wliy is she called Bubastae, and why Brimo ? 

Why was she called Lucina and Opis ? 

Why was sh6 called Chitone ? 

Why Avas she named Dictynna ? 

Why did the ancients esteem it unlawful to hunt after the first 
of August ? 

Give some account of the stories of Chione and Meleager. 



That old lady, whom you see surrounded by 
shepherds, is Pales, the goddess of shepherds and 
pastures. Some call her Magna Mater and Vesta. 
To this goddess they sacrificed milk, and wafers 
made of millet, that she might make the pastures 
fruitful. They instituted the feasts called PaliKa, 
or Pariha, to her honour, which were observed upoa 
the eleventh or twelftli day of the calends of May 

183 . 

by the shepherds hi the field, on the same day iu 
which Romukis laid the foundation of the city. 
These feasts were celebrated to appease this god- 
dess, that she might drive away the wolves, and 
prevent the diseases incident to cattle. The so- 
lemnities observed in the Palilian feasts were many : 
the shepherds placed little heaps of straw in a par- 
ticular order, and at a certain distance ; then they 
danced and leaped over them ; then they purified 
the sheep and the rest of the cattle with the fume ot 
rosemary, laurel, sulphur, and the like ; as we learn 
from Ovid, who gives a description of the rites. 

" Alma Pales, faveas pastoria sacra canenti, 

Prosequar officio si tua facta meo. 

Certe ego de vitulo cinerem, stipulamque fabalem 

Saepe tuli, laeva, februa tosta, manu. 

Certe ego transilui positas ter in ordine flamma^, 

Virgoque rorales laurea misit aquas." 

Great Pales help ; the past'ral rites I sing, 

With humble duty mentioning each thing. • 

Ashes of calves, and bean-straws oft I've held, 

With burnt purgations in a hand well fiU'd. 

Thrice o'er the flames, in order rang'd, I've leapt, 

And holy dew my laurel twig has dript. 

Flora, so dressed and ornamented, is the god- 
dess and president of flowers. The Romans gave 
her the honour of a goddess, but in reality she was 
a woman of infamous character, who, by her abo- 
minable trade, heaped up a great deal of money, 
and made the people of Rome her heir. She left a 
certain sum, the yearly interest of which was settled, 
that the games called Florales, or Floralia, might 
be celebrated annually, on her birth-day. But be- 
cause this appeared impious and profane to the se- 
nate, they covered their design, and worshipped 
Flora under the title of " goddess of flowers ;" and 
pretended that they oflered sacrifice to her, that the 
plants aad trees might flourish. 



Ovid follows the same fiction, and relates, that 
Chloris, an infamous nymph, was married to Ze- 
pbyrus, from whom she received the power over all 
the flowers. But let us return to Flora, and her 
games. Her image, as we find in Plutarch, was 
exposed in the temple of Castor and Pollux, dress- 
ed in a close coat, and holding in her right hand 
the flowers of beans and peas. For while these 
sports were celebrated, the officers, or sediles, scat- 
tered beans and other pulse among the people. 
These games were proclaimed and begun by sound 
of trumpet, as we find mentioned in Juvenal. — 
Sat, 6. 

Feronia, the goddess of the woods, is justly 
placed near Flora, the goddess of flowers. She 
is called Feronia, from the care she takes in * pro- 
ducing and propagating trees. The higher place 
is due to her, because fruits are more valuable than 
flowers, and trees than small and ignoble plants. 
It is said she had a grove sacred to her, under the 
mountain Soracte : this was set on fire, and the 
neighbours were resolved to remove the image Fe- 
ronia thence, when on a sudden the grove became 
green again. Strabo reports that those who were 
insp.. .d by this goddess, used to walk barefoot 
upon burning coals without hurt. Though many 
believed, that by the goddess Feronia, that kind of 
virtue only is meant, by which fruit and flowers 
were produced. 

Pomona is the goddess, the guardian, the presi- 
dent, not of the f apples only, but of all the fruit 
and the product of trees and plants. As you see, 
she follows after Flora and Feronia, in order ; but 
in the greatness of her merit she far surpasses them ; 
and has a priest who serves her only, called Flanien 

* Feronia a ferendis arboribus dicta. 
^ Fomoua a pomis dicitur. 


Onc€ when Pomona was very busy in looking af 
ter her gardens and orchards with great care, and 
was wholly employ ed in watering and securing the 
roots, and lopping the overgrown branches ; *Ver- 
tumnus, a principal god among the Romans, (called 
so because he had power to turn himself into what 
shape he pleased,) fell in love with Pomona, and 
counterfeited the shape of an old grey-headed wo- 
man. He came leaning on a staff into the gardens, 
admired the fruit and beauty of them, and commend- 
ing her care about them, he saluted her. He view- 
e<j the gardens, and from the observations he had 
made, he began to discourse of marriage, telling her 
that it would add to tlie happiness even of a god, to 
have her to wife. Observe, says he, the trees which 
creep up this wall : how do the apples and plums 
strive which shall excel the other in beauty and co- 
lour ! whereas, if they had not props or supports, 
which like husbands hold them up, they would pe- 
rish and decay. All this did not move her, till Ver- 
tumnus changed himself into a young man ; and 
then she also began to feel the force and power of 
love, and tijen received him with favour* — Ovid- 
Met. 14, 


Who was Pales, and wliat did they sacrifice to her? 

Why were these feasts observed ? 

What solemnities were observed in the Palilian feasts^ 

Who w^as Flora? 

Was she really a goddess ? 

How were tl e Floralia instituted ; when were they celebrated j 
«nd under what pretence did they worship Flora ? 

How^ is her figure represented ? 

Who is Feronia ; what is her occupation ; and why is mOFV 
honour due to her than to Flora? 

What does Strabo say of Feronia ? 

Who was Pomona, and what w as her priest called ' 

What story is related of Verturanus? 

* Vertnmnus a vertendoj quod in qoas vellet ffgnras s«s« rer- 
tcse poterat. 




Now observe that great company of neat, pretty, 
handsome, beautiful, charming, virgins, who are 
very near the gardens of Pomona. Some run about 
the woods, and hide themselves in the trunks of the 
aged oaks ; some plunge themselves into the foun- 
tains, and some swim in the rivers. They are call- 
ed by one common name, nymphs, ^because they 
always look young ; or fbecause they are hand- 
some : yet all have their proper names beside, which 
they derive either from the places in which they live, 
or the offices which they perform ; they are espe- 
cially distributed in three classes, celestial, terres- 
trial, and marine. 

The celestial nymphs were those genii, those souls 
and intellects, who guided the spheres of the hea- 
vens, and dispensed the influences of the stars to 
the things of the earth. 

Of the terrestrial nymphs, some preside over the 
woods, and were called Dryades, from a Greek 
word, A^Ss, which principally signifies an oak, but 
generally any tree whatever. These Dryades had 
their habitations in the oaks. Other nymphs were 
called JHamadryades, for they were born when the 
oak was first planted, and when it perishes they die 
also. The ancients held strange opinion- concern- 
ing oaks ; they imagined that even the smallest oak 
was sent from heaven. The Druidse, priests of the 
Gauls, esteemed nothing more divine and sacred, 

than the excrescence which sticks to oaks. Others of 


* 'AiTo r3 eiu vitts <pxmir6cn quod semper juvenes appareant. 
f 'Afo Ti ^alviir, splendere quod forme (jecore prsefulgewit. 
I Ab afitctj simbl, «t ^/p«y» qitereiiSs 


those nymphs were called *Oreades, or Onestiades^ 
because ihcy pivj- led over tlic moantains, f N-^i,vege, 
because they had dominion over the groves and val- 
leys. Others {Limoiiiades, because they looked 
after the meadows and fields. And others, ||Meli«, 
from the ash, a tree sacred to them ; and these were 
supposed to be the mothers of those chddren, who 
were accidentally born under a tree, or exposed 

Of the marine nymphs, those which presided over 
the seas, were called Nereides or Nereinic, from the 
sea god Nereus, and the sea nymph Doris, their pa- 
rents ; which Nereus and Doris were born of Tethys 
and Oceanus, from whom they were called Oceani- 
tides and Oceaniae. Others of those nymphs pre- 
side over the fountains, and were called §Naides or 
Naiades : others inhabit the rivers, and were called 
Fluviales or ITPotamides : and others preside over 
the lakes and ponds, and were called Linmades. 

All the gods had nymphs attending them. Jupi- 
ter speaks of his in Ovid : 

"Sunt mihi Sernidei, sunt rustica numina Fauni, 
Et Nymphae, Satyrique, et monticolffi Sylvani. 

Half gods and rustic Fauns attend my will, 
Nymphs, Satyrs, Sylvans, that on mountains dwell. 

Neptune had many nymphs, insomuch that Hesi- 
od and Pindar call him **Nymphagetes, that is, the 
captain of the nymphs : the poets generally' gave him 
fifty. Phoebus likewise had nymphs cafled Agan- 
nippidae and Musae. Innumerable were the nymphs 
of Bacchus, who were called by different names, 

* Ab epos, mons. 

t A vaTti, saltus vel vallis, 

I Axufiuv, pratum. 

{I A fAikia, fraxinus. 

§ A y«(W, fluo. 

IF FIoTa^cf, fluvius. 

** Jit/^^<ey6Tijf , id est, Nympharum dui. 


Bacchae, Bassarides, Eloides, and Thyades. Hunt~ 
ing nymphs attended upon Diana ; sea nynipns, 
called Nereides, waited upon Tethys ; and fourteen 
very beautiful nyinpiis belonged to Juno : 

" Bis septem praestanti corpore Nymphae." 

Virg. JEn. 1. 

Twice seven the charming daughters of the main, 
Around my person wait, and bear my train. 

Out of all which I will only give you the history of 

Arethusa was one of Diana's nymphs : her vir- 
tue was as great as her beauty. The pleasantness 
of the place mvited her to cool herself in the waters 
of a fine clear river : Alpheus, the god of the river, 
assumed the shape of a man, and arose out of the 
water ; he first saluted her with kind words, and 
then approached near to her : but away she flies, 
and he follows her ; and when he had almost over- 
taken her, she was dissolved with fear, into a foun- 
tam, with the assistance of Diana, whom she iin 
plored. Alpheus then resumed his former shape of 
water, and endeavoured to mix his stream with hers, 
but in vain ; for to this day Arethusa continues her 
flight, and by her passage through a cavity of the 
earth, she goes under ground into Sicily. Alpheus 
also follows by the like subterraneous passage, till 
at last he unites and marries his own streams to those 
of Arethusa in that island. Virg. ^n. 2. 

Echo was formerly a nymph, though nothing o( 
her but her voice remains now, and even when she 
was alive, she was so far deprived of her speech, 
that she could only repeat tne last words of those 
sentences w hich she heard ; 

" Corpus adhuc Echo, non vox erat ; ct tamen usum 
GaiTula non alium j quam uuuc habet, oris habebat J 
Reddere de multis ut verba uovissima posset." 

Ovid. Met. 9. 


She was a nymph, though only now a sound ) 
Yet of her tongue no other use was found, 
Than now she has ; which never could be more, 
Than to repeat what she had heard before. 

Juno inflicted this punishment on her for her talk- 
ativeness : for when, prompted by Jier jealousy, she 
came down to discover Jupiter among the nymphs, 
Echo detained her very long with her tedious dis- 
courses, that the nymphs might have an opportunity 
fo escape, and hide themselves : 

"Fecerat hoc* Juno, quia cum deprendere posset 
Sub Jove seepe suo nymphas in monte jacentes, 
nia deam longo prudens sermone tenebat, 
Dum fugerent nymphae." 

This change impatient Juno's anger wrought, 
Who, when her Jove she o'er the mountains sought^ 
" Was oft by Echo's tedious tales misled, 

Till the shy nymphs to caves and grotto's fled. 

This Echo by chance met Narcissus rambling in 
the woods ; and she so admired his beauty that she 
fell in love with him : she discovered her love to him, 
courted him, followed and embraced him, but he 
broke from her embraces, and hastily fled from her 
sight : upon which the despised nymph hid herself 
in the woods, and pined away with grief, so that 
every part of her but her voice was consumed, and 
her bones were turned into stones. 

*' Vox tantum, atque ossa supersunt ; 
Vox manet : ossa ferunt lapidis traxisse iiguram 3 
Inde latet sylvis, nulloque in monte videtur, 
Omnibus auditur: sonus est qui vivit in ilia." 

Her flesh consumes and moulders with despair, 
And all her body's juice is turn'd to air j 
So wond'rous are the effects of restless pain, 
That nothing but her voice and bones remain ;. 
Nay, e'en the very bones at last are -jone, 
And metamorphos'd to a thoughtless stone; 
Yet still the voice does in the woods survive, 
The form's departed, but the sound's alive. 


Narcissus met .with as bad a fate ; for though he 
would neither love others, nor admit of their love, 
yet he fell so deeply in love with his own beauty, 
that the love of himself proved his ruin. His thirst 
led him to a fountain, whose waters were clear and 
bright as silver : 

" Fons erat illimis nitidis argenteus undis." Ovid Met, 3. 

There was by chance a living fountain near, 
Whose unpolluted channel ran so clear, 
That it seem'd liquid silver. 

When he stooped to drink, he saw his own image , 
he stayed gazing at it, insomuch that he fell pas- 
sionately in love with it. A little water only sepa- 
rated him irom his beloved object : 

" Exigua prohibetur aqua" 

A little drop of water does remove 

And keep him from the object of his love. 

He continued a long time admiring this beloved 
picture, before he discuvered what it was that he 
SO passionately adored ; but at length the unhappy 
creature perceived, that the torture he suffered was 
from the love of his own self: 

" Flammas, inquit, raoveoque, feroque : 

Quod cupio mecum est : inopem me copia fecit. 

O utinam a nostro secedere corpore possem ! 

Votum in amante novum est, vellem quod amamus abesset.'* 

My love does vainly on myself return, 

And fans the cruel flames with which I burn, 

The thing desir'd I still about me bore, 

And too much plenty has contirm'd me poor. 

O that I from my much-lov'd self could go ; 

A strange request, yet would to God 'twere so ! 

In a word, his passion conquered him, and the 
power of love was greater than he could resist, so 
that, by degrees, he wasted away and consumed, and 


at last, by the favour of the gods, was turned into a 
dajffodil, a flower called by his own name. 


Who are the Nymphs ; how are they engaged ; and from 
whence do they derive their general name ? 

From whom do they get their peculiar names, and into what 
classes are they divided ? 

Who are the celestial Nymphs ? 

Give some account of the terrestrial Nymphs. 

Over what dkl the marine Nymphs preside ? 

Whom did the Nymphs attend ? 

What is said of Arethusa ? 

Who was Echo, and what is her history ? 

What is the history of Narcissus ? 



RusiNA, the goddess to whose care all parts of 
the country are committed. 

Collina, she who reigns over the hills. 

Vallonia, who holds her empire in the valleys. 

Hippona, who presides over the horses and sta- 

Bubona, who hath the care of the oxen. ' 

Seia, who takes care of the seed, while it lies bu- 
ried in the earth. She is likewise called Segetia, 
because she takes care of the blade as soon as it ap- 
pears green above the ground. 

Runcina is the goddess of weeding. She is in- 
voked when the fields are to be weeded. 

Occator is the god of harrowing. He is wor- 
shipped when the fields are to be harrowed. 

Sator and Sarritor are the gods of sowing and 


To the god Robigus wt^e celebrated festivals call- 
ed Robigalia, which were usually observed upon the 
seventh of the calends of May, to avert the blasting 
of the corn. 

Stercutius, Stercutus, or Sterculius, called like- 
wise Sterquilinius and Picumnus, is the god who 
first invented the art of manuring the ground. 

Proserpine is the goddess who presides over the 
corn, when it is sprouted pretty higii above the earth. 
We shall speak more of her when we discourse con- 
cerning the infernal deities. 

Nodosus, or Nodotus, is the god that takes care 
of the knots and the joints of the stalks. 

Volusia is the goddess who takes care to fold the 
blade round the corn, before the beard breaks out, 
which foldings of the blade contain the beard, as 
pods do the seed. 

Patelina, who takes care of the corn after it is 
broken out of the pod, and appears. 

The goddess Flora presides over the ear when it 

Lactura, or Lactucina, who is next to Flora, pre- 
sides over the ear when it begins to have milk. 

And Matura takes care tliat the ear comes to a 
just maturity. 

Hostilina w^as worshipped that the ears of corn 
might grow even, and produce a crop proportion- 
ably to the seed sown. 

Tutehna, or Tutuhna, hath a tutelage of corn 
when it is reaped. 

Pilumnus invented the art of kneading and baking 
bread. He is commonly joined with Picumnus, his 
brother, whom we mentioned above. 

Mellona is the goddess who invented the art of 
making honey. 

And Fornax is esteemed a goddess ; because, be- 
fore the invention of grinding wheat, corn was parch- 
ed in a furnace. Ovid makes mention of this goddess : 


" Facta Dea est Fornax, laeti fornace coloni 
Grant, ut vires temperet ilia suas." Fast. 6. 

A goddess Fornax is, and her the clowns adore, 
That they may've kindly batches by her pow'r. 

questiojXs for examlyatiojv. 

Who were the Riisina, CoUma, Vallonia, and Hippona? 
What were the occupations of Bubona, Seia, Runcingi, and 

Who were the gods of sowing and raking ? 

On what account were the Robigalia instituted ? 

Who invented the art of manuring the land ? 

Over what does Proserpine preside ? 

Who were Nodosus, Volusia, and Patellina ? 

Over what does Flora, Lactura, and Matura preside ? 

Why was Hostilena worshipped ? 

What was the office of Tutelina ? 

What did Filumnus invent ? 

Who was Mellona ? 

Why is Fornax esteemed a goddess ? 






Neptune, the king of the waters, is represented 
with black hair and l)lue eyes, holding a sceptre in 
his right hand, like a fork with three tines, and 
beautifully arrayed in a mantle of blue, clasping his 
left hand round his queen's waist. He stands up- 
right in his chariot, which is a large escalopshell, 
drawn by sea horses, and attended by odd kind of 
animals, which resemble men in the upper parts, 
and fish in the lower. His name is derived, by the 
change of a few letters, from the word nubo, which 
signifies " to cover ;" because the sea encompasses, 
embraces, and, as it were, covers the land. Or, 
as others believe, he is so called from an Egyptian 
word (nepthen,) which signifies the coasts and pro- 
montories, and other parts of the eardi, which are 
washed by the waters. So that Cicero, who de- 
rives Neptune from nando (swimming,) is either 
mistaken, or the place is corrupt. 

NeptiiUo is the governor of the sea, the father of 
the rivers and the fountains, and the son of Saturn 
by Ops. His mother preserved him from the de- 


vouring jaws of Saturn, who ate up all the male 
children that was born to him, by giving Saturn a 
young foal to eat in his stead. In the Greek he is 
called nocretjMv \_Posiedon,~\ because he so binds our 
feet that we are not able to walk within his do- 
minions, that is, on the water. 

When he came of age, Saturn's kingdom was di- 
vided by lot, and the maritime parts fell to him. 
He and Apollo, by Jupiter's command, were forced 
to serve Laomedon, in building the walls of Troy ; 
because he and some other gods had plotted against 
.Jupiter. Then he took ^Amphitrite to wife, who 
rejfused a long time to hearken to his courtship ; but 
at last, by the assistance of a dolphin, and by the 
power of flattery, he gained her. To recompease 
which kindness, the dolphin was placed among the 
stars, and made a constellation. Amphitrite had 
two other names ; Salacia, so called from*aZ?/;n, the 
sea, or the salt water, towards the lower part and 
bottom of the sea ; and Venilia, so called from veni- 
endo, because the sea goes and comes with the tide, 
or ebbs and flows by turns. 

The poets tell us, that Neptune produced a horse 
in Attica out of the ground, by striking it with his 
trident; whence he is called Hippius and Hippo- 
dromus, and he is esteemed the president over horse 
races. At his altar, in the Circus at Rome, games 
were instituted, in a^ Inch they represented the an- 
cient Romans by violence carrying away the Sabine 
women. His altar was under ground, and sacrifi- 
ces were offered to him by the name of Consus, the 
god of counsel'; which for the most part ought to 
be given privately ; and thei*efore the god Consus 
was worshipped in an obscure and private place. 
The solemn games Consualia, celebrated m the 

* DJcitnr af/,(piTpirn -srapx, to »fjc(piTpiSuv B. circumtcrendo, quod 
errant mare circumterat. 


month of March, were instituted in honour of Nep- 
tune. At the same time, the horses left working, 
and the mules were adorned with garlands of flowers. 
Hence it also happens, that the chariot of Nep- 
tune is drawn by hippocampi, or sea horses, as well 
as sometimes by dolphins. Those sea horses had 
the tails of fishes, and only two feet, which were like 
the fore feet of a horse, according to the description 
given of them in Statius : 

"Illic ^geo Neptunus gurgile fessos 

In portam deducit equos, prior haurit habenas 

Ungula, postremi solvuntur in sequora pisces." Trth. 2. 

Good Neptune's steeds to rest are set up here, 

In the ^gean gulph, whose fore parts harness bear, 

Their hinder parts fish-shap'd. 

And this is the reason why Virgil calls them two- 
footed horses : Neptune guides them, and goads 
them with his trident, as it is expressed in Statius : 

" Triplici telo jubet ire jugales : 

lUi spuniiferos glomerant a pectore f!uctu?, 

Pone natant, deientque pedum vestigia cauda." Achil. 1, 

Shaking his trident, urges on his steeds, 
Who with two feet beat from their brawny breasts 
The foaming billows ; but their hinder parts 
Swim, and go smooth against the curling surge. 

It was therefore Neptune's peculiar office, not only 
to preside ovei", and to govern horses both by land 
and sea, but also the government of ships were com- 
mitted to his care, which were always safe under his 
protection ; for whenever he rides upon the waters, 
the weather innnediately grows fair, and the sea 

" Tumida a3quora placat, 

^ nmv.u. ,^.m^.^ j..^v^.*>., 

Collectasque fugat nubes, solemque reducil." Virg.JEu. 1. 

He smooth'd the sea, 

Dispeli'd the darkness, and restor'd the day. 


" Subsidunt undae, tumidtimque sub axe tonanti 
Sternitur aequor aquis, fugiunt vasto eeiheve nimbi." 

JEn. 5. 

High on the waves his azure car he guides, 
Its axles thunder, and the sea subsides ; 
And the smooth ocean rolls her silent tides. 

j^quora postquam 

Prospiciens genitor, ca?loque invectus aperto, 
Flectit equos, curruque volans dat lora secundo." 

Virg. ^n. 

-Where'er he guides 

• His finny coursers, and in triumph rides, 
The waves unruffle, and the sea subsides 

The most remarkable of his children were Triton, 
Phorcus or Proteus. Of the first we shall speak in 
another place. 

Phorcus or Phorcys, was his son by the nymph 
Thesea. He was vanquished by Atlas, and drown- 
ed in the sea. His surviving friend said, that he 
was made a sea god, and, therefore, they worship- 
ped him. We read of another Phorcus, who had 
three daughters, they had but one eye among tliem 
all, which they all coulfl use. When either of them 
desired to see any thing, she fixed the eye in her 
forehead, in the same manner as men fix a diamond 
in a ring ; and havhig used it, she pulled the eye 
out again, that her sisters might have it; thus they 
all used it, as there w^s occasion. 

Proteus, his son by. the nymph Phoenice, was the 
keeper of the sea calves. He could convert himself 
into all sorts of shapes ; sometimes he could flow 
like the water, and sometimes burn like the fire ; 
sometimes he was a fish, a bird, a lion, or whatever 
he pleased. — Ovid Met. 8. 

Nor was this wonderful power enjoyed by Pro- 
teus alone ; for Vertumnus, one of the gods of the 
Romans, possessed it ; his *name shows it, as we 

* Vertumnus dictus est a vertendo 


observed before in the story of Pomona. From this 
god, Vertuniniis, comes that common Latin expres- 
sion, bene or male vertat, may it succeed well or ill ; 
because it is the business of Vertumnus to preside 
over the turn or change of things, which happen 
according to expectation, though oftentimes what 
we think good is found in the conclusion [^)nale 
vertere\ to be worse than was expected ; as that 
sword which Dido received from ^neas, with which 
she afterwards killed herself. 

Neptune ^endued Periclymenus, Nestor's brother, 
with the same power ; and he was killed by Hercu- 
les when in the shape of a fly : for when Hercules 
fought against Neleus, a fly tormented and stung 
him violently ; and on Pallas discovering to him 
that this fly was Periclymenus, he killed him. 

Neptune gave the same power to Metra, Mestra, 
or Mestre, the daughter of Erisichthon, by which 
fshe was enabled to succour her father's insatiable 

For the same cause Csenis, a virgin of Thessaly, 
obtained the same, or rather a greater power, from 
Neptune ; for he gave her power to change her 
sex, and made her invulnerable : she, therefore, 
turned herself into a man, and was called Ceeneus. 
She fought against the Centaurs, till they had over- 
whelmed her with a vast load of trees, and buried 
her alive ; after which she was changed into a bir^ 
of her own name. — Ovid Met. 

'Ensemque recludit 

Dardanium, non hos quaesitum munus m usus. 

Virg.Mn ^. 

The Trojan sword unsheath'd, 

A gift by him not to this use bequeath 'd. 

^ Horn, in Odyss. 11. 

t " Nunc equa, nunc ales, modo bos, modo serviis obibat. 
Prsebebatque avido non justa alimenta parenti." — Ovid Met. 3. 


q UES Tl OXS FO R E X.^MLY.-^ Tf' ' V. 

How is Neptune represented ? 

From what is his name derived r 

Whose son was Neptune, and how was his life preserved ? 

What is his name in Greek, arid why? 

What task was imposed on him lor his rebellion against JI^ 
piter ? 

Why was the dolphin made a constellation ? 

What were Amphitrite's names, and from what were they 
derived ? 

Why i? Neptane called Hippius and Hippodromus? 

What games were instituted at his altar, and what sacrifices 
were offered him ? 

What were the Consualia, and how w^ere they kept? 

What were the Hi;)pocampi ? 

What was Neptune's peculiar office ? 

Who were Neptune's children ? 

What is the hi.'^tory of Phorcus ? 

Wiio was Proteus, and wliat particular power had he? 

What is said of Vertumnus ? 

What is the history of Periclymenus ? 

Who was Mestra, and what did she do ? 

What power did INeptune grant to Ctenis ? 



Triton was the son of Neptune by Amphitrite ; 
he was his father's conipanion and trumperer. Half 
of hnn resembles a man, hut his other part is like a 
fish : his two feet are like the fere feet of a horse, his 
tail is cleft and crooked, like a half moon, and his 
hair resembles wild parsley. Two princes of Par- 
nassus, Virgil and Ovid, give most elegant descrip- 
tions of him : 

" Hunc vehit imraanis Triton, et caerula concha 
Exterrens freta ; cui laterum *.enus hispida nanti 
Frons iiominem praefe \ in pristinj desinit alv ;3, 
Spumea pestifero sub pectore murmurat unda." — JEii. 10 


Him and his martial train the Triton bears, 
High on his poop the sea-2;reen fiod a|)pears ; 
Fi owning, he seems his crooked shell to sound, 
And at the blast the billows dance around. 
A hahy man above the waist he shows ; 
A porpoise tail beneath his body grows. 
And ends a /ish : his breast the waves divide, 
And froth and foam augment the murm'ring tide. 

" Caeruleum Tritona vocat ; conchaque sonaci 

Inspirare jubet ; fluctusque et flumina signo 

Jam revocare dato. Cava buccina sumitur illi 

Tortilis, in latum quaj turbine crescit ab imo : 

Buccina, quaj medio concepit ut aera ponto, 

Littora voce replet sub utroque jacentia Phcebe." — Met. 1. 

Old Triton rising from the deep he spies, 
Whose shoulders rob'd with native purple rise, 
And bids him his loud-sounding shell inspire. 
And give the floods a signal to retire. 
He his wreath'd trumpet takes (as given in charge) 
That from the turning bottom grows more large ; 
This, when the NnnK^n o'er the ocean sounds, 
The east and west from shore to shore rebounds. 

Oceanus another of the seagods, was the son of 
Coelum and Vesta. He, by the ancients, was called 
the " Father," not only of all the rivers, but of the 
animals, and of the very gods themselves ; for they 
imagined that all things in nature took their begin- 
ning from him. It is said that he and his wife Te- 
thys were parents of three thousand sons, the most 
eminent of which was : 

Nereus, who was nursed and educated by the 
waves, and afterward dwelt in the ^gean sea, and 
became a famous prophecier. He was the father of 
fifty daughters by his wife Doris, whose nymphs 
were called after their father's name, Nereides. 

Palsemon, and his mother Ino, are also to be 
reckoned among the sea deities. They were made 
seagods on this occasion : Ino's husband, Athamas, 
was distracted, and tore his son Learchus into pie- 
ces, and dashed him against the wall : Ino^saw this, 
and fearing lest the same fate should come upon her- 


self and her other son, Melicerta, she took her son, 
and with hhii threw herself into the sea : where they 
were made sea deities. Nothing perished in the wa- 
ters but their names. Though their former names 
were lost in the waves^ yet they found new ones : 
she was called Leucothea, and he Palccmon by the 
Greeks, and Portumnus by the Latins. 

Glaucus, the fisherman, became a seagod by a 
more pleasant w ay : for when he pulled the fishes 
which he had caught out of his nets, and laid them 
on the shore, he observed that by touching a certain 
herb, they recovered their strength, and leaped 
again into the water. He wondered at so strange 
an effect, and had a desire to taste this herb. When 
he had tasted it, he followed his fishes, and, leaping 
mto the water, became a god of the sea. — Ovid 
Met. 13. 

To these we may add the story of Canopus, a 
god of the Egyptians, who, by the help of water, 
gained a memorable victory over the god of the 
Chaldeans. When these two nations contended 
about the power and superiority of their gods, the 
priests consented to bring two gods together, that 
they might decide their controversy. The Chal- 
deans brought their god Ignis (Fire,) and the 
Egyptians brought Canopus : they set the two gods 
near one another to fight. Canopus was a great 
pitcher filled with water, and full of holes, but so 
stopped with wax that nobody could discern them : 
when the fight began. Fire, the god of the Glial- 
deans, melted the wax, which stopped the holes ; so 
that Canopus, with rage and violence assaulted Ig- 
nis with streams of water^ and totally extinguished, 
tanquished, and overcame him. 


Who was Triton, and how is he described ? 
Give Virgil's descriptioni 


Give Ovid's account. 

Who was Oceanus ? 

What is said of Nereus ? 

Give the history of Palcemon. 

How was GlaucuB transformed to a seagod ? 

What story is told of Canopus ? 



There were three Sirens, whose parentage is un- 
certain, though some say the}^ were the offspring of 
the river Achelous, and the muse Melpomene. They 
had the faces of women, but the bodies of flying 
fishes : they dwelt near the promontory Peloris in 
Sicily, (now called Capodi Faro,) or in the islands 
called Sirenusse, which are situate in the extreme 
parts of Italy ; where, with the sweetness of their 
singing, they allured all the men to them that sail- 
ed by those coasts : and when by their charms they 
brought upon them a dead sleep, they drowned 
them in the sea, and afterward took them out and 
devoured them. Their names were Parthenope, 
(who died at Naples, for which reason that city was 
formerly called Parthenope,) Ligae, and Leucosla. 

That their charms migsit be more easily received, 
and make the greater impression on the minds of 
the hearers, they used musical instruments with their 
voices, and adapted the matter of their songs to the 
temper and inclination of their hearers. With some 
•songs they enticed the ambitious, with others the vo- 
luptuous, and with other songs they drew on the co- 
vetous to their destruction. 


" Monstra maris Sirenes erant, quae voce canora 
Quaslibet admissas detinuere rates." — Ov. Art. Am. 3. 

Sirens were once seamonsters, mere decoys, 
Trepanning seamen AViih their tuneful voice. 

History mentions only two passengers, viz. Ulys- 
ses and Orpheus, who escaped. The first was fore- 
warned of the danger of their charming voices by 
Circe : therefore he stopped the ears of his com- 
panions with wax, and. was himself fast bomid to die 
mast of the ship, by which means he safely passed 
the fatal coasts. But Orpheus overcame them in 
their own art, and evaded the temptations of their 
murdering music, by playing upon his harp, and 
singing the praises of the gods so well, that he out- 
did the Sirens. The fates had ordained, that the Si- 
rens should live till somebody who passed by heard 
them sing, and yet esc<iped alive. When, therefore, 
they saw themselves overcome, they grew desperate, 
and threw themselves headlong into the sea, and 
were turned into stones. Some write, that they 
were formerly virgins, Proserpine's companions, 
who sought every ^vhere for her when she was sto- 
len away by Pluto ; but when they could not find 
her, that they were so grieved, that they cast them- 
selves into the sea, and iiom that time were changed 
into seamonsteis. Odjers add, that by Juno's per- 
suasion they contended in music with Muses, wlio 
overcame them, raid, to punish their rashness, cut off 
their wings, with which they afterward- made for 
themselves garlands. 

The poets teach b}' this fiction, that the *" minds 
of men are deposed from their proper seat and state, 
by the allurements of pleasure." It corrupts them ; 
and vhere is not a more deadly plague in nature to 
mankind than voluptuousness. Whoever addicts 

^ Vnluptatum illicebrts mentem e sua sede et statu dimoveri. Sei>ectute. 


himself altogether to pleasure, loses his reason, and 
is ruined ; and he that desires to decline their charms, 
must stop his ears and not listen to them ; but heark- 
en to the music of Orpheus. Tliat is, he must ob- 
serve the precepts and instruction of the wise. 

The description of Scylla is very various ; for 
some say that she was a niost beautiful woman from 
the breasts downward, but had six dogs' heads * 
and others say, that in her upper parts she resem- 
bles a woman, in her lower, a serpent and a wolf. 
But whatever lier picture was, all acknowledge that 
she was the daughter of Phorcus. She was court- 
ed by Glaucus, and received his addresses ; upon 
which Circe, who passionately loved Glaucus, and 
could not bear that Scylla should be preferred be- 
fore her by Glaucus, poisoned with venomous herbs 
those waters in which Scylla used to wash herself: 
Scylla was ignorant of it, and accordmg to her cus- 
tom, went into the fountain ; and when she saw that 
the lower parts of her body were turned into the 
heads of dogs, being extremely grieved that she 
had lost her beauty, she cast herself headlong into 
the sea, where she was turned into a rock, famous 
for the many shipwrecks that happen there. This 
rock is still seen in the sea that divides Italy from 
Sicily, between Messina, a city of Sicily, and Rhe- 
gium (now Reggio) in Calabria. It is said to be 
surrounded with dogs and wolves, which devour the 
persons who are cast away there : but by this is 
meant, that when the waves, by a storm, are dashed 
against this great rock, the noise a little resembles the 
barking of dogs, and the howling of wolves. 

There was another Scylla, the daughter of king 
Nisus, in love with Minos, who besieged her father 
in the city of Megara. She betrayed both her fa- 
ther and her country to him, by cutting off the fatal 
lock of purple hair, in which were contained her fa- 
ther's and her country's safety, and sent it to the 


besieger. Minos gained the city by it, but detested 
Scylla's perfidiousness, and hated her. She could 
not bear this misfortune, but was changed into a lark. 
Nisus, her father, was likewise changed into a spar- 
hawk, which is called nisus, after his name, and, as 
it he still ought to pmiish his daughter's baseness, 
pursues the lark with great fury to devour her. 

Charybdis is a vast whirlpool in the same Sicilian 
sea, over against Scylla, which swallows whatsoever 
comes withm its circle, and throws it up again. 
They say, that this Charybdis was formerly a very 
ravenous woman, who stole away Hercules' oxen : 
for which theft Jupiter struck her dead with thun- 
der, and then turned her into this gulf. Virgil gives 
an elegant description of these tvvo monsters, ScvUa 
and Charybdis. *^ 

" Dextnira Scylla latus, laevnm implacata Charybdis 
Obsidet : atqiie iino baratliri ten gurgite vastos 
borbet 111 abruptum fliictus, rursusque sub auras 
tngit altenios, et sidera verberat u)ida, 
At Scyllam ca^cis cohibet spelunca latebris 
Ora exsertantem, et naves in saxa trahentem : 
Prima hominis fages, et pulcliro peclore virgo 
Pube tenus: postrema imniHui corpore pristis, 
Delphinum caudas utero commissa luporum/'—^n. 8 

Far on the right her dogs foul Scvlla hides: 

Charybdis roaring on ihe left presides, 

And in her greedy whirlpool sucks the tides; 

Then spouts them from below : with fury driv'n 

The waves mount up, and wash the face of heav'n. 

But Scylla from her den, with open jaws 

The sinking vessel in her eddy draw's; 

Then dashes on the rocks. A human face 

And virgin bosom hide the tail's disgrace:' 

Her parts obscene below the waves descend, 

With dogs enclosd, and in a dolphin end. 

-^The fables of Scylla and Charybdis represent lust 
and gluttony, vices which render our voyage through 
this world extremely hazardous and perilous. Lust 
like Scylla, engages unwary passengers by the beau- 
ty and pomp of her outside j and when they are en^ 
-! 8 


tangled in her snares, she tortures, vexes, torments, 
and disquiets them with rage and fury, which ex- 
ceeds the madness of dogs, or the ravenousness of 
wolves. Gluttony is a Charybdis, a gulf or whirl- 
pool that is insatiable : it buries famihes alive, de- 
vours estates, consumes lands and treasures, and 
sucks up all things. 


Who were the Sirens, and how are they described •* 

What were their names ? 

How did they entice the unwary ? 

Who escaped their machinations, and how did they effect it? 

What became of the Sirens afterwards ? 

What moral is to be drawn from this story ? 

What is the history of Scylla ? 

What is said of the other Scylla ? 

Give the histor>' of Charybdis. 

What is the moral of the fable ? 





We are now in the confines of hell. Prithe* 
come along with me ; I will be the same friend to 
you that the Sibyl was to ^neas. Nor shall you 
need a golden bough to present to Proserpine. You 
see here painted those regions of hell, of which yOU 

read a most elegant description in Virgil : 

•' Spelunca alia fuit, vastoque immanis hiatu, 
Scrupea, tuta lacu nigro nemorumque tenebris ; 
Quam super baud ullae poteraut impuiie volantes 
Tendere iter pennis : talis sese halitus atris 
Faucibus ettundens supera ad contexa ferebat ; 
CJnde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Avernum." — Mil 6. 

Deep was the cave, and downward as it went 
From the wide mouth a rocky rough descent; 
And here th' access a gloomy grove defends; 
And there th' unnavigable lake extends, 
O'er whose unhappy Avaters, void of li^ht, 
No bird presumes to steer his airy flight, 
Such deadly stenches from the depth arise, 
And steaming sulphur, which infects tiie skies ; 
Hence do the Grecian bards their legends make^ 
And give the name Avernus to the lake. 

. The passage that leads to these infernal domin^ 
ions was a wide dark cave, through which you pass 


by a steep rocky descent till you arrive at a gloomy 
grove, and an unnavigable lake, called ^Avernus, 
from which such poisonous vapours arise, that no 
birds can fly over it ; for in their flight they fall down 

The monsters at the entrance of hell are those fa- 
tal evils which bring destruction and death upon 
mankind, by means of which the inhabitants of these 
dark regions are greatly augmented ; and those 
evils are care, sorrow, diseases, old age, fright, fa- 
mine, want, labour, sleep, death, sting of conscience^ 
force, fraud, strife, and war. 

* Vestibulum ante ipsum, primisque in faucibus Orcf, 
Luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae ; 
Pallentesque habitant Morbi tritisque Senectus, 
Et Metiis, et malesuada Fames, et turpis Egestas, 
(TeiTibiles visu formae) Lethumque Laborque. 
ium consanguineus Lethi Sopor, et mala mentis 
Gaudia, mortiferunique adverse in limine Bellum. 
Ferreique Eumenrdum thalami, et Discordia demens 
Vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis." «^n. & 

Just in the gate, and in tho jaws of Hell, 

Revengeful Care and sullen Sorrows dweM ; 

And pale Diseases, and repining Age, 

Want, Fear, and Famine's unresisted rage : 

Here Toil and Death, and Death's half-brother, Sleep-, 

(Forms terrible to view,) their sentry keep. 

With anxious Pleasures of a guilty mind. 

Deep Fraud before, and open force behind ; 

The Furies' iron beds, and Strife that shakes 

Her hissing tresses, and unfolds her snakes. 

Charon h an old decrepid, long-bearded fellow : 
be is the ferryman of hell ; his f name denotes the 
ungracefulness of his aspect. In the Greek lan- 
guage he is called Uopef^sv^ [^Porihmeus,'] that is, 
portiior ; " ferryman." You see his image, but you 

* Avernus dicitur quasi aopm. id est, sine avibus. Quod nul- 
lae volucres lacum ilium, ob lethiferum halitum, pra^tervolare 
salvae possent. 

i Charon, quasi Acharon, id est, sine gratia ab a non ; et 
Xdfts gratia. 


may read a more beautiful and elegant picture of 
him drawn by the pen of Virgil. 

'• Portitor lias horrendus aquas et (lamina serva 

7'erribili squalore Charon : cui pliirima mento 

Canities inculta jacet ; staiit lumiiia flarama, 

Sordidus ex humeris nodo deperidet amictus, 

Ipse ratem conto subigit, velisqne ministrat, 

Et Fermginea subvectat corpora cymba, 

Jam senior ; sed cruda Deo viridisque senectus." ^n.Ot 

There Charon stands, who rules the dreary coasts ; 

A sordid god : down from his hoary chin 

A length of beard descends, uncomb'd, unclean ', 

His eyes like hollow furnaces on fire ; 

A girdle foul with grease binds his obscene attire. 

He spreads his canvass, with his poll he steers ; 

The frights of flitting ghosts in his thin bottom bearS: 

He look'd in years, yet in his years were seen 

A youthful vigour, and autumnal green. 

He is waiting to take and carry over to the other 
side of the lake the souls of the dead, which you see 
flocking on the shores in troops. Yet he takes not 
all promiscuously who come, but such only whose 
bodies are buried when they die ; for the unburied 
wander about the shores an hundred years, and then 
are carried over. 

" Centum errant annos, volitant haec litora circum : 
Turn deraum admissi stagna exoptata revisunt." — ,Mn. 6. 

A hundred years they wander on the shore, 
At length, their penance done, are wafted o'er. 

But first they pay Charon his fare, which is at least 
a halfpenny. 

There are three or four rivers to be passed by the 
dead". The first is Acheron, which receives them 
when the^' come first. This Acheron was the son 
of Terra or Ceres, born in a cave, and conceived 
without a father ; and because he could not endure 
light, he ran down into hell and was changed into q 
river, whose waters are extremelv bitter. 


The second is Styx, which is a lake rather than 
-a river, and was formerly the daughter of Oceanus, 
and the mother of the goddess Victoria by Acheron. 
When Victoria was on Jupiter's side in his war 
against the Giants, she obtained the prerogative for 
her mother, that no oath that was sworn among the 
gods by her name, should ever be violated : for if 
any one of the gods broke an oath sworn by Styx, 
they were banished from the nectar and the table of 
the gods a year and nine days. This is the Stygian 
lake, by which when the gods swore, they observed 
their oath with the utmost scrupulousness. 

"Dii cujus jurare timent et fallere numen." Virg. ,^n.Q. 

The sacred stream which heaven's imperial jstate 
Attests in oaths, and fears to violate. 

The third river, Cocytus, flows out of Styx with 
a lamentable groaning noise, and imitates the howl- 
ing, and increases the exclanaations of the damned. 

Next comes *Phlegethon, or Puriphlegeton, so 
ealled because it swells with waves of fire, and all 
its streams are flames. 

When the souls of the dead have passed over these 
four rivers, they were afterwards carried to the pa- 
lace of Pluto, where the gate is guarded by Cerbe- 
rus, a dog with three heads, whose body is covered 
in a terrible manner with snakes, instead of hair. 
. This dog is the porter of hell, begotten of Echidna, 
by the giant Typhon, and h described by Virgil 
and by Horace. 

*< Cerberus haec ingens latratu regna trifauci 
Personal adverse recubans immauis in antro." 

Stretch'd in his kennel, monstrous Cerb'rus round 
From triple jaws made all these realms resound. 

• A tpxtyc^y ardeo, quod uadis intunaeat iguis flauimeogqtuie flac» 
tus evolvat. 


" Cessit immanis tibi hlandlenti 

Janitor auloR 
Cerberus ; quamvis turiale centum 
Muniant ani^ues caput ejus ; atque 
Spiritus teter, saniesque maiiat 

Ore trilingui." — 1. 3. od. 1 1 

Hell's grisly porter let you pass, 
And frown'd and listend to your lays; 
The snakes around his head grew tame, 
His jaws no longer glow'd with flame, 
Nor triple tongue was stain'd with blood; 
No more his breath with venom flow'd. 


Give Virgil's description of hell, and the translatioT) 
How is it described in the text ? 
What is said of the monsters at the entrance ? 
Give Virgil's description. 
Who is Charon ? 
What is his business ? 
Repeat Virgil's description. 
Does Charon take all, promiscuously ? 
What is said of Acheron .'' 
What is Styx .' 

How are Cocytns and Phlegethon described ? 
What becomes of the souls of the dead after they have passed 
these rivers ? 
-Repeat Virgil's description of Cerberus. 
Likewise the description by Horace. 



Pluto is the king of hell, son of Saturn and Ops, 
and brother of Jupiter and Neptune. He h^d these 
infernal dominions allotted to him, not only be- 
cause in the division of his father's kinerdom the 
western parts fell to his lot, but ^hcf berause the 
invention af burying, and of honouring the dead 


*vith fiiiierai obsequies, proceeded from him : for the 
same reason lie is tliought to exercise a sovereignty 
over the dead. Look upon him, he sits on a throne 
covered with darkness, and discover, if you can, his 
liabit, and the ensign of his majesty, more narrowly. 
He holds a key in his hand, instead of a sceptre, 
and is crowned with ebony. 

Sometimes he is crowned with a diadem ; and 
sometimes with the flowers of narcissus, or white 
daffodils, and sometimes with cypress leaves ; be- 
cause those plants greatly please him, and especially 
the narcissus, since he stole away Proserpine, when 
she gathered that flower. Very often a rod is put 
into his hand in the place of a sceptre, with which 
he guides the dead to hell : and sometimes he wears 
a head-piece, which makes him ^invisible. His cha- 
riot and horses are of a black colour, and fwhen he 
carried away Proserpine he rode in his chariot. But 
if you would know what the key signifies which he 
has in his hand, the answer is plain, that when once 
the dead are received into his kingdom, the gates are 
locked against them, and there is uo regress thence 
into this life again. 

-" Facilis descensus Averni : 

Noctes atque dies patet atri janna Ditis ; 

Sed revocare gradum, superasque evadere ad auras, 

Hoc opus, hie Jabor est." Virg. JEn. ft. 

To th' shades you go a downhill easy way ; 
But to return, and re-enjoy the day, 
That is a work, a labour. 

His Greek name JPluton or Pluto, as well as his 
Latin name Dis, signifies wealth. The reason why 
he is so called, is, because all our wealth comes from 
the lowest and most inward bowels of the earth ; and 
because, as Cicero observes, ||all the natural powers 

* Horn. Iliad. 5. t Ovid. Met. 5. X Ukaro? divitiae, 

II Terrena vis omiiis ac natura ipsi dicata credebatur. Cic. de 
I^at. Deor. 2. 


and faculties of the earth are under his direction ; 
for all things proceed from the earth, and go thither 

The name A^n^ [Hades,'] by which he is called 
among the Greeks, ^signifies dark, gloomy, and me- 
lancholy ; or else, fas others guess, invisible ; be- 
cause he sits in darkness and obscurity : his habita- 
tion is melancholy and lonesome, and he seldom ap- 
pears to open viev/. 

He is likcAvise called JAgesilaus, because he leads 
people to the infernal regions ; and sometimes IJAge- 
lastus, because it was never known that Pluto 

His name Februus, comes from the old word fe- 
bruo, because purifications and lustrations were used 
at funerals : whence the month of February receives 
also its appellation : at which time especially, the 
sacrifices called Februo were ofiered by tlie Romans 
to this god. 

He is also called Orcus or Urgus, and Ouragus, 
as some say, ^Jbecause he excites and hastens people 
to their ruin and death : but others think that he is 
so named ITbecause, like one that brings up the rear 
of an army, he attends at the last moments of men's 

He is called Summanus, that is, the chief **of all 
the infernal deities ; the principal governor of all the 
ghosts and departed spirits. The thunder that hap- 
pens m the night is attributed to him : whence he is 

* A^ng aithi, id est, triste, tenebrosiim. 

t A.ut quasi ao^aro,-, quod videri miniine possit, aut ab a, pri- 
vante, ets/?s<vvidere. Socr. ap. Plut. Phuruut. Gaza.ap. Lil. Gyr. 

X Uapa. TO ecysiv rm X«»j, a ducendis populis ad inferos. 

II Ab a non, e ysXaw video, quod sine risu sit. 

§ Orcus quasi Urgus et Ouragus ab urgendo, quod homines »r- 
geat in interitum. Cic. in Verrem. 6. 

TF Oupayes, eutQ sigiiificat qui ashmen claudit ; simili modo Plu- 
to postremum humanae vita? actum excipit. Guth. 1. i. c. 4. de 
Jur. Man. 

** Qua«i summu3 Deorum manium. Aug. de Civ. Di?i. h 4. 


commonly styled also, the Infernal Jupiter, the Sty- 
gian Jupiter, the Third Jupiter ; as Neptune is the 
second Jupiter. 

The Fates will tell you that Pluto presides over 
life and death ; that he not only governs the depart- 
ed spirits below, but also can lengthen or shorten 
the lives of men here on the earth, as he thinks fit. 

O maxime noctis 

Arbiter, umbrarumque potens, cui nostra laborant 
Stamina qui liiiein cmictis et semina prcebes, 
ISascendique vices alterna morte rependis, 
Qui vitam lethumque regis." Claud, de Rap. Proi, 

Great prince o' th' gloomy regions of the dead, 
From whom we hourly move our wheel and thread. 
Of nature's growth and end thou hast the sway, 
All mortals' birth with death thou dost repay, 
Who dost command 'em both. 

Though Plutus be not an infernal god, I joiahim 
to Pluto, because their names and office are very si- 
milar ; they are both of them goda uC riches, which 
are the root of all evil, and which nature, our com- 
mon parent, hath placed near hell ; and, indeed, 
there is not a nearer way to hell than to hunt gree- 
dily after riches. 

Plutus was the son of Jason, or Jasius, by Ceres : 
he was blind and lame, injudicious, and timorous. 
And truly these infirmities are justly ascribed to 
him ; for if he were not blind and injudicious, he 
would never pass over good men, and heap his trea- 
sures upon the bad. He is lame, because great es- 
tates come slowly. He is fearful and timorous, be- 
cause rich men watch their treasure with a great 
deal of fear and care. 


Who is Pluto, and how did he become possessed of bb do- 
minion ? 

How is he painted ? 


What does the key signi^ ? • 

Wliat does his name Phito signify, and why is be Sd called : 

What does the name Hades signify ? 

Why is he called Agesilaus ? 

From what does his name Februus come ? 

Why is he called Orcus ? 

Why is he called Summanus, and what else is he styled? 

Over what does Pluto preside ? 

In what respects is Pliitus like Pluto ? 

Who was Plutus, and how is he represented ? 



She who sits next to Pluto is the Queen of hell, 
*the infernal Juno, fthe " lady" (as the Greeks com- 
monly call her,) and the most beloved wife of Pluto, 
the daughter of Ceres and Jupiter. She is. called 
both Proserpine and Libera. 

When all the goddesses refused to marry Pluto, 
because he was so deformed, he was vexed at this 
contempt and scorn, and troubled that he was forced 
to live a single life ; wherefore, in a rage, he seated 
himself in a chariot, and arose on a sudden from a 
den in Sicily, Jwhere he saw a company of very 
beautiful virgins gathering flowers in the fields of En- 
na, a beautiful place, situate about the middle of the 
island. One of them, Proserpine, pleased him 
above the rest, for she surpassed them all in beauty. 
He carried her with him from that place, and on a 
sudden sunk into the earth near Syracuse. In the 
place where he descended, a lake arose : and Cice- 
ro says, the people of Syracuse keep yearly festivals, 
to which great multitudes of both sexes resort. 

* Virg. JEn. 6. 

t Lii<rotva, domina. Paus. ia Aread,. 

X Cic. i.R Verrem. 6. 


The nymphs, her companions, were grievously 
affrighted, and fled away. In the mean time Ceres, 
the mother of Proserpine, seeks her daughter among 
her acquaintance a long time, but in vain. She 
next kindled torches by the flames which burst out 
from the top of the mountain jEtna, and went with 
them, to seek her daughter throughout the world ; 
neither did she give over her vain labour, till the 
nymph Arethusa fully assured her, that Proserpine 
was stolen by Pluto, and carried down into his king- 
dom. In great anger, she immediatly hastened and 
expostulated with Jupiter concerning the violence 
that was oflered her daughter ; and the god pro- 
mised to restore Proserpine again, if she had not yet 
tasted any thing in hell. Ceres went joyfully down, 
and Proserpine, full of triumph and gladness, prepa- 
red to return into this world ; when Ascalaphus dis- 
covered, that he saw Proserpine, while she walked 
in Pluto's orchard, pluck a promegranate, and eat 
some grains of it; therefore, Proserpine's journey 
was immediately stopped. Ceres being amazed at 
this new misfortune, and incensed at the fatal dis- 
covery of Ascalaphus, turned him into an owl, a 
bird said to be of an ill omen, and unlucky to all 
that see it : but at last, by the importunity of her 
prayers to Jupiter, she extorted this favour from him, 
that he should permit Proserpine to live half the 
year, at least with her in heaven, and the other half 
b^low in hell, with her husband. 

" Et Dea regnorum numen coramune^»duorum, 
Cum marte est totidem, totidera "utn conjuge menses." 

Ov. Met. 6. 

The goddess now in either empire sways, 
Six months with Ceres, six with Pluto stays. 

Proserpine afterwards loved this disagreeable 
husband so much, that jealous of Mentha, she- 
changed her into mintj an herb of her own name. 


Let us now turn our ej ps tvoward the tribunal of 
Pluto ; where 3'Ou see, in that dismal picture, con- 
tinual trials : and all persons, as well the accusers 
as the offenders, who have been Ibrmerly wicked in 
their lives, receive their death impartial!}^ from the 
three Fates ; after death they receive their sentence 
impartially from the three judges; and after condem- 
nation, their punishment impartially from the three 

The Fates are represented by three ladles : their 
garments are made of ermine, white as snow, and 
bordered with purple. They were born either of 
Nox and Erebus, or of Necessity, or of the Sea, or 
of that rude and undigested mass which the ancients 
called Chaos. 

They are called Parcae in Latin ; because, as 
■^Varro thinks, they distributed good and bad things 
to persons at their birth ; or, as the common and 
received opinion is, -j-because they spare nobody. 
They are also called Fatum, " fdtQ ;" and are three 
in number, because they order, the past, present, 
and future time. JFate, says Cicero, is all that 
which God hath decreed and resolved shall come to 
pass, and winch the Grecians call E^y^ccpf^evi] fEimar- 
mene.^ Fatum is derived from the word fari, to 
pronounce or declare ; because when any one is 
born, these three sisters pronounce what fate will 
befall him. 

Their names and offices are as follows ; the name 
of one is ||Clotho ; the second is called §Lachesis ; 

* Parcse dicuntur partu, a quod nascesitilms hominibus bona 
malaque cop.ferre censentur. 

t Aut a parceudo per Antiphrasin, quod nemini parcant. 
Serv. in /En. 1. 

t Est autem Fatum id omne quod a Deo constitutum et de- 
signatum est ut eveniat, quod Graeci nfxaffAtvyi appellant. De 
Fato et Divinat. 

Ij A verbo kXoi&m id est, neo. 

§ Ab Xfl:7_;^avA', iortioT. 



the third *Atropos, because she is mialterable, un- 
changeable. These names the Grecians give them, 
Nona, Decima, and IMorta. 

To tbem is intrusted the management of the fatal 
thread of hfe : for Clotho draws the thread between 
her fingers ; Lacbesis tun.s about the wheel ; and 
Atropos cuts die thread spun with a pair of scissors. 
That is, Clotho gives us life, and brings us into the 
world ; Lacbesis determines the fortunes that shall 
befall us here ; and Atropos concludes our lives. 
fOne speaks, the odier v. rites, and the diird spins. 

The Furies have tlie faces of women. Th^ir 
looks are full of terror ; they hold lighted torches 
in their hands ; snakes and serpents lash their necks 
and shoulders. They are called in Lntin sometimes 
Furiae ; fbecause they make men mad, by the stings 
of conscience which gi'.ilt produces. They are also 
called |lDir£e, §Eumeuides, and ITCaiies ; and were 
the oiTspring of "^"^Nox aiid ff Acheron. Their 
proper names are Alecto, Tisiphone, ond Mageera ; 
and they are esteemed virgins; because, since they are 
the avengers of all wickedness, nothing can corrupt 
and pervert them from inflicting the punishment that 
is .due to the oftender. 

There are only du-ee Furies^ because there are 
three principal passions of the mind, anger, covetous- 
ness, and lust, by which mankind are chiefly hurried 
into all sorts of wickedness ; for anger begets revenge, 
covetousness provokes us to get inmioderate wealth 
by right or wrong, and lust pei'suades us to pursue 
our pleasures at any rate. Indeed some add a fourth 
Fury, called Lisso diat is, rage and madness ; but 

* Ab a privativa particula, et -rpi^o verto, quod verti et flecte 

t Una loquitur, altera scribit, tertia (ila ducit. Serv. in iEn. 1 
X Quod sceleratos in furorem agant. 

11 Virg. Mn. 3. § Ibid. 8. IT Ibid. 4. ^'^Ibid. 6. 

tt Ibid. II. 


she is easily reduced to the other three : as also 
Erinnys, a name coininou to tliem all. 

The office of tlie Furies is to observe and punish 
the crimes ot' 'oad men, and to torment the conscien- 
ces of secret otfenders ; wlience they are commonly 
also entitled ^the goddesses, the discoverei-s and re- 
vengers of bad actions. They punish and torment 
the wicked, by frightening and following them with 
burning torches. Yon see the picture of them there, 
and you will find them beautifully described in the 
twelfth book of Virgil's jEneid : 

'* Dicutitur genniue pestes, cognomine Dirae, 
Qiias ot Tartaipam Nox ii2tem{)esta Megffiram 
Uiio eodemqiie tiiiit: partu, paribiisque revinxit 
Sei'pentum spiris, ventosasqae addidit alas.' 

Deep in the dismal region?, void of liglit, 

Two daughter.-; at a birth were born to ?Jight: 

These their brown mother, brooding on her care, 

Eiidu'd with wiiidv wings to Heet in air, 

With serpents girt alike, and crowu'd with hissing hah', 

Jn heav n the Dirae call'd. 


Who was Proserpine ? 

How did Pluto obtain her for his wife ? 

What steps did Ceres take to recover her daughter? 

What favour did*Ceres obtain for Proserpine ? 

What do the Fates, the Judges, and the Furies determine? 

Who are the Fates ? 

Why are they called Parc?e ? 

What is fate, according to Cicero ? 

From what is the word " fate" derived ? 

What are the names and offices of the Fates ? 

How are the Furies described ? 

What are their common and what their proper names? 

Why are there only three Furies ? 

What is the office of the Furies ? 

* Deae speculatrices et vindices Facinorum. 



Nox is, of all the gods, the most ancient : she was 
the sister of Erebus, and the daughter of the first 
Chaos; and of these two, Nox and Erebus, Mors 
[^deathl was born. She is represented as a skeleton, 
dressed usually with a speckled garment and black 
wings : but there are no temples nor sacrifices, nor 
priests consecrated to M.ors, because she is a god- 
dess whom no prayers can move, or sacrifices 

Somnus [S'/eep] is the brother of Death, and also 
hath wings, like her. Iris, who was sent by Juno to 
the palace of this god, mentions the great benefits 
that he bestows on mankind ; such as quiet of mind, 
tranquillity, freedom from care, and refreshment of 
the spirits, by which men are enabled to proceed in 
their labours : 

'' Somnp, quies renim, placidissime Somne Deorum, 

Pax aninii, quern cnra fugit, qui corpora duris 

Fessa ministeriis mulces reparasque labori." Oik Met. Ill 

Thou rest o' th' world, Sleep, the most peaceful god, 
Who driv'st care from the mind, and dost unload 
The tired limbs of all their weariness, 
And for new toil the body dost refresh. 

In this palace there are two gates, out of which 
dreams pass and repass ; one of these gates was 
made of clear ivory, through which false dreams 
pass ; the other was made of transparent horn, and 
through that gate true visions come to men : 

" Sunt gemina^ Somni ports, quarum altera fertur 
Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus umbris : 
Altera cander^tJ perfecta nitens elephanlo ; 
Sed falsa ad ccelum mittunt insomnia manes." 



Two gates the silent house of Sleep adorn y 
Of. polish'd iv'ry this, that of transparent horn: 
True visions through tiaiispiirent horn arise ; 
Through polish'd iv'ry pass deluding lies. 

*Morpheiis, the servant of Somnus, who can put 
on any shape or figure, presents these dreams to 
those who sleep ; and these dreams were brought 
from a great spreadmg ehii in hell, under whose 
shade they usually sit. 

Near the three Furies and the three Fates, f you 
see the three Judges of hell, Minos, Rhadamanthus, 
and iEacus, who are believed to be judges of the 
souls of the dead ; because they exercised the offices 
of judges ill Crete with the greatest prudence, dis- 
cretion, and justice. The first two were the sons of 
Jupiter by Europa : the last was the son of Jupiter 
by iEgiiia. When all the subjects of queen iEgina 
were swept away in a plague, beside jEacus, he 
begged of his father, that he would repair the race 
of mankind, which was almost exthict ; Jupiter 
heard his prayer, aiid turned Ja great multitude of 
ants, which crept about a hollow old oak, into men, 
who afterward were called Myrmidones, from y.vf)tJi.n^ 
IMurmex^'] which word signifies an ant. 

These three had their particular province assign- 
ed by Pluto in this manner : Rhadamanthus was ap- 
pointed to jndge the Asiatics, and ^Eacus the Euro- 
peans, each holding a staff in his hand ; but Minos 
holds a golden Sceptre and sits alone, and oversees 
the judgments of Rhadamanthus and ^Eacus ; and 
if in their courts there arose a case that was ambi- 
guous and difficult, then Minos used to take the cog- 
jiizance thereof, and decide it. Cicero adds to these 
a fourth judge, Triptolemus ; but we have already 
discom-sed of him in his proper place. 

-* Ovid. Met. 11. Virg. ^n. 6. 
^ Horn. 0dv's?.2- 
I Ovid- Met. 7. Plata In Georg 



Who is Nox, and how was Mors produced ? 
How is Mors, or Death, represented? 

Who is Somnus, and what benefits does he bestow on man- 
kind ? 

Who is Morpheus and Somnus ? 

Who are the judges of hell, and w^hose sons were they ? 

What is the origin of the Myrmidones ? 

What was the province of the judges ? 



From the judges let us proceed to the criminals, 
whom you see represented there in horrid colours. 
It will be enough if we take notice of the most cele- 
brated of them, and notice their crimes, and the 
punishments inflicted on them. 

The giants were the sons of Terra [the earth"] 
when she received the blood of Coelum, which flow- 
ed from that dishonourable wound given him by his 
son Saturn. They are all very tall in stature, with 
horrible dragon's feet ; their looks and their bodies 
are altogether full of terror. Their impudence *was 
so great, that they strove to depose Jupiter from the 
possession of heaven ; and when they engaged with 
the celestial gods, they fheaped up mountains upon 
mountains, and thence darted trees, set on fire, 
agauist the gods and heaven. They hurled also 
prodigious massy stones and solid rocks, some of 
which, falling upon the earth again, became moun- 
tains ; others fell into the sea, and became islands. 
This |battle was fought upon the Phlegraean plains, 
near the borders of Campania, ||which country is 

* Horn. Odyss. 12. t Ovid. Met. 1. 

i r^at. Comes, 1. 6. {[ Horn. Hyma. in ApoUio* 


called Phle^ra, from (pxtyco [p/i/e^o] wro, for it 
abounds in subterraneous fires, and hot baths flow- 
ing continually. The giants were beaten and all 
cut off, either by Jupiter's thunder, Apollo's arrows, 
or by the arms of the rest of the gods. And some 
say, that out of the blood of the slain, wliich was 
spilt upon the earth, serpents and such envenomed 
and pernicious animals were produced. The most 
eminent of those giants were, 

Typhoeus, or Tjphon, tlie son of Juno, had no 
father. So vast was his magnitude, that lie touched 
the east with one hand, and the west with the other, 
and the heavens with the crown of his head. A hun- 
dred dragon's heads grew from his shoulders ; his 
body Vras covered with feathers, scales, rugged hair, 
and adders ; from the ends of his fingers snakes issu- 
ed, and his two feet had the shape and folds of a 
serpent's body j his eyes sparkled wltli fir: , and his 
mouth belched out flames. He was at last over- 
come, and thrown down ; and, lest he should rise 
agam, the whole island of Sicily was laid upon him : 

" Nititur ille quidem, pugnatque resiirgere saepe : 
Dextra sed Ausonio maniis est subjecta Peloro ; 
L»va, Pachyne, tibi ? Lilybaeo crura premunturj 
Prajgravat ^tua caput." Omd. Met. 5. 

He Struggles oft, and oft attempts to rise ; 

But on his right hand vast Pelorns lies ; 

On's left Pachynus; Liiyba^us spreads 

O'er his huge thighs ; and ^tna keeps his heads. 

This island was also called Trinacria, because it 
bears the shape of a triangle, in the corners of wh'ch 
are the three promontories, Pelorus, Pachynus, and 
Lilybseus ; Pelorus was placed on his right hand, 
Pachynus on his left, and Lilybaeus lay upon his 

^geon was another prodigious and cruel giant : 
Virgil tells us that he had fifty heads and a himdred 


hands, from which he was called Centumgeminus, 
and by the Grecians, Briareus. 

" ^geon qualis, centum cui brachia dicnnt, 
Centenasque manus, quinquaginta oribiis ignem 
Pectoribusque arsisse : Jovis cum fulmina contra 
Tot paribus streperet clypeis, tot stringeret enses.^' 

JEn. 10. 

And as ^geon, when with heav'n he strove, 
Stood opposite in arms to mighty Jove, 
Mov'd all his hundred hands, provok'd to war, 
Defy'd the forky lightning from afar : 
At fifty mouths his flaming breath expires, 
And ilash for flash returns, and fires for fires; 
In his right hands as many swords he wields 
And takes the thunder on as many shields. 

He hurled a hundred rocks against Jupiter at one 
throw ; yet Jupiter dashed him down, bound hiin in 
a hundred chains, and thrust him under the moun- 
tain jEtna ; where, as soon as he moves his side, the 
mountain casts forth great flames of fire. 

Tityus was the son of Jupiter and Elara, born in 
a subterraneous cave, in which Jupiter hid his mo- 
ther, fearing the anger of Juno. She brought forth 
a child of so prodigious a bulk that the earth was 
rent to give him a passage out of ihe cave ; and 
thence he was believed to be a son of the earth* 
Juno afterward persuaded this giant to accuse Lato- 
na of criminal conduct ; for which Jupiter struck 
him with thunder down into hell : there he lies^ 
stretched out, covering nine acres of ground with 
iiis boriy ; and a vulture contiiuially gnaws biff 
liver, which grows again every month : 

<'Nec non et Tityon, terras omniparentis alumnum, 
Cernere erat ; cui tota novem per jugera corpus 
Porrigitur, rostroque immanis vultur obunco 
ImmoVlale jecur tandens, foecundaque pa?nis 
Viscera, riinaturque epulis, habit atque sub alto 
Pectore : uec fibris requies data ulla renatis." Virg. JEn. 6, 

There Tityus torJuv'd lay, who took his birth 
From iieav'n, his nui'sing from the fruitful earthy. 


Here his gigantic limbs, with large embrace, 

Infold nine acres of infernal i^pace : 

A rav'nous vulture in his oi)en side 

Her crooked beak and crut-l talons try'd ; 

Still, for the growing liver digg'd his breast, 

The growing liver still supply'd the feast ; 

Still are the entrails fruitful to their pains, 

Th' immortal hunger lasts, th' immortal food remains. 

To tliese we may add the Titans, the sons of Ter- 
ra and Cockim ; the chief of whom was Titan as, 
Saturn's eldest brother : they made war against Sa- 
turn, because the birth of Jupiter was concealed, 
and conquered him ; but they were afterward over- 
come by Jupiter, and cast down into hell. 

Phlegyas, who was the king of the Lapithge in 
Thessalia, and the father of the nymph Coronis, 
When he heard that Apollo had deceived his daugh- 
ter, he went in anger and fired the temple of Apollo 
at Delphi : for which the enraged god shot him 
through the body with an arrow, and inflicted on 
him the following punishment : A great stone hangs 
over his head, which he imagines every moment will 
fall down and crush him to pieces : 

"Quos super atra siles jamjam lapsura, cadentique 
Imminet assimilis." Virg. ,^n. §. 

•A massy stone, 

Ready to drop, Jiangs o'er his cursed head. 

Thus he sits^ perpetually fearing what will never 
come to pass ; which makes him frequently call out 
to men, to observe the rules of justice and the pre^ 
cepts of religion : 

" Discite justitiam moniti, et non temnere Divos." 
Learn justice hence, and don't despise the gods. 

Ixion was the son of Phlegyas : be killed Ins own 
sister, and obtained his pardon from the gods, who 


advanced him tD heaven ; and his prosperity made 
him so arropfant, tjmt lie attempted to make love to 
Juno. Tliis insolent attempt was discovered to Ju- 
piter, who sent a cloud in the shnp^ of Juno, whicli 
the deceived lover embraced, and thence those mon- 
sters, the Centaurs, were born : he was then thrown 
down to ihe earth again ; where, because he boast- 
ed every where that he had gained tlie heart of the 
(]ueen of the gods, he was struck with tliundcr down 
into hell, and tied fast to a wheel, which continu- 
al 1}^ turns about. 

Salmoneus was king of Elis ; his ambition was 
cot satisfied with an earthly crown, for he desired 
divine honours ; and, that the people might esteem 
him a god, he built a brazen bridge over the city, 
and drove his ciiariot upon it, imitating by this 
noise Jupiter's thunder ; he also threw down light- 
ed' torches, and those who were struck by them, 
were taken and killed. Jupiter would not suffer so 
great insolence, and therefore threw the proud man 
from his stage into hell, where -^neas, when he 
visited the infernal regions, saw him punished as 
Virgil relates j 

" Vjdi crudeles dantem Salmonea pcenas, 

Dum flamraas Jovis et sonitus imitatur Olympi." ^n 6. 

Salmonens suffering cruel pains I found, 
For emulating Jove ; the rattling sound 
Of mimic thunder, and the giitt'riiig b'.aze 
Of pointed lightnings, and their forked rays. 

Sisiphus was a famous robber killed by Theseus ; 
he is condemned in hell to roll *a great and unwiel- 
dy stone to the top of a high hill, and as oft as the 
atone almost touches the top of the mountain, it 
slides down again. 

The Belides were fifty virgin sisters, so called 

* lo^ens et non exsuperabile saxuniv Virg: 


from fheir grandfather Belus ; and named also Da- 
naides, from their father Danaiis, who married them 
to the fifty sons of his brother. The oracle fore- 
told, that Daiiaus should be slain by his son-in-law ; 
wlierefore he commanded his danghters to provide 
dagG^ers, and on their wedding-night to kill their 
husbands. The daughters performed their promises, 
and killed thei-r husbands, except Hypermnestra, for 
she spared Lynceus, her husband, who afterward 
killed Danaiis, and took his kingdom. This great 
impiety was thus punished : they were condemned 
to diaw water out of a deep well, and fill a tub, that 
(like a seive) is full of holes; the water runs out as 
fast as it is put in, so the}- are tormented wifth a per- 
petual and unprofitable labour. 

" Assiduas repetunt quas perdunt Belides nndas." 

Ovid. Met. 4. 
They hourly fetch the water that they spill. 

Tantalus, another remarkable criminal, was the 
son of Jupiter and the nymph Plota. He invited all 
the gods to a feast, to get a plain and clear proof of 
their divinity : when they came, he killed and quar- 
tered his own son Pelops, and boiled him and set 
the joints before them to eat. All the gods abstain- 
ed from such horrible diet, except Ceres, who being 
melancholy and inattentive from the recent loss of 
her daughter, eat one of the child's shoulders. Af- 
ter\^ard the gods sent Mercury to recall him to life, 
and gave him an ivory shoulder, instead of the 
shoulder which Ceres had eaten. This Pelops was 
the husband of Hippodamia, who bore him, Atreus, 
and Thyestes ; the latter of whom was banished, be- 
cause he seduced CErope his brotlier Atreus' wife ; 
and when he was recalled from banishment, he eat 
up his children ; for Atreus killed them, and had 
them served in dishes to the taJ)le, where he and 
Tliyestes dined together. It is said, that the sun 


could not endure so horrible a sight, and turned his 
course back again to the east. But as Tantalus' 
crime was greater, so was his piuiishment ; *for he 
is tormented with eternal hunger and thirst in the 
midst of plent} , both of meat and drink : he stands 
in water up to his lips, but cannot reach it; and 
fruit is placed just to his mouth, which he cannot 
take hold of. Ovid mentions the punishment of Tan- 
talus, but assigns aiiot])''i reason for it ; namely, be- 
cause he divulged the secrets of the gods to men. 

" Qncent aqiiasin aqni?, et poma fugacia capiat 
Tantalus, hoc illi gairula lingua dedit." 

Now this fable, of Tantalus represents the condi- 
tion of a miser, who in the midst of plenty suffers 
want, and wants as much the things which he has, 
as those which he has not ; as Horace rightly says, 
where he applies this fable of Tantalus to the real 
wants of the covetous man. 

" Tantalus, a labris sitiens fugientia captat 
Flumina. Quid rides? mutato nomine, dfr te 
Fabula narratur." Serm. 1.1. 

Though Tantalus, you've heard, does stand chin deep 
In water, yet he cannot get a sip : 
At which you smile ; now all on't would be true, 
Were the name chang'd, and the tale told of you. 


Who were the Giants ? 

How are they and their actions described ? 

How were they subdued ? 

Who was TyphaMis or Typhon, and how is he described' 

What became of him ? 

Who was iEgeon, and what were his other names -' 

What became of him when he was subdued ? 

Who was Tityus ? 

What became of him ? 

Who were the Titans, and what is said of their chief? 

* Horn. Odyss. 11. 


Who was Phlegyas , what was his crime ; and what his purf 
ishment ? 

What is said of Ixion ? 

What is said of Sahnoneus ? 

Who was Sysyphus ; and what his punishment ? 

Who were the Belides ? 

\V' hat is the history of Tantalus ? 

What are the lines of Horace descriptive of Tantalus ? 



There are many strange pictures of these infer- 
nal monsters, but the most deformed are the Cen- 
taurs, who were the ancient inhabitants of Thessaha, 
and the first who tamed horses, and used them in 
war. Their neighbours, who first saw them on 
horseback, thought that they had partly the mem- 
bers of a man, and partly the limbs of a horse. But 
the poets tell us another story ; for they say that Ixion 
begat them of a cloud, whence they are called *Nu- 
biginae ; and Bacchus is said to have overcome them. 

Geryon, because he was the king of three islands 
called Balearides, is feigned to have three bodies ; 
or, it may be, because there were three bodies of the 
same name, whose minds and afiections were so 
united, that they seemed to be governed and to live 
by one soul. They add, that Geryon kept oxen, 
which devoured the strangers that came to him : 
they were guarded by a dog with two heads, and a 
dragon with seven. Hercules killed the guards and 
drove the oxen away. 

The Harpies, so called f from their rapacity, were 
born of Oceanus and Terra. They had the faces of 

* Virg. Mn. 6. 

i Ab tx.f'recluf rapio. 


virgins and the bodies of birds ; their hands were 
armed with claws, and their habitation was in the 
islands. Their names were tEIIo, Ocypete, and Ce- 
leno ; which last brought forth Zepliyrns, the " west 
wind," and Balius, and Xanthiis, {he horse of Achil- 
les. Virgil gives us an elegant description of these 
three sisters. 

" At subitae horrifico lapsu de montibus adsunt 
Harpyfe; et magnis qiiatinnt claiigoribus alas : 
Sive Dea^, seu smit Dira3, obscoetiaiqiie volucres. 
Tristius baud illis monstrum est, nee sacvior uUa 
Pestis et ira Deum, Stygiis sese exttjlit undis. 
Virginei vobicrura vultus, fcedissitiia ventris 
Pro^uvies, uticseque manns, et pallida semper 
Ora fame." JEn. 3. 

When from the mountain tops, with hideous cry 
And clattering wings, the filthy harpies fly : 
Monsters more fierce oft'ended hcav'ii ne'er sent, 
From heirs abyss, for human punishment. 
With virgin faces, but with wombs obscene ; 
Foul paunches, and with ordure still unclean ; 
With claws for hands, and looks forever lean. 

To the three Harpies add the three Gorgons, Me- 
dusa, Stheno, and Euryale, who were the daughters 
of Phorcus and Cete. Instead of hair, their heads 
were covered with vipers, which so terrified the be- 
holder, that they turned him presently into a stone. 
Perhaps they intended to represent, by this part of 
the fable, the extraordinary beauty of these sisters ; 
which was such, that whoever saw them were ama- 
zed, and stood immoveable like stones. There were 
other Gorgons beside, born of the same parents, who 
were called Latriae, or Empusre. Tliey had only 
one eye and one tooth, common to them all : they 
kept this tooth and eye at home in a little vessel, 
and which ever of them went abroad, she used them. 
They had the faces of women, and also the necks 
and breasts ; but below they were covered with 
scales, and had the tails of serpents. They used to 
entice men, and then devour them. 


The Chimera *was a iiionster, which vomited 
forth fire ; he had the head and breast of a lion, the 
body of a poat, and the tali of a dragon, as it is ex- 
pressed in a known verse, and described b}' Ovid : 

" Prima leo, poslrema draco, media inde capella." 

A lion's bead and breast resemble his, 
His waist a goat's, his tail a dragon's is, 

'■'Quoqiie Chima?ra jago mediis in partibns ignem, 
Pectus et ora IciE, caudam serpentis habebat." Met. 9, 

, And on the craggy top 

Chimaera dwells, Mith lion's face and mane, 
A goat's rough body, and a serpent's train, 

A volcano in Lycia occasioned this fable ; for 
in the top of the mountain v.ere lions ; in the mid- 
dle, where was pasture, goats lived ; and the bottom 
of it abounded with serpents.. Bellerophon made 
:his mountain habitable, and therefore is said to have 
killed the Chimsera. 

The monster Sphynx was begotten of Typhon and 
Echidna. She had the head and breast of a woman, 
the wings of a bird, the bod}' of a dog, and the paws 
of a lion. She lived in the mountain Sphincius, as- 
saulted all passengers, and infested the country 
about Thebes ; insomuch that the oracle of Apollo 
was consulted concerning her, and answer was made, 
that unless somebody did resolve the riddle of 
Sphynx, there would be no end to that great evil. 
JVlany endeavoured to explain it, but were overcome, 
and torn in pieces by the monster. Creon, at that 
time king of Thebes, published an edict through all 
Greece, in which if any one could explain the riddle 
of Sphynx, he promised that he would give him to 
wile his own sister Jocasta. The riddle was this ; 
f" What animal is that, which walks upon four feet 
in the morning, upon two at noon, and upon three 

* Horn. Iliad. 24. 

t Quidam animal mane quadrupes, meridie bipes, vesperi tri- 
Ijos es-et ? 


at night ?" CEdipns, encouraged with the hopes <tf 
the reward, undertook it, and happily explained it ; 
so that the Sphynx was enraged, and cast herself 
headlong into the sea, and died. He said, that the 
animal was a man, who in his infancy creeps upon 
his hands and feet, and so may be said to go on 
four feet ; when he grows up he walks on two feet ; 
but when he grows old, he uses the support of a staff, 
and so may be said to walk on three feet. 

This CEdipuswas the son of Laius, king of Thebes. 
Soon after his birth, Laius commanded a soldier to 
carry his son CEdipus into a wood, and then destroy 
him ; because it had been foretold by the oracle, 
that he should be killed by his own son. But the 
soldier was moved with pity toward the child, and 
afraid to imbrue his hands in royal blood; where- 
fore he pierced his feet with a hook, and hanged 
him on a tree to be killed with hunger. One of the 
shepherds of Polybius, king of Corinth, found him, 
and brought him to the queen, who, because she had 
no children, educated him as her own son, and from 
^his swollen feet called him (Edipus. When Qi^di- 
pus came to age, he knew that king Polybius was 
not his father, and therefore resolvexl to find out his 
parents : he consulted the oracle, and was told that 
he should meet his father in Phocis. In his jour- 
ney he met some passengers, among whom was his 
father, but he knew him not : a quarrel arose, and 
in the fray he by chance killed his father. After 
this he proceeded on his journey, and arrived at 
Thebes, where he overcame Sphynx, and for his re- 
ward married Jocasta, whom he knew not to be his 
mother then, but discovered it afterward. He had, 
by her, two sons, Eteocles and Polynices, and two 
daugters, Antigone and Ismena. f When afterward 

* Puerum (Edipum vovacit a turaere pedum tuha enim turaeo 
et jrsj pedem significat. 
t Senecae (Edip. 


he found, by clear proof, that he had killed his fa 
ther, and married Lis ni other, he was seized with so 
great madness that he pulled out his own eyes, and 
w oiild have killed himseir, if his daughter Antigone 
(who led him about ailer he was blind) had not hin- 
dered him. 

Eteocles and Polynices, the sons of CCdipus and 
Joeasta, ^succeeded their father in the government ; 
and they agreed to reign a year each, in their turns. 
Eteocles reigned the first year, and tlien refused to 
admit his brother Polynices to the throne ; upon 
which a war arose, and the tvvo brothers, in a duel, 
killed each other. Their enmity lasted longer than 
their lives ; for when their bodies were placed on 
the same pile, to be burnt b}^ the same fire, the 
flames refused to unite, but divided themselves into 
two parts. 

There is a place in the infernal dominions abound- 
ing with pleasures and delights, which is called the 
Elysium ; -j-because thither the souls of the good re- 
sort after they are loosed from the chains of the 
bod} and have been purified from the light offences 
that they had contracted in this world : 

" Q;iisque suos patlmur manes ; cxinde per araplum 
INIittiiiiur EK sium. et pauci lata arva teiiemus." ^n. 6. 

All liav^e their manes, and those manes bare : 
The few who're cleans'd, to those abodes repair, 
And breathe in ample fields the soft Elysian air. 

^neas received this account from one of the hi- 
habitants of it, as V'rgil tells us, who describes this 
place as abounding with all the delights that the 
most pleasant plains, and the finest and most tempe- 
rate air, can produce. 

* Stat. Theb, 

t A<To ms Xtjffius, a solutione ; quod Animae piorum corpo" 
reis solutae vlncidis, loca illi petant postquam ptugatae sunt a 
levioribus nosis quas contraxerent. 



Devenere locos laetos, et amaena vireta 
Fortunatorum nemorum, sedesque beatas. 
Largior hie campos aether et lumina vestit 
Purpureo : soiemque suum sua sidera norunt. 
These holy rites perform'd, they took their way, 
Where long extended plains of pleasure lay. 
The verdant fields with those of heav'n may vie. 
With ether vested, and a purple sky : 
The blissful seats of happy souls below, 
Stars of their own, and their own sun they know."* 

There is a river in hell called Lethe, f from the 
forgetfulness it causes. For if any body drinks this 
water, he immediately forgets all things past ; so that 
when the souls of the pious have spent many ages in 
the Elysian fields, they drink the water of Lethe, 
and are believed to pass into new bodies, and return 
into the world again : and it is necessary they should 
forget both the pleasures they have received in Elysi- 
um, and the miseries they did formerly endure in this 
life, that they may willingly return into this miserable 
ife again. These souls went out from Elysium by 
that ivory gate ; which you see painted in the loweir 
part of this wall : 

-Animae, quibus altera fate 

Corpora debentur, Lethsei ad fluminis undam 

Securos latices et longa oblivia potant. Virg. ^n. 0. 

Souls that by fate 

Are doom'd to take new shapes, at Lethe's brink 
Quaff drafts secure and long oblivion drink. 

* Mr. Cliffton, an American poet, thus beautifully describes the 
i^harms of Elysium, in lines which would do honour to Pope. 

"There, rage no storms; the sun diffuses there 
His temper'd beams, thro' skies for ever fair. 
There gentler airs, o'er brakes of myrtle blow; 
Hills greener rise, and purer waters flow ; 
There bud the woodbine and the jes,mine pale. 
With ev'ry bloom that scents the morning gale ; 
While thousand melting sounds the breezes bear, 
In silken dalliance to the dreaming ear. 
And golden fruits, 'mid shadowy blossoms^ ""hine, 
In fields immortal and in groves diyinei 

> Avo rm >.ti$n$i ab oblivio n€. 



What is said of the Centaurs ? 
What is the histoiy of Geryon ? 
Who were the Harpies ? 
What is said of the Gorgons ? 

What is said of the Chimaera, and what was the occasion of this 
fable ? 

What is the history of Sphynx ? 

Who explained it ? 

Give the history of (Edipus. 

What is the Elysium, and how is it described ? 

Repeat the lines from Virgil. 

What is said of the river Lethe ? 

Repeat the lines from Virgil. 

Repeat the lines of Mr. CiifFton, in the note 








The fifth division of this Fabulous Pantheon coft* 
tains the inferior or subordinate gods : the Latins gen- 
erally called them Dii Minorum Gentium, and some- 
times Semones, Minuti, Plebeii, and Patellarii. 

T{)e Penates are so called from the Latin word 
j)enus, which word, ^Cicero says, includes every 
thing that man eats. Or they have perhaps this name 
from the place allotted to them in the heavens, f be- 
cause they are placed in the most inward and private 
parts of the heavens where they reign : hence they 
call them fPenetrales, and the place of their abode 
Penetrale. They entirely govern us by their reason, 
their heat, and their spirit, so that we can neither 
live, nor use our understanding without them ; yet 
we know neither their number nor names. T j an- 
cient Hetrusci called them Consentes and Compli- 

* Est enim penus omne quo vescuntiir homines. De Nat. Deor, 
t Quod peiiitufs insideant, ex quo Penctrales a Poetis vocautur, 

et locus in quo servabantur eoruna effigies Penetrale dictus. Var- 

ro ap. Arnob. 1. 3. 


ces ; supposing that they are Jupiter's counsellors, 
and the chief of the gods ; and many reckon Jupi- 
ter himself, together with Juno and Minerva, among 
the Penates. But I will give you more distinct and 
particular information in this matter. 

There were three orders of the Dii Penates : 

1. Those who governed ^kingdoms and provinces, 
and were absolutely and solely called Penates. 

2. Those who presided over cities only ; and these 
w^ere called the f " gods of the country," or the " great 
gods :" jEneas makes mention of them in Virgil. 

" Tu, genitor, cape sacra manu, patriosque Penates." 

Our country gods, the reliques and the bands, 
Hold you, my father, in your guiltless hands. 

3. Those who preside over particular houses and 
families, and these were called the f" small gods:" 
The poets make frequent mention of them, especially 
Virgil, who in one place mentions fifty maid-servants 
whose business it was to look after their affairs, and 
-^^to offer sacrifices to the household gods : and in ||ano- 
ther place he speaks of these household gods being 
stained and defiled by the blood of one that was killed 
by his brother. But it must likewise be observed 
that, among the Latins, the word Penates not only 
signifies the gods, of which we have been speaking, 
but likewise a dwelling house, of which we have in- 
stances in many authors, and among the rest, in 
IT Virgil, ^^Cicero, and f f Fabius. 

■' Virg. JEn. 1. 5. 

t Dii Patrii S-ioi ^xTputot. Macrob. 3. Saturn. 14, 

X Parvique Penates. Virg. JEn. 8. 

§ Flammis adolere penates. ^n. 1. 

II Sparsos fraterna cajde Penates. JEn. 4. 

IT Nostris succede penatibus hospes JE.n. 8. 

** Exterminare aliquem a suis Diis Penatibus. Pro Sexto. 

it Liberos pellere domo, ac prohibere Penatibus. Dec. 260 


*Timseus, and from him Dionysius, says that 
these Penates had no proj3er shape or figure ; but 
were wooden or brazen rods, shaped somewhat like 
trumpets. But it is ajso thought by others, that 
they had the shape of young men with spears, which 
they held ajDart from another. 

The Liires were children born from Mercury and 
the Nymph Lara ; for wlien, by her prating, she 
had discovered some of Jupiter's intrigues, he was so 
enraged that he cut out her tongue, and banished 
her to the Sltygian lake : Mercury, who was ap- 
pointed to conduct her thither, made love to her. 
She brought forth twins, and named them Lares. 

" Fitque gravis Gerainosque parit qui compita servant, 
Et vigilant nostra semper in aede Lares. Ovid. Fast. 2 

Her twins the Lares called. 'Tis by their care 
Our houses, roads, and streets in safety are 

They were made domestic gods, and accordingly 
presided over houses, streets, and ways. On this 
account they were worshipped in the roads and open 
streets, called compita in Latin, whence the games 
celebrated in honour of them were called Compi- 
talitii, Compitalitia, and sometimes Compitalia. 
When these sports were exercised, the images of 
men and women, made of wool, were hung in the 
streets ; and so many balls made of wool as there 
were servants in the family, and so man}^ complete 
images as there were children. The meaning of 
which custom was this : These feasts were dedicated 
to the Lares, who were esteemed infernal gods ; the 
people desiring by this, that these gods would be 
contented with those woollen images, and spare the 
persons represented by them. The Roman youths 
used to wear a golden ornament, called bulla, about 
their necks ; it was made in the shape of a heart,. 
* Lib. 1. 


and hollow within: this they wore till they were 
fc '.ieen years of oge, then they put it ofi; and hang- 
in : :^ up, consecrated it to the Lares ; as we learn 
froiii Fersius. 

'•' Bu,]laque succinctis Laribus donata pependit." 

When fourteen years are past, the Bulla's laid 
Aside, an ottering to the Lares made. 

These Lares sometimes were clothed in the skin 
of dogs, and sometimes fashioned in the shape of 
dogs; whence that creature was consecrated to them. 

The place in which the Lares were worshipped 
was called Lararium ; and in the sacrifices offered 
to them, the first fruits of the year, wine and in- 
cense, were brought to their altars, and their images 
adorned with chaplets and garlands. *The bri^in- 
ning of which worship came hence : that anciently 
the dead, f who were buried at home, wej-e wor- 
shipped as gods, and called Lares. And besides, 
we find in JPliny, that they sacrificed, with wine 
and incense, to the images of the emperors while 
they yet lived. 


How are the inferior gods divided? 
V/hat is said of the Penates ? 

Into how many orders were they divided, and what was their 
Oiiioe r 

What signification is given to the word '' Penates" by the 
Latuis r ^ 

What is related of the Penates by Tima?us and Dionysius ? 

Who were the Laies ? 

Over what did they preside ? 

What games were celebrated in honour of them, and how 
were tiiey exercised ? 

What customs had the Romans with respect to the Lares ? 

Where were the Lares worshipped ? 

* Juv. Sat. 9, 12. 
f Arnob. 5. ex. V'ar 
X Epist. ]. 10. 



Although the Genii and the Lares sometimes 
mean the same deities, yet by Genius is commonly 
meant that spirit of nature which produces all things, 
from which ^generative power it has its name. The 
birth-day had the name f " genial" from him : which 
name was likewise given to all days, wherein mirth, 
pleasure, and joys did abound. And on the same 
account those who live merrily, who deny themselves 
nothing that makes for their ease and pleasure, or 
that is grateful to their appetite, who entirely follow 
the dictates of their sensual desires, are said to live 
a genial life, or to indulge their genius. 

The Greeks called these Genii " daemons ;'* as 
it is thought, from the Jterror and dread they create 
in those to whom they appear ; or, as it is more 
probable, §from the prudent and wise answers which 
they gave when they were consulted as oracles. 
Hence some think, that illustrious men, whose ac- 
tions in this life gain them universal praise and ap- 
plause, do after their deaths become daemons ; by 
which daemons is to be understood, as Plutarch 
says, beings of a middle kind, of a greater dignity 
than man, but of a nature inferior to the gods. 

The images of the Genii (according to Persius 
and his commentators) resembled for the most part 

* A gignendo seu genendo, nam geno pro gigno olim diceba- 
tur. Aug. de Civ. Dei. 7. Cic. de Orat. 2. et de Invent. 2. 

t Censorin. de Dei. Nat. 3. 

j Daemones dicuntur a '^aifAova.u exterreo aut pavefacio. Eu- 

§ Ve! quasi Sa<^jv=j id est, periti rerumque proscii nam res- 
pouaa dabant consulentibus. Isidor. 3. Etymol, 


the form of a serpent. Sometimes also they were 
described like a boy, a girl, or an old man ; and 
crowned with the leaves of the plane, which was a 
tree sacred to them. 

Wine and flowers were offered up in the sacrifices 
to the Genii, and that, especially by the people on 
their birth-days, as we may learn from Persi"'? — ' 
Horace : 

*' Funde merum Genio." Pers. 
To Genius consecrate a cheerful glass, 

Floribus et vino Genium memorem bra3vis aevi, 
Cum sociis operum e* pueris conjuge fida." Epist. 2. 

Their wives, their neighbours, and their prattling boys. 
Were call'd ; all tasted of their sportive joys • 
They drank, they danc'd, they sun?, made wanton sport. 
Enjoy'd themselves, for life they knew was short. 

To these flowers and wine they added *ineense 
parched bread, and corn strewed with salt, f Some- 
times also a swine was sacrificed ; though Censorinus 
writes, that it was not usual to sacrifice to the Genii 
with the blood and slaughter of any thing, since we 
ought not to take life from other creatures on that 
day on which we received it. 

The Genii were appointed the continual guar- 
dians, overseers, and safe keepers of the men fas 
the women's guardians and protectors were called 
Junones) from their cradles to their graves. They 
likewise carried the prayers of men to the gods, and 
interceded for them. Whence some call them Prse- 
stites, or chief governors, because thev are set over 
the management of all things. 

To every person Jwere assigned two Genii, a 

• Piut. in Aul. 

t Palseph. Eel. 5. Hor. Carm. 3. 
t Pint de Iside et Osir. 

242 • 

bonus Genius, and a malus Genius : ^Horace calls 
them a white and a black one. We are told by 
f Valerius Maximus, that when Casslus fled to Athens, 
after Anthony was beaten at Actium, there appeared 
to him a man of large stature, of a black swarthy 
complexion, with long hair, and grisly beard. Cas- 
sius a^ed him who he was f and the apparition 
answered, " I am your evil Genius." Virgil is 
thought, by his Jcommentator, Servius, to mean 
these two Genii, by the word manes. Of these two 
Genii, the good one, which is given to»^every one at 
his birth, constantly incites him to the practice of 
virtue and goodness ; whereas the bad one prompts 
him to all manner of vice and wickedness. 

Nor were they assigned to men only ; for several 
countries had their Genii, who therefore were called 
§" the deities of the place :" Nay, IJGenii were al- 
lotted to all houses, and doors, and stables, and 
hearths: and because the hearths were usually co- 
vered with slates, therefore the god of the hearths 
was called Lateranus. 


Who were the Genii, and from what is the term derived ? 

Why were they called Daemons? 

How are they represented ? 

What were the sacrifices offered to the Genii ? 

To whom were the Genii appointed guardians? 

How many Genii were appointed to each person, and what 
were they ? 

What was the office of each ? 

Were Genii appointed to countries and places, as well as per- 
sons ? 

What was the god of the hearths called ? 

* Genium album et nigrum Epist. 2. 

t Interrogatus quisquam esset respondit se esse K«Ke^aifioy»f. 
^ c. 7. 

♦ Quisque sues patimur manes. Virg. ^n. 7. Vide Servium 

ft r*umen loci. Virg. JEn. 7. 

( Prud. in Symm. Laterculis extnii foci solebant. Lil. Gyr 
fynt. 1. 




Five deities were so absolutely necessary to all 
marriages, that none coiild lawfully be solemnized 
without tiiem. They were Jupiter perfectus or adul- 
ills, Juna perfecta or adulia, Venus, Suada, and 
Diana : beside these, several interior gods and god- 
desses were worshipped at all marriages. 

Jugatinus joined the man and the woman together' 
in *the yoke of matrimony. 

Domiducus fguided the bride into the bride- 
groom's house. 

Domitius was worshipped, that the bride might be 
Jkept at home, to look after the affairs of the family, 

Manturna was worshipped, that the wife might 
never leave her husband, but in all conditioii^ of lite 
•|abide with him. 

Then the goddess Virginensis, and also the god- 
dess Cinxia Juno, |Jwere invoked. 

Priapus, or Mutinus, was also reckoned one of the 
nuptial gods, because in his lap the bride was com- 
manded to sit. 

irViriplaca reconciles husbands to their wives. A 
temple at Rome was dedicated to her, whither the 
married couple usually repaired when any quarrel 
arose between them ; and there, opening their minds 
freely to each other, without passion, they laid aside 
all anger, and returned home together friendly. 

*" A jugo matrimonii dictus. Aug. de Civ. Dei. 4. 

t Quod sponsam in sponsi domum duceret. Idem, ibid* 

t Ut sponsam domi teneret. 

§ Ut cum marito semper maneret. 

II August, ibid. ^ ^, . i 

^ A placando viro. V^al. Max. L 2. e. 1„ 


Pilumnus, one of the gods of children, was ^o 
called from the ^pestle which tlie ancients pounded 
their corn withj before they made their bread ; or, 
f because he keeps off those misfortunes which attend 

Intercidona was the goddess who first taught the 
art {of cutting wood with a hatchet to make iires. 

Deverra was worshipped as a goddess, because 
she invented brooms, by which all things are brushed 
clean, and those distempers prevented that proceed 
from uncleanhness. 

The Sylvan gods, who were always hurtful to 
pregnant women, were driven away by those dei- 
ties, and the mischiefs they intended were prevented. 
For, as neither the trees, §says St. Augustine, are 
cut down without an axe, nor bread made without 
a pestle, nor things preserved clean without a brush ; 
so, since these instruments are thought signs of good 
housewifery, it was supposed that these wild unclean 
deities would never enter into the chamber of a 
nre^nant woman. 

Juno Lucina, the friend of women in labour, is 
represented with one hand empty, and ready, as it 
were, to receive the new-born babe ; the other hand 
holding a lighted torch, by which that light of life 
was signified, which all enjoy as soon as they are 


Who were the deities necessary in all marriages ? 

What was the business of .Tugatinus, Domiducus, and Domi* 

tins ? 

Why were Maturna, Virginensis, and Priapus, reckoned nup- 
tial gods ? 

What was the business of Viriplaca ? 

* A pile. 

i Quod mala ab infantibus pellit. Servius. 

\ Ab intercisione securis. 

§ De Civ. Dei. 7. ,. .^,, 


Who was Pilumnus ? 
Who was Intercidona ? 

Why was Deverra worshipped as a goddess ? 
What gods were driven away by these deities ; and what are 
the observations of St. Augustine ? 
How is Juno Lucina represented ? 



The chief of these are as follows : 

Janus, who opened ^the door of life to them. 

Opis, who f assisted them when they came mto 
the world. 

Nascio, or Natio, a goddess so called from a Latiu 
word signifying to be born. 

Cunia, who attends the cradle, and watches the 
infants while they lie and sleep. 

Levana, from lifting them up from the ground, 
for when a child was born, the midwife constantly 
laid the child on the ground, and the father, or in 
his absence, somebody appointed by him, lifted it 
from the ground ; and hence tollere liberos signifies 
" to educate children." 

Carna, or Carnea, {who keeps the inward parts 
safe. To this goddess they sacrificed upon the 
calends of June, bacon, and cakes made of beans. 
Whence those calends were called Fabarise. 

The goddess Nundina was so called from the ninth 
day of the child's age, which was the day of the pu- 
rification : in which the name was given it, if it wa«5 

* Qui aperiret vitae januara. 
t Quae opem ferret. 

t A carne. Vide Macrob. Saturn. 1. 1, 


a boy; if it was a girl, this ceremony was performed 
on the eighth day. 

Our several actions are supposed to be under the 
protection of divers gods. 

Juventus, or Juventas, protects us in the beginning 
of our youth, *when we have thrown off the child's 

Horto is the goddess fwho exhorts us to under- 
take noble enterprises. Her temple at Rome stood 
always open : and some call her Hora. 

Quies had her temple without the city : and {was 
Apposed to be the donor of peace and quietness. 

The goddess Meditrina has her name from §heal- 
ing ; and her sacrifices were called Meditrinalia, id 
which they drank new and old wine, instead of 

The goddess Vitula is called from leaping for joy : 
she is the " goddess of mirth," which mitigates the 
toils of life. 

Sentia was worshipped, that children might im- 
bibe at first just and honourable || sentiments. 

Angerona was the goddess that removed the 
ITanguish of the mind. 

Stata, or Statua Mater, was worshipped in the 
Forum, that it should not be burnt, or suffer damage 
from the frequent fires, which happened there in the 

The goddess Laverna was the protectress of 
thieves, who, from her, were named Laverniones : 
they worshipped her, that their designs and intrigues 
might be successful : her image was a head without 
a body. 

* August. 4. c. 11. 

i Plut. QucEst. Rom. 14. 

I Aui^ust. 4. c. 16. 

A medendo. Var. et Festus. 
A sentieiido. Fest. Jul. ModeStv 
Ut pelleret angores ajiimi. 


Volummis and Volumna were so named, because, 
through llieir means, men *\vere willing to follow 
things that are good. 

Aius Locutius was worshipped on this occasion; 
A common soldier reported, that in the night he 
heard a voice say, '* tiie Gauls are coming." No- 
body minded what he said, because he was a pooF 
fellow. After the Gallic war, Camillus advised llie 
Romans to expiate their ofi'ence in neglecting this 
nocturnal voice, which forewarned them of the Gal- 
lic war, and the ensuing destruction ; upon which 
a temple was dedicated in Via Nova to Aius Locu- 

A particular god was assigned and ascribed to 
every member of the body of man. 

The head was sacred to Jupiter, the breast to Nep- 
time, the waist to IMars ; the forehead to Genius, the 
eyebrows to Juno, the eyes to Cupid, the ears to 
Memoria, the right hand to Fides, the back and the 
hinder parts to Pluto, the reins to Venus, the feet to 
Mercury, the knees to Misericordia, the ancles and 
SK)les of the feet to Thetis, and the fingers to Mi- 
nerva. # 

The astrologers assign the parts of the body to 
ihe celestial constellations, in another manner. 

Thechief of the funeral deities is Libitina, whom 
some account to be the same as Veiuis ; but oiliers 
think that she was Proserpine. In her tem[)le all 
things necessary for funerals were sold or let. Libi- 
tina sometimes signifies the grave, and Libitinarii, 
those men who were employed in burying the dead. 
Porta Libitina, at Rome, was that gate tlirough 
which the dead bodies were carried to be burnt: 
-and RatJ^nies Libitinae, in Suetonius, signifies those 
accounts viAch we call " the bills of mortahty,'' or 
** the weekly bills." 

* A volendo, quod ejua consilio bona vellen^ 



Who were Janus, Opis, Nascio, and Cunia ? 
What was the office of Levana? 

What was the business of Carna, and what were the sacrifices 
offered to her ? 

Who was the goddess Nundina, and why was she so called ? 

What is the office of Juventus ? 

What are the duties of Horta and Quies ? 

Who was Vitula? 

Who were Sentia and Angerona ? 

Why were Stata and Laverna worshipped ? 

From what did Volumnus and Volumna derive their names? 

What is said of Aius Locutius ? 

What parts of the body were sacred to the gods ? 

Who was the chief of the funeral deities ? 






. In the last division of the Fabulous Pantheon, are 
described the images of the Indigetes, or Semi-Dei, 
and thp Hproes 

The .'^^^n • rvi, ll?^iiici fTIcmitr " " <.; Deri;i- 

fOd&5 V 

world fo. 

ITe^hinks that Heros %as\one ot Jmio's <50iis, aiij 
tiiiii the name Heros is d« iived fnm Yl x T Hera A 
Juno's name in the Greek language. Others think 
that the word comes from eox [e; «,] " the earth ;" 
because men owe their original to it. Others again 
think it conies from f o^« [ero5,] " love ;" for heroes 
are the most illustrious product of love, and are 
themselves, as Hierocles observes, full of love. But 
ethers think that this name is derived from speu ^ereo,'] 
" to plead," and is given them because heroes are 
very elegant, and most powerful, and ski'fnl in rhe- 
toric. Or, lastly, it is thought that the word comes-" 

from etfurti [arete^ " virtue ;" for heroes are endued 
with many virtues. But let us speak particularly 
concerning some of these heroes, of whom the most 
famous was Hercules. . 

There were many heroes called Hercules, but (as 
* Cicero says) the famous actions of them all are 
ascribed to him who was the son of Jupiter, by Alc- 
mena, the wife of Amphytrio, king of Thebes. 

When Amphytrio was absent, Jupiter put on his 
shape and dress, and came to Alcmena ; who, think- 
ing that her husband was returned, entertained the 
deceitful god, and had by him a son, whose limbs 
were extraordinary and wonderfully large, his con- 
stitution robust, and his body full of vigor. Before 
this, Alcmena had conceived a son by her husband. 
This son and Hercules were twins ; his name was 
Iphiclus ; he was wonderfully swift in running : 

" Nam super extremas segetum currebat aristas, 
Nee siccos fructus laedebat pondere plantae." 

Orph. in Hymn, 

He standing corn would run, and ne'er 
In his swift motion bruise the tender ear. 

When Juno had discov^^red the conduct, of Jupi- 
ter, she began to hate Hercules so violently, that 
she endeavoured to ruin him. First, she obtained 
an edict from Jupiter, which she endeavoured to turn 
to his utter destruction ; for the wife of Sthenelus, 
king of Mycenae, was pregnant with Euristheus, at 
the same time when Alcmena was with Hercules. 
Jupiter ordained, that whichever of the two children 
was born first, he should be superior to the other : 
Juno accelerated Euristheus' birth, so that he was 
born after seven months, and came into the world 
before Hercules. Again, she sent two vipers to de- 
stroy him when he lay crying in the cradle : but it 

* De Nat. Deor. 2.. 


was in vain ; for the valiant infant griped them in 
his hands till they perished by his grasp, as we are 
told by Ovid, in his epistles. At length, by the 
mediation of Pallas, Juno was reconciled to the no- 
ble youth, aiid suckled him, but he drew the milk 
with suck violence, that she violently put him away, 
and some of her milk was spilt ; falling upon the sky, 
it made the Milkyway, which is in Greek r«tA«|<«6 
l^Galaxia.'] Some of it passed through the clouds, 
and fell on the earth ; and where it fell lilies sprang 
up : hence some call these the "roses of Juno." 

He had two proper names, Hercules and Alcides ; 
but his sirnames are innumerable. His parents call- 
ed him * Alcides, . from his extraordinary strength, 
in which he greatly excelled all mankind. He was 
afterward called Hercules, f from the glory which 
Juno caused him : for when she exposed him to the 
greatest dangers, she rendered him most illustrious, 
and b} enjoining him so many labors, she only ex- 
ercised his patience and courage. 

Hercules was subjected to Euristheus, not only by 
the edict of Jupiter and unkindness of Juno, but also 
because the oracle of Apollo at Delphi advised and 
persuaded him to submit himself, and obey Euris- 
theus' commands ; and especially, to undergo, will- 
ingly, the twelve labors which his master should 
lay upon him. Hercules obeyed the Fates, and 
served Euristheus twelve years : he performed the 
most dangerous and difficult commands with a suit- 
able courage and success. Some say, that Hercu- 
les served him voluntarily, and performed these 
difficult tasks, to show how great love he bore Eu- 

Though Hercules performed an infinite number 
of great and memorable actions, twelve are espe- 
cially celebrated : and those twelve are comprised 

* Ab aXxn robur. 

t Juno Grace dicitur rpa, et kKh; gloria, unde nomen Herciiler. 


m as many Latin verses, translated out of the 
Greek : 

" Prima Cleonei tolerata aerumna leonis. 
Proxima Lerna^am ferro et face contndit hydram. 
Mox Erymantheuni vis tertia perculit aprum. 
^ripidis quarto tulit aurea cornua cervi. 
Stymphalidas pepulit volucres discrimiiie quinto. 
Threiciam sexto spoliavit Amazonabaltheo. 
Septima in Augeae stabulis impensa laboris. 
Octava expulso numeraf.n-.adorea tauro. 
Ifi Diomedis victor jam nona quadrigis. 
Geryone extincto deciraam dat Iberia palmam. 
Undecimum mala Hesperidum distracta triiimphum. 
Cerberus extremi suprema est meta laboris." 

-The Cleonian lion first he kills; 

With fire and sword then Lerna's pest he quells ; 
Of the wild boar he clears th' Er'manthean fields; 
The brass-foot stag with golden antlers yields: 
He Stympha clears of man-devouring birds ; 
And next the bouncing Amazon ungirds: 
The stables of king Augeas he cleans; 
The Cretan bull he vanquishes and chains: 
Diomedes' horses him their conqu'ror own : 
Then he brings low three-headed Geryon : 
Hesperian apples next his name sustains ; 
And his last labour Cerberus enchains. 

The particular account of these twelve is this : 
The first labour of Hercules. was, that he tore in 
pieces, with his nails, the lion in the woods of Ne- 
msea, which, some say, fell from the orb of the moon, 
and was invulnerable by any weapon. This place 
was also named Cleone, from which the lion was 
also called Cleoneus. He afterwards skinned the 
lion, and with the skin made himself a shield and a 

2. There was a hydra, a serpent in the lake 
Lerna, in the field of Argos, that had seven heads ; 
some say nine, others lifty. When any of these 
heads were cut otf, another presently sprang up in 
the place of it : unless the blood which issued from 
the wound was stopped. 


lolaus, the son of Iphiclus, procured for him light- 
ed brands from the neighbouring wood, and with 
them Hercules stanched the blood issuing from the 
wounds he made. This seasonable assistance was 
not forgotten ; for when lolaus was grown to decre- 
pid age, Hercules, by his prayers, restored him to 
his youth again. Ovid. Met. 9. 

3. He bound the wild boar, whose fierceness and 
bigness were equally admirable, in the mountain 
Erymanthus of Arcadia ; and afterwards brought it 
to Euristheus. 

4. He was ordered to bring to Mycenae a hind, 
whose feet were brass, and horns gold. Nobody 
dared to wound her, because she was consecrated to 
Diana, nor could any body outrun her : yet Her- 
cules hunted her a year, on foot, caught her, and 
brought her away on his shoulders. 

5. He partly killed and partly drove away the 
birds called Stymphalides, from lake Stymphalus, 
which used to feed upon man's flesh. 

6. He defeated the army of the Amazons, and 
took from Hyppolite, their queen, the finest belt in 
the world. 

7. He in one day cleansed the stable of Augeas, 
by turning the course of a river into it. This sta- 
ble had never been cleansed, although three thou- 
sand oxen stabled in it thirty years. Whence, when 
we would express a work of immense labour and toil, 
in proverbial speech, we call it " cleansing the Au- 
gean stable." 

^ 8. He tamed a great bull, that did much mischief 
111 the island of Crete, and brought him bound to 

9. He overcame Diomedes, the most cruel tyrant ^^' 
of Thrace, who fed his horses with the flesh of ^'^^ ' ^^^ 
guests. Hercules bound him, and threw him where it 
eaten by those horses to which the t- 
posed others. 



10. He overcame in war Geryon, king of Spain, 
who had three bodies, and took his bay oxen that 
ate men's flesh, and brought them into Italy, when 
he had killed the dragon with seven heads, and the 
two-headed dog which guarded him. 

11. He killed the dragon that watched, and then 
carried away the golden apples in the gardens of the 
Hesperides ; whence perhaps he is called ^Melius, 
and apples were offered up in his sacrifices. In 
Boeotia, when no bull (or sheep) could be procured 
at the time of sacrifice, they took an apple, and 
stuck into it four straws, which represented four 
legs, and two more for horns, with another for a 
tail, and ofiered Hercules this apple instead of a 

12. Lastly, he was commanded by Euristheus to 
go down into hell, and bring away thence the dog 
Cerberus. This he performed without delay, bound 
the three-headed monster in a triple chain, and by 
force brought him up to the earth. When Cerebus 
saw the light, he vomited, and thence the poisonous 
herb wolf's-bane, Aconitu?n, sprang. These are the 
twelve labours of Hercules. 

13. He vanquished the cruel and enormous giant 
Antaeus, the son of the earth, who was above sixty- 
four cubits high, and who forced strangers to wrestle 
with him. Hercules threw this giant down thrice, 
and perceiving that he recovered new strength as 
oft as he touched the earth, he lifted him in his arms 
from the ground, and then despatched him. 

14. Busiris, the tyrant, used to sacrifice all the 
strangers that he caught to his father Neptune, till 
Hercules sacrificed both him and his son upon the 

^'^":ame altar. 

some .r.^ He killed the giants Albion and Bergeon, 

heads wt^^^j^^g^j ^q gtpp his journey : and when in the 

the place oi it : 

the wound was Stopi^ce gignificat malum vel pomum. 


fight his arrows were consumed, so that he wanted 
arms, he prayed to Jupiter, and obtained from him 
a shower of stones, with which he defeated and put 
to flight his adversaries. This, they say, happened 
in tiiat part of France, anciently called Gallia Nar- 
bonensis ; which place is called the Stony Plain, 
Campus Lapideus. 

16. When Atlas was weary of his burden, Her- 
cules took the heavens upon his shoulders. He 
overcame the robber Cacus, who spit fire, and 
strangled him. He shot the eagle that devoured 
the liver of Prometheus, as he lay chained to the 
rock. And he slew Theodamus, the father of Hy- 
las, because he denied him victuals ; but he took 
care of Hylas, and was kind to him. 

17. He delivered "^Hesione, daughter of Lao- 
medon, king of Troy, from the whale in this manner; 
he raised, on a sudden, a bank in the place where 
Hesione was to be devoured, and stood armed be- 
fore it ; and when the whale came seeking his prey, 
Hercules leaped into his mouth, slided down his 
throat, destroyed him and came away safe. Lao- 
medon, after this, broke his word, and refused to 
give Hercules the reward he promised ; therefore 
he took it by force, and pillaged the city of Troy ; 
giving to Telamon, who first mounted the wall, the 
lady Hesione, as a part of the booty. 

18. In fighting for Deianira, Hercules overcame 
Achelous, the son of Oceanus and Terra, though 
Achelous first turned himself into a serpent, then 
into a bull. By plucking one of his horns off, he 
obliged him to 3'ield ; but Achelous purchased his 
horn again ; giving Amalthsea's horn in its stead. 
The meaning of which is this : Achelous is a river 
of Greece, whose course winds like a serpent ; its 
stream is so rapid, that it makes furrows where it 

^Ovid Met. 11. 


flows, and a noise like the roaring of a bull : and 
indeed it is common among the poets to compare a 
river to a bull. This river divided itself into two 
streams, but Hercules forced it into one channel 5 
that is, he broke off one of the horns or streams. 
The lands thus drained became fertile ; so that Her- 
cules is said to have received the horn of plenty. 

19. Deianira was daughter of OEneus, king of 
(Etolia. Hercules carried her to be married, and 
in their way they were stopped b}' a river : but the 
centaur Nessus offered to carry Deianira over upon 
his back. Nessus, when she was over, insulted her; 
which Hercules observing, while he swam, shot him 
with an arrow. When Nessus was dying, he gave 
Deianira his bloody coat, and told her, if a husband 
wore that coat, he would never follow unlawful pur- 
suits. The credulous lady soon after experienced 
the virtue of it, far otherwise than she expected. 
For Hercules, who had surmounted so many and so 
great labours, was at length overcome by the charms 
of Omphale, queen of Lydia, and, to gratify her, 
changed his club into a distaff, and his arrows into 
a spindle. His love also to lole, daughter of Eury- 
tus, king of Oechalia, brought on him destruction. 
For his wife Deianira being desirous of turning him 
from unlawful objects, sent him Nessus' coat to put 
on when he went to sacrifice ; which drove him into 
such distraction, that he burned himself on the pile 
be had raised, and was accounted among the num- 
ber of gods. The lines of Virgil in praise of the 
hero, shall finish my description. 

ut prima no\ercai 

Monstra manu, geminoscine pvimus ellserit angues; 
Ut bello egregias idem disjecerit urbes, 
Trojamque (Echaliamque ; ut duros mille labores 
Rege sub Eurystheo, fatis Junonis iniqua^, 
Pertulerit.^ Tu nubigeuas invicte bimembres, 
Hylaeumque, Pholumque, manu ; tu Cressia mactas 
Prodigia, et vastura Nemeae sub rupe leonem. 


Te Stigii tremuere lacus ; te janitor Orci, 
Ossa super recubans antro seraesa cruento. 
JVec te ullae facies, non terruit ipse Typhoeus, 
Arduus, arma tenens, non te rationis egentem 
Lernseus turba capitum circumstetit anguis. 
Salve, vera Jovis proles, decus addite Divis : 
Et nos, et tua dexter adi pede sacra secundo." 

First, how the mighty babe, when swath'd in bands, 
The sei-pents strangled with his infant hands ; 
Then, as in years and matchless force he grew, 
Th' (Echalian walls and Trojan overthrew. 
Besides a thousand hazards they relate, 
Procur'd by Juno's and Euristheus' hate. 
Thy hands, unconquer'd hero ! could subdue 
The cloud-born centaurs, and the monster crew; 
Nor thy resistless arm the bull withstood; 
Nor he the roaring terror of the wood. 
The triple porter of the Stygian seat. 
With lolling tongue, lay fawning at thy feet, 
And seiz'd with fear, forgot thy mangled meat. 
Th' infernal waters trembled at thy sight ; 
Thee god ! no face of danger could atiVight ; 
Not huge Typho3us, nor th' unnumber'd snakes ; 
Increas' with hissing heads in Lerna's lake. 
Hail, Jove's undoubted son ! an added grace 
To heav'n, and the great author of thy race. 
Receive the grateful ott''rings which we pay, 
And smile propitious on thy solemn day. 


Who were the Semi-Dei ? 

What account is given of the heroes ? 

Who was Hercules ? 

Who was the twin-brother of Hercules, and for what was he 
celebrated ? 

How did Juno act with regard to Hercules ? 

By whom was she reconciled; and what was the consequence 
of the reconciliation ? 

What were the proper names of Hercules ; and how did he 
dcive them ? 

Why was Hercules subject to Euristheus .? 

Repeat the Latin lines descriptive of Hercules' labours. 

What was his first labour ? 

What was his second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, 
ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth ? 

What did he do with regard to Antaeus .'' 

How did he act with Busiris .' 

Why did he killthe giants Albion and Bergeon? 


What was his conduct with regard to Atlas, Cacus, Pronacr 
Cheus, and Theodamus ? 

How did he deliver Hesione ? 

What is the meaning of the fable of Achelous ? 

What is related of Deianira ? 



Jason, the son of CEson, king of Thessalia, by 
Alcimede, was an infant when his father died, so that 
his uncle Pelius administered the government. 

When he came of age, he demanded possession 
©f the crown ; but Pelius advised him to Colchis, 
under pretence of gaining the golden fleece thence, 
though his real intention was to kill him with the 
labour and danger of the journey. 

The golden fleece was the hide of a ram, of a 
white or purple colour, which was given to Phryxus, 
son of Athamus and Nephele, by his mother. Phryx- 
us and his sister Helle, fearing the designs of their 
stepmother Ino, got on a ram to save themselves by 
flight. But while they swam over the narrowest 
part of Pontus, Helle, aflfrighted at the tossing of 
the waves, fell down ; whence the sea was called 
Hellespont. Phryxus was carried over safe ; and 
went to -^ta, king of Colchis, a country of Asia, 
near the Pontus ; where he was kindly received, 
and sacrificed the ram to Jupiter, or Mars, who af- 
terwards placed it among the constellations. Only 
his hide or fleece was hung up in a grove sacred to 
Mars. It was called the Golden Fleece, because it 
was of a golden colour ; and it was guarded by bulls 
that breathed fire from their nostrils, and by a vast 
and watchful dragon, as a sacred and divine pledge, 
«nd as a thing of the greatest importattce. 


Jason went on board a ship called Argo, from the 
builder of that name ; and chose forty-nine noble 
companions, who, from the ship, were called Argo- 
nautae, among whom were Hercules, Orpheus, Cas 
tor, and Pollux. In his voyage, he visited Hipsy- 
phile, queen of Lemnos, who had twins by him. 
Then, after a long voyage, and many dangers, he 
arrived at Colchis, and demanded the Golden Fleece 
of king jEta, who granted his request, on condition 
that he tamed the bulls which guarded it ; killed the 
dragon, and sowed his teeth in the ground ; and 
lastly, destroyed the soldiers who sprang from the 
ground where these teeth were sown. Jason undertook 
the thing, and was delivered from manifest destruc- 
tion by the assistance of Medea, the king's daughter, 
who was in love with him. For, observing her di- 
rections, he overcame the bulls, laid the dragon 
asleep, carried away the fleece, and fled by night, 
carrying Medea with him, whom he afterward mar- 

iEta pursued them, but his daughter, to stop his 
pursuit, tore her brother Absyrtus, who went with 
her, in pieces, and scattered the limbs on the road ; 
that when her father saw the torn members of his 
son, he might stop to gather them up. So Jason 
and the Argonautte returned to their own country, 
where Medea by her charms restored Jason's father, 
the old decrepid jEson, to youth again ; though 
some say that jEson died before their return. Af- 
ter this, Jason divorcing himself from Medea, he 
married Creusa, the daughter of Creon, king of 
Corinth ; and Medea, to revenge his perfidiousness, 
not only murdered the two children that she had by 
him in his own sight, but, in the next place, enclosed 
fire in a little box, and sent it to Creusa, who opened 
the box, and by the fire which burst out of it, was 
burnt, together With the whole court. When she 
had done this, tiie admirable sorceress flew by magic 


art to Atheus. S :.ine write that she was reconciled 
afterwards to Jmsou. But what has been said is 
enough lor this hero ; let us proceed to 

Theseus, whose parents were iEthra and iEgeus, 
kitig of Athens, Minos, liing of Crete, made war 
against iEgeus, because the Athenians had disho- 
nourably and bajbarously killed his son, who carried 
the prize in the games. When he had banished the 
Athenians, he itnposed this severe condition upon 
them, that they should send seven of the most noble 
youths of their counti'y into Crete by lot every year. 
In the fourth year the lot fell upon Theseus, which 
mightily grieved and troubled his father iEgeus. 
X^eseus went on brjard a ship, whose sails and 
taclvle were black, and received this command from 
his father : " If by the propitious providence of hea- 
ven he escaped the dangers, and did return safe 
unto his own country again, that then he should 
change his black sails into white ones, that his 
father, being assured of his safety by that signal, 
might be sensible of his happiness as soon as might 

The event was fortunate to Theseus ; but very 
unfortunate to his father jEgeus : for when Theseus 
came to Crete, he was shut up in the Labyrinth ; 
but he slew the Minotaur, and escaped out of that 
mextricable prison T3y the help of Ariadne. After 
this he set sail for Athens in the same mournful ship 
m which he came to Crete, but forgot to change his 
sails, according to the instructions which his father 
had given him ; so that, when his father beheld 
from a watchtower the ship returning with black 
sails, he imagined that his son was dead, and cast 
himself headlong into the sea, which was afterward 
called the ^gean or Black Sea, from his name and 

Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, king ot 
Crete. She having delivered Theseus out of the 


Lab^Tintb by the means of a thread, followed him in 
his return to the island of Naxus^ where he perfidi- 
ously and ungratefully left her. But Bacchus, pity- 
ing her miserable condition, married her, and gave 
her a crown that was illuminated with seven stars, 
which he had before received from Venus. This 
crown was called Gnossia Corona ; and Ariadne her- 
self was surnamed Gnossis, from the city of that 
name in Crete. After the death of Ariadne, the 
same was carried among the stars, and made a con- 
stellation in the heavens. It was thought that Diana 
caused the death of Ariadne, because she preserved 
not her virginity. 

The actions of Theseus were so famous, that they 
accounted him a Hercules. For, 1. He killed the 
Minotaur. 2. He overcame the Centaurs. 3. He 
vanquished the Thebans. 4. He defeated the Ama- 
zons. 5. He went down into hell ; and returned 
back into the world again. 

He and Pirithous, his most intimate friend, the 
lawful son of Ixion, agreed never to marry any wo- 
men except Jupiter's daughters. Theseus married 
Helena, the daughter of Jupiter and Leda, and 
none of Jupiter's daughters remained on the earth 
for Pirithous ; therefore they both went down into 
hell to steal Proserpine away from her husband 
Pluto. As soon as they entered hell, Pirithous was 
unfortunately torn in pieces by the dog Cerberus ; 
but Theseus came alive into the palace of Pluto, 
who fettered him, and kept him till Hercules was 
sent into hell by Euristheus to rescue him. 

The Amazons were women animated with the 
souls and bravery of men ; a military ra,ce, inhabit- 
ing that part of Scythia which is washed by the 
river Tanais. They were called Amazons, ^either 
because they cut off one of their breasts, or f because 

* Ab a privativo et fjt,a^oi mamma. 

* Ab «,«« simul et K^v viver«» 


they lived together without the society of men 
They were a nation of women, who, that the country 
might have inhabitants and not be depopulated, when 
the present race of women died, admitted the ad- 
dresses of the neiglibouring young men. They kill- 
ed the boys at their birth, but brought up the girls. 
The}^ cut off their right breast that they might more 
conveniently use their hands in shooting their ar- 
rows, and brandishing their weapons against their 
enemy. These female warriors, by their frequent 
excursions, became possessors of a great part ot 
Asia, when Hercules, accompanied with Theseus, 
made war upon them, and defeated them ; and 
taking Hippolyte, their queen, prisoner, he gave 
her in marriage to Theseus. 

Theseus had by Hippolyte his son Hippolytus, 
who was very beautiful, and mightily addicted to 
hunting, and a remarkable lover of chastity ; for 
when ^Phaedra, his step mother, (the daughter of 
king Minos, whom Theseus had preferred to her 
.sister Ariadne) made love to him, he repulsed her. 
This repulse provoked her so much, that when her 
husband returned, she accused him wrongfully. 
Theseus gave ear to the wicked woman, and believ- 
ed her untruth against his son Hippolytus, who per- 
ceiving it, fled away in his chariot. In his flight he 
met several monstrous sea-calves, which frighted his 
horses, so that they threw him out of his seat, his 
feet were entangled in the harness, and he was drag- 
ged through the thickets of a wood, and torn to 
pieces miserably. ^Esculapius afterwards, at the 
request of Diana, restored him to life again. But 
he however left Greece and came into Italy, where 
he changed his name to -j-Virbius, because he had 
been a man twice. Phsedra was gnawn with the 
stings of her own conscience, and hanged herself. 

* Ovid, in Ep. Phaedr. 
f Quod, vir bis esset. 

♦- ^ * 

% ■■ ^ I 


( ,:. 





And not long after, Theseus, being banished from 
his country, ended an illustrious life with an obscure 


Who was Jason; and why sent after the Golden Fleece? 
What w as the Golden Fleece ? 
Whence was the Hellespont named ? 
By whose assistance did Jason procure the Fleece? 
Who was Medea, and what were her pctions? 
Who was Theseus, and what were his actions ? 
^gean or Black Sea ; why so called ? 
Who was Ariadne, and what happened to her? 
Wliat agreement was made between Theseus and Perithoosj 
and what became of the latter ? 

Who were the Amazons ; and what account is given of them? 
What is the story of Hippolytus ? 
What became of Phaedra and Theseus ? 



Castor and Pollux are twin brothers, the sons of 
Jupiter and Leda, who was the wife of Tyndarus, 
king of Laconia, whom Jupiter loved, but could not 
succeed in his amour till he changed himself into a 
swan ; which swan was afterwards made a constel- 
lation^, Leda produced two eggs, which hatched 
the twin brothers. Out of one e^^ came Pollux 
and Helena, who sprang from Jupiter, and were 
therefore immortal. But out of the other, by Tyn- 
darus her husband, came ^Castor and Clytemnes- 
tra, who were mortal. Yet both Castor and Pollux 
are frequently called Tyndaridae by the poets, as 
Helena is also called Tyndaris, from the same king 

" Hor. Sat. U 


Castor and Pollux accompanied Jason when lie 
sailed to Colchis ; and, when he returned thence, 
they recovered their sister Helena from Theseus, who 
had stolen her, by overcoming the Athenians that 
fought for him, to whom their clemency and hu- 
manity were so great after the defeat, that the Athe- 
nians called them the sons of Jupiter f and hence 
white lambs were offered upon their altars. *But 
although they were both at the same birth, and, as 
some think out of the same egg, yet their tempers 
were different. 

Castor being, as some say, a mortal person, was 
killed by Lynceus: upon which Pollux prayed to 
Jupiter to restore him to life again, and confer an 
immortality upon him. But this could not be grant- 
ed. However, he obtained leave to divide his im- 
mortality between himself and his brother Castor, 
and thence it came to pass f that they lived after- 
wards by turns every other day, or, as some say, 
every other fortnight. After the death of Castor, a 
kind of pyrrhickj or dance in armour, was instituted 
to his honour ; which was performed by young men 
armed, and called {" Castor's dance." 

At length they both were translated into heaven, 
and made a constellation, which is still called Gemi- 
ni. Sailors esteem these stars lucky and prosperous 
to them, ^because, when the Argonauts were driven 

* " Castor gaudet equis: Ovo prognatus eodem, ' 
Pugnis : quot capitum vivunt, totidem in studiorura 
Millia." Horat. Serm. 2. 1 

As many men, so many their delights. 

t " Sic fratem Pollux alterna morte redemit, 

itque reditque viam." Virg. JEn. 6. 

Thus Pollux, offering his alternate life, 
Could free his brother. They did daily go 
By turns aloft, by turns descend below. 

t Plin. I. 7. c. 5. 7. ap. Nat. Cora. 
§ Hor. Carm. 3. 


by a violent tempest, two lambent' flames settled 
upon the heads of Castor and Pollux, and a calm 
immediately ensued : from which a virtue more than 
human was thought to be lodged in these youths. 
If only one flame appeared, they called it Helena, 
and it was esteemed fatal and destructive to mari- 

There was a famous temple dedicated to Castor 
and Pollux in the Forum at Rome ; for it was be- 
lieved, that in the dangerous battle of the Romans 
with the Latins, they assisted the Romans, riding 
upon white horses. x\nd hence came that form of 
swearing by the temple of Castor, which women 
only used, saying, ^Ecastor : whereas, when men 
swore, they usually swore by Hercules, using the 
words f Hercule, Hercle, Hercules, Mehercules, Me- 
hercule. But both men and women swore by the 
temple of Pollux, using the word ^depol, an oath 
common to them both. 

Clytemnestra was married to Agamemnon, whom, 
after his return from the siege of Troy, she kilL-d, 
by the help of ^gisthus ; with whom, in the mean 
time, she had lived. She attempted also to kill his 
son Orestes, and would have done so, Jif his sister 
Electra had not delivered him at the very point of 
destruction, sending him privately to Strophius, king 
of Phocis. After Orestes had lived there twelve 
years, he returned to his own country, and slew both 
Clytemnestra and iEgisthus. He killed also Pyrr- 
hus, in the temple of Apollo ; because he had car- 
ried away Hermione, the daughter of Menelaus, who 
was first betrothed to Orestes. ^Therefore the Fu- 
ries tormented him ; neither could he obtain deli- 
verance from them, till he had expiated his crimes 

* iEcastor, et iTldepol. id est, per aedem Castoris et PollucI». 
t" Passim apud Terent. Plant. Cicer. &,Cv 
t Soph, in Eleotr. Eurip. in Orest. 
§ Cic. de Amicit. ' 



at the altar of Diana Taurica, wliither he was con- 
ducted by his friend Pylades, his perpetual com- 
panion and partner in all his dangers ; *their friend- 
ship was so close and sacred, that either of them 
would die for the other. 

The goddess Diana, who was worshipped in Tau- 
rica Chersonesus, or Cherronesus, a peninsula, so 
called from the Tauri, an ancient people of Scythia 
Europse. She was worshipped with human victims; 
the lives and the blood of men being sacrificed to 
her. When Orestes went thither, his sister Iphi- 
genia, the daughter of Agamemnon, was priestess to 
Diana Taurica : she was made priestess on the fol- 
lowing occasion. 

Agamemnon, king of the Argives, was, by the 
common consent of the Grecians, appointed general 
in their expedition against Troy ; and after his re- 
turn home, was killed by his own wife Clytemiiestra. 
This Agamemnon killed a deer by chance, in the 
country of Aulis, which belonged to Diana; the 
goddess was angry, and caused such a calm, that 
ibr want of wind, the Grecian ships bound for Troy, 
were fixed and immoveable : upon this they consult- 
ed the soothsayers, who answered, f diat they must 
satisfy the winds, and Diana, with some of the blood 
of Agamemnon. Therefore Ulysses was forthwith 
sent to bring away Iphigenia, the daughter of Aga- 
memnon, from her mother, by a trick, under pre- 
tence of marrying her to Achilles. While the young 
lady stood at the altar to be sacrificed, the goddess 
pitied her, and substituted a hind in her stead, and 
sent her to Taurica Chersonesus ; where, by the or- 
der of king Thoas, she presided over those sacrifices 
of the goddess, which were solemnized with human 
blood. When Orestes was brought thither by the 
inhabitants to be sacrificed, he was known and pre- 

* Eurip. in Iphig. in Taur. 
t Eurip. in Ipiiip. in Taur. 



served lyy his sister. After which Thoas was kill- 
ed, and the image of Diana, which lay hidden 
among a bundle of sticks, was carried away ; and 
hence Diana was called Fascelis, from fascis, a 
" bmidle." 


Who were Cantor and Pollux, and what was their origin ? 

Why were white lambs offered upon their altars ? 

What became of Castor, and what was granted to him at the 
request of his brother .' 

What do the Sailors say of the stars Castor and Pollux? 

What is related of the temple dedicated to them ? 

What is the story of Clytemnestra ? 

Who was Diana Taurica ; how was she worshipped ; and who 
was her priestess ? 

What is related of Agamemnon? 

On what account was Diana called Fascelis? 



Perseus was the son of Jupiter and Danse, the 
daughter of Acrisius, who was shut up by her father 
in a very strong tower, where no man could enter, 
because her father had been told by an oracle, that 
he should be killed by his own grandchild. But 
nothing is impregnable to love : for Jupiter, as we 
are told by Horace, by changing himself into a 
shower of gold, descended through the tiles into the 
lady's apartment. 

" Inclusam Danaen turris ahenea 
Rolaustaeque fores, et vigilum canum 
Tristes excubiae munierant satis 

Nocturnis ab adulteris : 
Si non Acrisium, virginis abditae 
Custodem pavidura, Jupiter et Venus 
Risissent: fore enim tutum iter et patens, 

Convei-so in pretiura Do© " Carm. 1. 3, fd. 


Within a brazen tow'r immur d, 

By dogs and centinels secur'd, 
From midnight revels, and intrigues of love, 

Fair Danae was kept within her guardian's pow'r: 
But gentle Venus smil'd, and amorous Jove 

Knew he could soon unlock the door, 
And by his art successful prove, 

Chang'd to a golden show'r. 

As soon as Acrisius had heard that his daughter 
had brought forth a son, he ordered that she and 
the infant should be shut up in a chest, and thrown 
into the sea : the chest was driven to the island Se- 
riphus, where a fisherman found it, took them out, 
and presented them to king Polydectes ; who be- 
came enamoured of Danae, and brought up her son ; 
whom he called Perseus. 

Perseus, when he was grown a man, received from 
Mercury a scythe of adamant, and wings, which he 
fixed to his feet : Pluto gave him a helmet, and 
Minerva a shield of brass, so bright, that it reflected 
the images of things, like a looking-glass. His first 
exploit was the deliverance of Andromeda, the 
daughter of Cepheus, king of Ethiopia, who was 
bound by the nymphs to a rock, to be devoured by 
a sea-monster, because her mother Cassiope, or Cas- 
siopeia, had proudly preferred her daughter's beau- 
ty to theirs ; and when he had delivered her, he 
took her to wife. After which, both the mother 
and the daughter, and the son-in-law, were placed 
among the celestial constellations. His next expe- 
dition was against the Gorgons, of whom we have 
spoken before : he encountered Medusa, their prin- 
cess, whose head was supplied with snakes in the 
place of hair ; he saw the image of her head by the 
brightness of his shield, and, by the favourable as- 
sistance of Minerva, struck it off: he then fixed it 
upon a shield, and, by showing it, afterward turned 
many persons into stone. Atlas was turned by tht 
sight of it, into the mountain in Mauritania of that 


name : because lie rudely refused to entertain Per* 
-eus. When Medusa's head was cut off, the horse 
Pegasus sprang from the blood which fell on the 
ground, he was so called from TsrviyTi [pege\ " a 
fountain," because he was produced near the foun- 
tains of the sea. This horse had wings ; and flying 
over the mountain Helicon, he struck it with his hoof, 
and opened a fountain, which they call in Greek, 
Hippocrene ; and in Latin, Fons Cahallinus ; that 
is, the " horse fountain." But afterward, while he 
drank at the fountain Pyrene in Corinth, where Bel- 
lerophon prepared himself for his expedition against 
the Chimsera, he was taken by him and kept. 

Bellerophon's first name was Hipponus ; because 
he first taught the art of governing horses with a 
bridle : but when he had killed Bellerus, a king of 
Corinth, he was afterward called Bellerophontes. 
This Bellerophon, the son of Glaucus, king of 
Ephyra, was equally beautiful and virtuous : he re- 
sisted all the temptations by which Sthenobaea, the 
wife of Praetus, enticed him to love her ; and his 
repulses provoked her so, that in revenge she accus- 
ed the innocent stranger to her husband. Praetus, 
however, would not violate the laws of hospitality 
with the blood of Bellerophon, but sent him into 
Lycia. to his father-in-law Jobates, with letters, 
which desired him to punish Bellerophon, as his 
crime deserved. Jobates read the letters, and sent 
him to fight against the Solymi, that he might be 
killed in the battle : but he easily vanquished them, 
and in man}^ other dangers, to which he was expos- 
ed, he always came off conqueror. At last he was 
sent to kill the Chimaera ; which he undertook, and 
performed, when he had procured the horse Pegasus, 
by the help of Nep'uoe. Therefore Jobates, ad- 
miring the bravery of ihe youti), gave him one of 
his daughters to wife, allotting him also a part of 
his kingdom. Sthenobcca killed herself when she 


heard this. This happy success so transported Bel- 
lerophon, that he endeavoured to fly upon Pegasus 
to heaven ; for vi^hich Jupiter struck him with mad- 
ness, and he fell from his horse into a field called 
Aleius Campus, ^because in that place Bellerophon 
wandered up and down blind, to the end of his life : 
but Pegasus was placed among the stars. Some say 
that this was the occasion of the fable of the Chi- 
maera. There was a famous pirate, who used to sail 
in a ship in whose prow was painted a lion, in the 
stern a dragon, and by the body of the ship a goat 
was described ; and this pirate was killed by Belle- 
rophon, in a long boat that was called Pegasus. 
From the letters which Bellerophon carried Jobates, 
f comes the proverb, " Bellerophon's letters ;" when 
any one carries letters, which he imagines are wrote 
in his favour, but are sent to procure his ruin : and 
such letters are frequently called " Letters of Uriah," 
for the same reason. 

^sculapius is represented as a bearded old man, 
leaning on his jointed cane, adorned with a crown of 
laurel, and encompassed with dogs. He is the god 
of the physicians and physic, and the son of Apollo 
by the nymph Ceronis. He improved the art of 
physic, which before was little understood ; and for 
that reason they accounted him a god. Apollo shot 
the nymph his mother when she was pregnant, be- 
cause she admitted the addresses of another young 
man after he had become enamoured of her. But 
he repented after he had killed her, took out the 
child alive, and delivered him to be educated by the 
physician Chiron, |who taught him his own art : 
the youth made so great a progress in it, that be- 
cause he restored health to the sick, and gave safety 

* Ab aXivu erro. 

f Btx\tpo(povTos <ypeifAft«rai BsUerophontis liUras, usitatlus dicta^ 
lAlerce UricB. 
\ Ovid Met. 1. 


to those vvhose condition was desporate, he wal 
thought to have a power of recalhng the dead to hie 
agam Upon this Phuo, the king of hell, *coni- 
planied to Jupiter that his revenue was very much 
dnmnisned and his subjects taken from him by 
means olit^sculapius ; and at length, by his persua- 
sion, Jupiter killed him with a stroke of thunder 

He wears a crown of laurel, because that tree is 
powerful in curing many diseases. By the knots in 
his staff, IS signified the difficultv of the study of 
phy-sic. He has dogs painted about him, and do^s 
m his temple; because many believe that he was 
born ot uncertain parents, and exposed, and after- 
wara nourished by a bitch. fOthers say, that a 
goat which was pursued by a dog, gave suck to the 
forsaken infant ; and that the shepherds saw a lam- 
bent flame playing about bis head, which was a proff- 
nostication of his future divinity. The Cyrenians 
used to offer a goat to him in the sacrifices^; eitfier 
because he was nourished by a goat, as was said, tor 
because a goat is always in a fever; and therefore 
a goats constitution is very contrary to health. 
^Plato says, that they used to sacrifice dun^r-hill 
cocks to him, which are deemed the most vigilant of 
all birds ; for of all virtues, watchfulness is chieflv 
necessary to a physician. ^ 

^sculapius was worshipped first at Epidaurus 
where he was born ; afterward at Rome, because, on 
being sent for thither, he delivered the city from a 
dreadful pestilence. For which reason, a temple 
was dedicated to him in an island in the mouth of 
the Tiber, where he was worshipped under the form 
of a great serpent; for when the Romans came to 
Lpidaurus to transport the god thence; agreatser- 

* Virg. ^n. 7. 

t Lactant de fals. Religo, Paean, tn Corinth. 

X Didym. 1. 3. Nat. Cam. 

§ In Phwdone- 


pent entered the ship, which they believed was 
iEsculapius ; and brought it to Rome with them. 
Others tell the story thus : when the Romans were 
received by the people of Epidaurus with all kind- 
ness, and were carried into the temple of TEscula- 
pius ; the serpent, under whose image they worship- 
ped that god, went voluntarily into the ship of the 

I can tell you nothing of the children of jEscula- 
pius, except their names. He had two sons, called 
Machaon and Podalirius, both famous physicians, 
who followed Agamemnon, the general of the Gre- 
cians, to the Trojan war, and were very service- 
able among the soldiers ; and two daughters, 
Hygioea (though some think this was his wife) and 

Chiron, his master, was a Centaur, and the son of 
Saturn and Phillyra ; lor when Saturn embraced 
that nymph, he suddenly changed himself into a 
horse, because his wife Ops came in. Phillyra was 
born a creature, in its upper parts like a man, in its 
lower parts like a horse. She called it Chiron ; 
when he grew up, he betook himself to the woods ; 
and there, learned the virtues of herbs, he became a 
most excellent physician. For his skill in physic, 
and for his other virtues, which were many, he was 
appointed tutor to Achilles ; he also instructed Her- 
cules in astronomy, and taught ^sculapius physic. 
At last, when he handled Hercules' arrows, one of 
them dipped in the poisonous blood of the Lernaean 
hydra, fell upon his foot, and gave him a wound that 
was incurable, and pains that were intolerable ; in- 
somuch that he desired to die, but could not, because 
he was born of immonal parents. Therefore, at 
length the gods trar.ilated him into the firmament, 
where he now remains ; for he became a constella- 
tion called Sagittarius, which is placed hi the zo- 



Who was Perseus ? 

What order did Acrisius give with regard to his grandson, and 
how was the child saved ? 

What were the exploits of Perseus ? 

Whof is said of Medusa's head, and what happened when it 
was cut off? 

How is Pegasus described ? 

For what was Bellerophon famous? • 

Give the circumstances attending his history. 

What is meant by '* Bellerophon's letters;" and what else are 
they called ? 

Who was jEsculapius? 

What became of his mother ? 

Under whose care was iEsculapius brought up? 

What complaint was made against him ? 

Why does he wear a crown of laurel ; and what do the staif 
nnd dogs signify ? 

Why were goats and cocks sacrificed to him ? 

Where was he first worshipped ; and why was he adored U|i- 
der the form of a serpent ? 

Who were ^sculapius's children ? 

What is the history of Chiron ? 




Prometheus, the son of Japetus, and the father 
of Deucalion, was the first, as we find in history, that 
formed man out of clay ; which he did with such art 
and skill, that Minerva was amazed, and proffered to 
procure him any thing from heaven ; which would 
complete his work. Prometheus answered, that he 
did not know what in heaven would be useful to him, 
since he had never seen heaven. Therefore Mi- 
nerva carried him up into heaven, and showed him 
all its wonders. He observed that the heat of the 
sun would be very useful in animating the man which 
he had formed ; therefore he lighted a stick by the 
wheel of the sun's chariot, and carried it lighted with 
him to the earth. This theft displeased Jupiter so 
much, that he sent Pandora into the world to Pro- 


iflfietbeus, with a box filled with all sorts of evils. 
Prometheus, fearing and suspecting the matter, re- 
fused to accept it ; but his brother Epimetheus was 
not so cautious ; for be took it and opened it, and 
all the evils that were in it flew abroad among man- 
kind. Wlien he perceived what he had done, he 
immediately shut the box again, and by good for- 
tune hindered Hope from flying away, which stuck 
to the bottom of the box. You may remember how 
sweetly Horace speaks of this theft of Prometheus*. 

" Audax omnia pei'peti 

Genus hiimana ruit per vetitutn nefas. 

Audax Japeti genus 
Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit ; 

Post ignem eetherea domo 
Subductum, macies et nova febrium 

Terris incubuit cohors : 
Semotique prius tarda necessitas 

Lethi corripuit gradum." Carm. 1. 1. 

No pow'r the pride of mortals can control : 

Prone to new crimes, by strong presumption driv'n^ 
With sacrilegious hands Prometheus stole 

Celestial fire, and bore it down from heav'n : 
The fatal present brought on mortal race 

An army of diseases ; death began 
With vigour then, to mend its halting pace, 

And foixnd a more compendious way to man. 

Jupiter punished Prometheus in this manner : he 
commanded Mercury to bind him to the mountain 
Caucasus ; and then he sent an eagle to him there, 
which continually gnawed his liver. Yet some say, 
that he was not punished because he stole fire from 
heaven, but because he had made a woman, which, 
they say, is the most pernicious creature in the 

Prometheus had been serviceable to Jupiter, for 
he discovered to him his father Saturn's conspiracy, 
and prevented the marriage of Jupiter and Thetis, 
which he foresaw would be fatal ; therefore Jupiter 
sufiered Hercules to shoot the eagle, and set Pro- 
metheus at liberty. 


This perhaps is the meaning of this fable : Pro- 
metheus, whose name is derived *from a wvM'd 
denoting foresight and providence, was a very pru- 
dent person ; and because he reduced men, who be- 
fore were rude and savage, to the precepts of hu- 
manity, he was feigned thence to have made men 
out of dirt : and because he was dihgent in observing 
the motions of the stars from the mountain Caucasus, 
therefore they said that he was chained there. To 
whicii they added, that he stole fire from the gods, 
because he invented the way of striking fire by means 
of the tlmt ; or was the first that discovered the na- 
ture of lightning. And lastly, because he applied 
his mind to study with great care and solicitude, 
therefore they imagined an eagle preying upon his 
liver continually. 

We have said that Prometheus was the father of 
Deucalion, who was king of Thessaly. During his 
reign, there was so great a deluge, that the whole 
earth was overflowed by it, and all mankind entirely 
destroyed, excepting only Deucalion and Pyrrha his 
wife, who were carried in a ship upon the mountain 
Parnassus; and when the waters were abated, they 
consulted the oracle of Themis, to know by what 
means mankind should again be restored. The 
oracle answered that mankind would be restored if 
they cast the bones of their great mother behind 
them. By great mother the oracle meant the earth ; 
and by her bones, the stones ; therefore casting the 
stones behind their back, a prodigious miracle en- 
sued ; for those stones that were thrown by Deuca- 
lion became men, and those that were thrown hy 
Pyrrha became women. 


Missa viri manibus faciem traxere verilera; 
Et de fcemineo reparata est fceraina jactu. 

* Kto rh 'sirfou,i6txi. id est, provideatia. Pausan. in Eliac* 


Inde genus durnra sumus, experiensque laborum; 

Et documenta damus, qua simus origine nati." Ov. Met. 1, 

•And of the stones 

Those thrown by Ih' man the form of men endue ; 
And those were women which the woman thx'ew. 
Hence we, a hardy race, inur'd to pain ; 
Our actions our original explain. 

The occasion of which fable was this : Deucalion 
and his wife were very pious, and by the example of 
their lives, and the sanctity of their manners, they 
softened the men and women, who before were fierce 
and hard like stones, into such gentleness and mild- 
ness, that they observed the rules of civil society and 
good behaviour. 

Atlas, king of Mauritania, the son of Japetus, and 
brother of Prometheus, is represented as sustaining 
the heavens on his shoulders. He was forewarned 
by an oracle that he would be almost ruined by one 
of the sons of Jupiter, and therefore resolved to give 
entertainment to no stranger at all. At last Perseus, 
who was begotten by Jupiter, travelled by chance 
through Atlas' dominions, and designed, in civility, 
to visit him. But the kmg excluded him the court, 
which inhumanity provoked him so much, that put- 
ting his shield before the eyes of Atlas, and showing 
him the head of Medusa, he turned him into the 
mountain of his own name ; which is of so great 
height that it is believed to touch the heavens. Vir- 
gil makes mention of him in the fourth bock of his 

' " Jamque volans apicera et latera ardua cernit 

Atlantis duri, ca?lum(ine vertice fulcit: 
Atlantis, cinctum assidue cui nubibus atris 
Piniferum caput, et vento pulsatur et imbri: 
Nix humeros infnsa tes;it ; turn flumina mento 
Praecipitant senis, et glacie riget horrida barba." 

Now sees the top of Atlas as he flies, 

Whose brawny back supports the starry skies : 


Atlas, whose head with piny forests crown'd 
Is beaten by the winds, with foge;y vapours bound: 
Snows hide his shoulders ; from beneath his chin 
The founts of rolling streams their race begin. 

The reason why the poets feigned that Atlas sus- 
tained the heavens on his shoulders, was this : Atlas 
was a very famous astronomer, and the first person 
who understood and taught the doctrine of the 
sphere ; and on the same account the poets tell us, 
that his daughters were turned into stars. 

By his wife Pelione he had seven daughters, whose 
names were Electra, Halcyone, Celaeno, Maia, As- 
terope, Ta^^gete, and Merope ; and they were called 
by one common name, Pleiades ; and by his wife 
iEthra he had seven other daughters, whose names 
were Ambrosia, Euloria, Pasithop, Coronis, Piexa- 
ris, Pytho, and Tyche ; and these were called by 
one common name, Hyades, from ^a word which in 
the Greek language signifies " to rain," because, 
when they rise or set, they are supposed to cause 
great rain ; and therefore the Latins called diem 
Suculce, that is, " swine," because the continual 
rain that they cause makes the roads so muddy, that 
they seem to delight in dirt, like swine. Others de- 
rive their name from Hyas, their brotlier, who was 
devoured by a lion : his sisters were so immoderate- 
ly afliicted and grieved at his death, that Jupiter in 
compassion changed them into seven stars, which 
appear in the head of Taurus. And they are justly 
called Hyades, because showers of tears flow from 
their eyes to this day. 

The Pleiades derive their name from a Greek 
word signifying f" sailing." From whence these 
stars rise, they portend good weather to navigators. 

* Asro T8 >Jitv,. id est, pluere. 
" Navita quas Hyades Graius ab imbre vocat." 
From rain the sailors call them Hyades. 
t A?r« T8 zrXtuv a navigando, commodum enim tempus navi* 
gationi ostendunt. 


Because they rise in the ^spring time, the Romans 
call them Virgiliae. Yet others think that they are 
called Pleiades ffrom their number, since they 
never appear single, but altogether, except Merope, 
who is scarcely ever seen ; for she is ashamed that 
she married Sisyphus, a mortal man, when all the 
rest of the sisters married gods : others call this ob- 
scure star Electra, because she held her hand before 
her eyes, and would not look upon the destruction 
of Troy. The Hyades were placed among the stars 
because they bewailed immoderately the death of 
their brother Hyas ; and the Pleiades were trans- 
lated into heaven, because they incessantly lamented 
the hard fate of their father Atlas, who was convert- 
ed into a mountain. But let us speak a little about 
their uncle Hesperus. 

Hesperus was the brother of Atlas, and because 
he lived some time in Italy, that country was called 
anciently Hespera from him. He frequently went 
up to the top of the mountain Atlas to view the stars. 
At last he went up and came down from the moun- 
tain no more. This made the people imagine that 
he was carried up into heaven ; upon which they 
worshipped him as a god, and called a very bright 
star from his name Hesperus, Hesper, Hesperugo, 
Vesper and Vesperugo, which is called the evening 
star, when it sets after the sun ; but when it rises be- 
fore the sun, it is called ^a<T<po^o<i \^Phos]jhorus'\ or 
Lucifer; that is the morning star. Further, this 
Hesperus had three daughters, Egle, Prethusa, and 
Hesperethusa ; who in general were called the Hes- 
perides. It was said, that in their gardens, trees were 
planted that bore golden fruit ; and that these trees 
were guarded by a watchful dragon, which Hercu- 
les killed, and then carried away the golden apples. 

* Virgiliae dictae a verno tempore quod exoriuntur. 
t Quasi -aXtiom, hoc est, plures, quod numquam singulse af* 
pareant, sed omnes simul. 


Hence the phrase, "^to give some of the apples of 
the Hesperides ; that is, to give a great and splen- 
did gift. 


Who was Prometheus ? 

What did he bring from heaven ? 

What did Jupiter do in consequence ? 

How did Jupiter punish Prometheus? 

Why did he set liim at liberty ? 

From what is the name of Prometheus derived, and wnat is 
the meaning of the fable ? 

What is tlie story of Deucalion ? 

How is Atlas represented, and how was he changed into a 
mountain ? 

Why has Atlas the world on his shoulders ? 

Who were his daugliters ? 

From what do the Hyades derive their name? 

Whence are the Pleiades named ? 

What is said of Hesperus ? 



Orpheus and Amphion are drawn in the same 
manner, and almost in the same colours, because 
they both excelled in the same art, namely, in music; 
in which they were so skilful, that by playing on the 
harp they moved not only men, but beasts, and the 
very stones themselves. 

Orpheus, the son of Apollo by Calliope the Muse, 
with the harp that he received from his father, play- 
ed and sang so sweetly, that he tamed wild beasts, 
stayed the course of rivers, and made whole woods 
follow him. He descended with the same harp into 
hell, to recover, from Pluto and Proserpine, his wife 
Eurydice, who had been killed by a serpent, when 
she fled from the violence of Aristaeus. Here he so 

* M>jX« 'Ec-jT'/j/jrJwv "^uoftffdt^ id e«t, mala Hesperidiim largipix 


charmed both the king and queen with the sweet- 
lless of his music, that they permitted his wife to 
return to hfe again, upon this condition, that he 
should not look upon her till they were both ar- 
rived upon the earth : but so impatient and eager 
was the love of Orpheus, that he could not perform 
the condition ; therefore, she was taken back into 
hell again. Upon this, Orpheus resolved for the 
future to live a widower : and with his example alien- 
ated the minds of many others from the love of 
women. This so provoked the Meenades and Bac- 
chae, that they tore him in pieces : though others as- 
sign another reason of his death, which is this : the 
women, by the instigation of Venus, were so inflam- 
ed with the love of him, that, quarrelling with one 
another who should have him, they tore him in 
pieces. His bones were afterward gathered by the 
Muses, and reposed in a sepulchre, not without tears ; 
and his harp was made the constellation Lyra. 

Amphion was the son of Jupiter by Antiope. He 
received his lute and harp from Mercury ; and with 
the sound thereof moved the stones so regularly, 
that they composed the walls of the city of Thebes. 

" Dictus et Amphion, Thebanae conditor urbis, 

Saxa movere soiio testudinis, et prece blanda 

Ducere quo vellet." Hor. de Art. Poet. 

Amphion too, as story goes, could call 
Obedient stones to make the Theban wall. 
He led them as he pleas'd : the rocks obey'd, 
And danc'd in order to the tunes he play'd. 

The occasion of which fable was this : Orpheus 
and Amphion were both men so eloquent, that they 
persuaded those who lived a wdld and savage life 
before, to embrace the rules and manners of civil 

Arion is a proper companion for these two musi» 
eians, for he was a lyric poet of Methymna, in the 
Idand of Lesbos, and gained immense riches by his 


art. When he was travelling from Lesbos into Italy, 
his companions assaulted him to rob him of his 
wealth ; but he entreated the seamen to suffer him 
to play on his harp, before they cast him into the 
sea : he played sweetlj^, and then threw himself into 
the sea, where a dolphin, drawn thither by the sweet- 
ness of his music, received him on his back, and 
carried him to Tenedos. 

'^Ille sedet, citharamque tenet, pretiumque vehendi 
Cantat, et aequore?s carmine mulcet aquas." — Ov. Fast. 2 

He on his crouching back sits all at ease, 

With harp in hand, by which he calms the seas, 

And for his passage with a song he pays. 

The dolphin for this kindness was carried into 
beaven, and made a constellation. 

Achilles was the son of Peleus by Thetis. His 
mother plunged him in the Stygian w aters when he 
was an infant, which made his whole body ever af- 
ter invulnerable, excepting that part of his foot by 
which he was held when he was washed. Others 
say, that Thetis hid him in the night under a fire, 
after she had anointed him in the day with ambro- 
sia ; w hence at first he was called Pyrisous, because 
he escaped safe from the fire ; and afterward Achil- 
les, *because he had but one lip, for he licked the 
ambrosia from his other lip, so that the fire had 
power tojburn it oft*. Others again report, f that he was 
brought up by Chiron the Centaur, and fed, instead 
of milk, with the entrails of hons, and the marrovr 
of bears : so that by that means he received immense 
greatness of soul, and mighty strength of body. 
From him those 'vho greatly excelled in strength, 
were called Achilles, Jand an argument is called 
Achilleum, when no objection can weaken or dis- 
prove it. 

* Ab « priv, et x^'^^'h labrum ; quasi sine labro. 
t Apoll. 1. 3. Eurip. in Iphig. 
i Gell. 1. 2. c. 11. 


Thetis, his mother, had heard from an oracle, that 
lie should be killed in the expedition against Troy» 
On the other hand, Calchas, the diviner, had de- 
clared, that Troy could not be taken without him. 
By the cunning of Ulysses he was forced to go : for 
when his mother Thetis hid him in a boarding-school 
(in Gynecfeo) in the island of Scycros, one of the 
Cyclades, in the habit of a virgin, among the daugh- 
ters of king Lycomedes, Ulysses discovered the 
trick : he went thither in the disguise of a merchant, 
and took with him several goods to sell. The king's 
daughters, began to view and handle curiously the 
bracelets, the glasses, and necklaces, and such like 
women's ornaments ; but Achilles, on the contrary 
laid hold of the targets, and fitted the helmets to his 
head, and brandished the swords, and placed them 
to his side. Thus Ulysses plainly discovered Achil- 
les from the virgins, and compelled him to go to 
the war : after that Vulcan, by Thetis' entreaty, had 
given him impenetrable armour. Achilles at Troy 
killed Hector, the son of Priamus ; and was killed 
himself by Paris, by a trick of Polyxena : and all 
the Nymphs and Muses are said to have lamented 
Jiis death. 

This Polyxena was the daughter of Priamus, king 
•f Troy, a virgin of extraordinary beauty. Achilles 
by chance saw her upon the walks of the city, and 
fell in love with her, and desired to marry her. 
Priamus consented. They met in the temple of 
Apollo to solemnize the marriage ; where Paris, the 
brother of Hector, coming in privately, and lurldng 
behind Apollo's image, shot Achilles suddenly with 
an arrow, in that part of his foot in which only he 
was vulnerable. After this Troy was taken, and the 
ghost of Achilles demanded satisfaction for the mur- 
der, which the Grecians appeased by offering th^ 
blood of Polyxena. 


quESTro:^s for examijv^tiojv. 

Who were Orpheus and Amphion, and in what did they excel'? 

What is related of Orpheus ? 

Who was Amphion, and what was the occasion of the fable? 

Who was Arion, and what is related of him ? 

Who was Achilles, and what is reported of him during his in- 
fancy ? 

In what did Achilles excel ; and what is the nature of the ar- 
gument named after him ? 

Why and how was he forced into the Trojan war? 

What hero did he kill, and by whom was he slain ? 

How was he killed, and what did the Grecians do to appease 
his ghost? 



Ulysses was so named, because when his mother 
was travelling, as some say, in the island of Ithaca; 
as others say, in Boeotia, she fell down on the ^'road, 
and brought him into the world. He was the son of 
Laertes and Anticlea. His wife was Penelope, a 
lady highly famed for her prudence and virtue. He 
was unwilling that the Trojan war should part him 
and his dear wife ; therefore, to avoid the expedition, 
he pretended to be mad, joining the diflerent beasts 
to the same plough, and sowing the furrows with 
salt. But this pretence was detected by Palamedes, 
who laid his infant son in the furrow, while Ulysses 
was ploughing, to see whether he would suffer the 
plough share to wound him or not. When Ulysses 
came where his son lay, he turned the plough, and 
thus it was discovered that he was not a madman, 
and he was compelled to go to the war. There he 
was very serviceable to the Grecians, and was almost 
the sole occasion of taking the town. He forced 
Achilles from his retreat, and obtained the arrows of 
Hercules from Philoctetes, which he brought against 

* Graece 'O^utrinvs, B.h ohs via; quod in ipsa via ejus mater iter 
facieos lapaa ilium peperit Vide Nat. Com. et Horn, in Odyss 


Troy. He took away the ashes of LaomedoU;, 
which were preserved upon the g^ate Scaea in Troy. 
He stole the Palladiiiin from the city ; killed Rhoe- 
sus, king of Thrace, and took his horses, before they 
had tasted the water of the river Xanthus. In which 
things the destiny of Troy was wrapped up : for if 
the Trojans had preserved them, the town could 
never have been conquered. He contended with 
Ajax the son of Telamon and Hesione, who was the 
stoutest of all the Grecians except Achilles, before 
judges, for the arms of Achilles. The judges were 
persuaded by the eloquence of Ulysses, gave sen- 
tence in his favour, and assigned the arms to him. 
This disappointment made Ajax mad, upon which 
he killed himself, and his blood was turned into the 

When Ulysses departed from Troy to return 
home, he sailed backward and forward ten years ; 
for contrary winds and bad weather hindered him 
from getting home. During which time, 1. He put 
out the e} e of Polyphenms with a firebrand ; and 
then sailing to ^olia, he there obtained from ^Eolus 
all the winds which were contrary to him, and put 
them into leathern bags. His companions, believ- 
ing that the bags were filled with money, and not 
with wind, intended to rob him ; therefore, when 
they came almost to Ithaca, they untied the bags, 
and the winds gushed out, and blew him back to 
iEolia again. 2. When Circe had turned his com- 
panions into beasts, he first fortified himself against 
her charms with the antidote that Mercury had given 
him, and then ran into her cave with his sword 
drawn, and forced her to restore his companions to 
their former shapes again. After which he and 
Circe were re2onciled, and he had by her Telego- 
nus. 3. He went down into hell to know his fii* 
ture fortune from the prophet Tiresias. 4. When 
he sailed to the islands of the Sirens, he stopped the 


ears of his companions, and bound himself with 
strong ropes to the ship's mast : by these means he 
avoided the dangerous snares, into which, by their 
charming voices, they led men. 5. And lastly, 
after his ship was broken and wrecked by the waves, 
he escaped by swimming ; and came naked and 
alone to the port of Phaeacia, where Nausica, the 
daughter of king Alci'nous, found him hidden among 
the young trees, and entertained him civilly. When 
his companions were found, and the ship refitted, he 
was sent asleep into Ithaca, where Pallas awaked 
him, and advised him to put on the habit of a beg- 
gar. Then he went to his neat-herds, where he 
found his son Telemachus ; and from them he went 
home in a disguise ; where, after he had received 
several affronts from the wooers of Penelope, by the 
assistance of the neat-herds, and his son, to whom 
he discovered himself, he set upon them, and killed 
them every one ; and then received his Penelope. 

Penelope, the daughter of Icarus, was a rare and 
perfect example of chastity. For though it was ge- 
nerally thought that her husband Ulysses was dead, 
since he had been absent from her twenty years, yet 
neither the desires of her parents, nor the solicita- 
tions of her lovers, could prevail upon her to marry 
another man, and to violate the promises of con- 
stancy which she gave to her husband when he de- 
parted. And when many noblemen courted her, 
and even threatened her with ruin unless she declar- 
ed which of them should marry her, she desired that 
the choice might be deferred till she had finished a 
piece of needle-work, about which she was then 
employed: but undoing by night what she had 
worked by day, she delayed them till Ulysses re- 
turned and killed them all. Hence came the pro- 
verb, *'' to weave Penelope's web ;" that is, to 

* Peiielqpes telam texere' id est, inanem operam sumeve. VJdr 
Rfasra. Adag. 


labour in vain ; when one hand destroys what the 
other has wrought. 

Orion, when young", was a constant companion of 
Diana : but because his love to the goddess exceed- 
ed the bounds of modesty, or because, as some say, 
he extolled the strength of his own body, and boast- 
ed that he could outrun and subdue the wildest and 
fiercest beasts, his arrogance grievously displeased 
the Earth ; therefore she sent a scorpion, which 
killed him. He was afterward carried to the hea- 
vens, and there made a constellation ; which is 
thought to predict foul weather when it does not ap- 
pear, and fair when it is visible ; whence the poets 
call him ^tempestuous, or stormy Orion. 


From what did Ulysses derive his name ? 

How did he excuse himself from going to the Trojau war, and 
Jiow was the artifice detected ? 

What exploits did he perform at Troy ? 

What was the contention between him and Ajax, and what 
wajs the consequence of it? 

What acts did he perform during his return ? 

What happened to him in Ithaca ? 

What is said of Penelope, and whence is the origin of the 
phrase, " To weave Penelope's web ?" 

What is said of Orion ? 

What does the constellation predict ? 



Osiris, Apis, and Serapis, are three different 
names of one and the same god. Osiris was the 

* Nimbosns Orion. Virg. IF.i\. nam optuv sip;nificat turbo moviOf 
unde etiam ipse iiomen sumpsisse a nonnullis judicatur. 


son of Jupiter, by Niobe, the daughter of Phord- 
neus ; and was king of the Argives ma^iy years* 
He was stirred up, by the desire of glory, to leave 
his kingdom to his brother iEgialus, and to sail 
into Egypt, to seek a new name and new king- 
doms. The Egyptians were not so much ov<t* 
come by his arms, as obHged to him by his cour- 
tesies and kindness. After this he married lo, the 
daughter of Inachus, whom Jupiter formerly turn- 
ed into a cow ; but, when by her distraction she 
was driven into Egypt, her former shape was 
again restored, and she married Osiris, and in- 
structed the Egyptians in letters. Therefore, both 
she and her husband attained to divine honours, 
and were thought immortal by that people. But 
Osiris showed that he was mortal ; for he was kill- 
ed by his brother Typlion. To (afterward called 
Isis) sought him a great while ; and when she had 
found him at last in a chest, she laid him in a 
monument m an island near to Memphis, which 
island is encompassed by that sad and fatal lake, 
the Styx. And because when she sought him she 
had used dogs, who by their excellent virtue of 
smelling might discover where he was hidden, 
thence the ancient custom came, that dogs went 
first in an anniversary procession in honour of 
Isis. And the people carefully and religiously 
worshipped a god with a dog's head, called Anu- 
bis ; which god the poets commonly call ^Barker, 
" a god half a dog, a dog half a man." He is also 
called Hermanubis ; because his sagacity is so great 
that some think him to be the same with Mercury. 
But let us return to Osiris and Isis. 

After the body of Osiris was interred, there ap- 
peared to the Egyptians a stately, beautiful ox ; 
the Egyptians thought that it was Osiris, therefore 

* Latratorera, semicanem Deum, Vir^. ^n. 8. 


they worshipped it, and called it Apis, which in the 
Egyptian language signifies an " ox." But be- 
cause the body, after his death, was found shut up 
in a *chest, he was afterward from this called So- 
rapis, and by the change of a letter Serapis ; as we 
shall see more clearly and particularly by and by, 
when I have observed what Plutarch says, that 
Osiris was thought to be the Sun. His name conies 
from OS, which in tlie Egyptian language signifies 
" much," and iris, an " eye ;" and his image was a 
sceptre, in which was placed an eye. So that 
Osiris signifies the same as '?roXvo(p6uXf^o<i ^poJyoph' 
thalmos,^ " many-eyed," which agrees very well to 
the Sun, who seems to have as many eyes as he 
has rays, by which he sees, and makes all things 

Some say that Isis is Pallas, others Terra, others 
Ceres, and many the Moon ; for she is painted 
sometimes horned, as the moon appears in the in- 
crease, and wears black garments ; because the 
moon shines in the night. In the right hand she 
held a cymbal, and in her left a bucket. Her head 
was crowned with the feathers of a vulture ; for 
among the Egyptians that bird is sacred to Juno ; 
and therefore tlie}^ adorned the tops of their porches 
with the feathers of a vulture. The priests of Isis, 
called after her own name Isiaci, abstained from the 
fiesh of swine and sheep, and they used no salt to 
their meat. They shaved their heads, they wore 
paper shoes, and a linen vest, because Isis first 
taught the use of ilax ; and hence she is called 
Linigera, and also Inachis, from Inachus, her 
father. By the name of Isis, is usually under- 
Stood " wisdom :" and accordingly, upon th€ 
pavement of the temple, there was this inscription : 

* lope; significat arcam, in qua inventura est illius corpus in- 


*"I am every thing that hath been, and is, and 

shall be ; nor hath any mortal opened my veil." 

By the means of this Isis, f Iphis, a yomig vir- 
gin of Crete, the daughter of Lygdus and Tele- 
thusa, was changed into a man. For when Lygdus 
went a journey, he enjoined his wife, who was then 
pregnant, if she brought a daughter, that she should 
not educate her, but leave her exposed in the fields 
to perish by want. Telethusa brought forth a 
daughter, but was very unwilling to lose her child ; 
therefore she dressed it in a boy's habit, and called 
it Iphis, which is a common name to boys and girls. 
The father returned from his journe}^, and believed 
both his wife and his daughter, who personated a 
son : and as soon as she was marriageable, her fa- 
ther, who still thought that she was a man, married 
her to the beautiful lanthe. As they went to the 
temple to celebrate the marriage, the mother was 
much concerned, and begged the favourable assist- 
ance of Isis, who heard her prayers, and changed 
Iphis into a most beautiful young man. Now l^t us 
come to Serapis and Apis again. 

Though Serapis was the god of the Egyptians, 
yet he was worshipped in Greece, ^especially at 
Athens, and also at Rome. Among the different 
nations he had different names : for he was called 
sometimes Jupiter Amnion, sometimes Pluto, Bac- 
chus, jEsculapius, and sometimes Osiris. His name 
was reckoned abominable by the Grecians ; for all 
names of seven letters, e-^roty^ot^M.^^Tot Uieptagram," 
rnata] are by them esteemed infamous. Some say 
that Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, procured the effi- 
gies of him at Pontus, from the king of Sinope, and 

* 'Ey&; tif*,i ■arosv to ytyovo? x,ui ov, xxi siro/u,ivov kki to ifAov wsfrXA 
li^us Ta>v BvriTuv aTiKocXv^iv. Ego suni quicquid fuit est erit; nec 
meum quisquam motalium peplum retexit. Plut in Iside. 

t Ovid. Met. 9. 

t Pausan. in Attic. 



dedicated a magnificent temple to him at Alexan- 
dria. Euscbius calls him the "Prince of evil de- 
mons :" a flasket was placed upon his head and near 
him lay a creature with three heads ; a dog's on the 
right side, a wolf's on the left, and a lion's head in 
the middle : a snake with his fold encompassed 
them, whose head hung down upon the god's right 
hand, with which he bridled the terrible monster. 

Apis was king of the Argivi, and being trans- 
ported thence into Egypt, he became Serapis, or 
the greatest of all the gods of Egypt. After the 
death of Serapis, the ox that we mentioned a little 
before, succeeded in his place. *Pliny describes 
the form and quality of this ox, thus : An ox, in 
Egypt, is worshipped as a god: they call him Apis. 
He is thus marked : there is a white shining spot 
upon his right side, horns like the moon in its in- 
crease, and a nose under its tongue, which they call 
cantharus. His body, sa3'S Herodotus, was all 
black : in his forehead he had a white square 
shining figure ; the effigies of an eagle in his back ; 
and beside the cantharus in his mouth, he had hair 
of two sorts in his tail. But Pliny goes on ; if he 
lives beyond an appointed period of time, they 
drown him in the priests' fountain ; then the priests 
shave their heads, mourn and lament, and seek 
another to substitute in his room. When they have 
found one, he is brought hy the priests to Memphis. 
He hath two chapels or chambers, which are the 
oracles of the people ; in one of them he foretels 
good, in the ether evil. 

Questions for examijvatiojt 

What was Osiris; whom did he marry; and what is told of 
his wife ? 

What wa? fo afterwards called, and why did dogs go £rst tM 
the processioa devoted to her ? 

•riin. Hist.Jfftt.1. 8. C.40. 


Who was Anubis? 

What was Apis ; why was the name Osiris changed to Sera- 
pis-, and what does Osiris signify ? 

Who was Isis ; what is said of her ; and what is signified by 
the name ? 

How was Iphis changed into a man, and what was the cause 
of this metamorphosis ? 

Under what name has Serapis been worshipped ? 

How is he denominated by Eusebius ; and what symbols are 
connected with him : 

Who was Apis; and how is he described ty Pliny r 





The ancients not only worshipped the several 
species of virtues, but also Virtue herself, as a god- 
dess. Therefore, first of her, and then of the others. 

Virtue derives her name from vir, because virtue 
is the most manly ornament. She was esteemed a 
goddess, and worshipped in the habit of an elderly 
matron, sitting upon a square stone. *M. Marcel- 
lus dedicated a temple to her ; and hard by placed 
another, that was dedicated to Honour : the temple 
of Virtue was the passage to the temple of Honour; 
hence by virtue alone true honour is. attained. The 
priests sacrificed to honour with bare heads, and we 
usually uncover our heads when we see honourable 
and worthy men ; and since lionour itself is valua- 
ble and estimable, it is no wonder if such respect is 
shown in celebrating its sacrifices. 

Fides had a temple at Rome, near the capitol, 
which fNuma Pompilius, it is said, first consecrated 
to her. J Her sacrifices were performed without 
slaughter or blood. The heads and hands of the 

^ Liv. 1. 2. 

t Cic. de Officiis. 

i Dion. Halicarn. 1. 2. 


priests were covered with a white cloth when they 
sacrificed, because faith ought to be close and se- 
cret. Virgil calls her *Cana Fides, either from the 
candour of tlie mind, whence fidelity proceeds, or 
because faith is chiefly observed by aged persons. 
The symbol of this goddess was a white dog, which 
is a faithful creature, f Another symbol was two 
hands joined, or two young ladies shaking hands : 
for Jby giving the right hand, they engaged their 
faith for their future friendship. 

Hope had a temple at Rome, in the herb-market, 
which was unfortunately burnt down with lightning. 
§Giraldus says, that he has seen her effigies in a 
golden coin of the emperor Adrian. She was de- 
scribed in the form of a woman standing ; her left 
hand lightly held up the skirts of her garments ; she 
leaned on her elbow ; and in her right hand held a 
plate, on which she was placed a ciberium, a sort of 
a cup fashioned to the likeness of a flower, with this 
inscription : SPES, P. R. " The Hope of the 
people of Rome." We have already related in 
what manner Hope was left and preserved in the 
bottom of Pandora's box. 

Justice was described like a virgin, with a pierc- 
ing, steadfast eye, a severe brow, her aspect awful, 
noble, and venerable. Alexander says, that among 
the Egyptians she had no liead, and that her left 
hand was stretched forth, and open. The Greeks 
called h^r Astrsea. 

Attilius, the duumvir, dedicated a chapel to Piety, 
At Rome, in the place where that woman lived, who 
fed her mother in prison with the milk of her breasts. 
The story is thus : ||the mother was pimished with 

* Serv. in 1. et 8. Mn. 
t Stat Theb. 1. 

t Dextra data fidem futurae amicitiae sancibant. Liv. 1. 21. 
§ Syntagm. 1. 1. 
p Plin. Hist. Nat. 1. 7. c. 36. 


imprisonment ; her daughter, who was an ordinary 
woman, then gave suck ; she came to the prison 
frequently, and the gaoler always searched her, to 
see that she carried no food to her mother; at last 
she was found giving suck to her mother with her 
breasts. This extraordinary piety of the daughter 
gained the mother's freedom ; and they both were 
afterwards maintained at the public charge ; and 
the place was consecrated to the goddess Piety. 
There is a like example in the ^Grecian history, of 
a woman, who by her breasts nourished Cymon, 
her aged father, who was imprisoned, and supported 
him with her own milk. 

The Athenians erected an altar to Misericordia, 
'* Mercy ;" f where was first established an Asylum, 
a place of common refuge to the miserable and mi- 
fortunate. It was not lawful to force any from 
thence. When Hercules died, Jhis kindred feared 
some mischief from those whom he had afflicted ', 
therefore, they erected an asylum, ortemple of mer- 
cy, at Athens. 

Nothing memorable occurs concerning the god 
dess Clemency, unless that there was a temple 
erected to dementia Caesaris, " The Clemency of 
Caesar," as we read in §Plutarch. 

Two temples at Rome were dedicated to Chastity; 
the one to Pudicitia Patricia, which stood in the ox- 
market; the other to Pudicitia Plebeia, built by 
Virgiuia, the daugliter of Aulus : for when she, who 
was born of a patrician family, ||had married a 
plebeian, the noble ladies were mightily incensed, 
and banished her from their sacrifices, and would 
not suffer her to enter into the temple of Pudicitia 

» Val, Max. 1. 13. 
t Pausciu. in Attic. 
} Serv. in JEn. 8. 
§ In Vita Caesaris. 
ji Liv. I. 10. 


into which senatorian families only were permittecf 
entrance. A quarrel arose upon this among the 
women, and a great breach was made between them. 
This induced Virginia, by some extraordinary ac- 
tion, to blot out the disgrace she had received; and 
therefore, she built a chapel in tire long street where 
she lived, and adorned it with an altar, to which she 
invited the plebeian matrons ; and complaining to 
them that the ladies of quality had used her so bar- 
barously ; " I dedicate," says she, " this altar to 
Pudicitia Plebeia ; and I desire of 30U that you will 
as much adore Chastit}^^ as the men do Honour ; 
that this altar may be followed by purer and more 
chaste votaries than the altar of Pudicitia Patricia, 
if it be possible." It is said in history, that the 
women, who were contented at one marriage, were 
usually rewarded with a *crown of cliastity. 

Truth, the mother of Virtue, f is painted iu gar- 
ments as white as snow ; her looks are serene, plea- 
sant, courteous, cheerful, and yet modest ; she is the 
pledge of all honesty, the bulwark of honour, the 
light and joy of human society. JShe is commonly 
accounted the daughter of Time or Saturn ; be- 
cause truth is discovered in the course of time : but 
Democritus feigns that she lies hidden in the bottom 
of a well. 

Good Sense, or Understanding, [mew5,] was made 
a goddess by the Romans, §that they might obtain 
a sound mind. ||An altar was built to her in the 
capitol, by j\I. iEmilins. ^The preetor AttiliuS;^ 
vowed to build a chapel to her ; which he perform 
ed when he was created duumvir. 

Corona pucliciti;^^. Val. Max. I. 2. 
Phtlost. Jn Herir <?l Amp. 
Plat.*^in Quaist 
Aug. de Civ Dei. 2. 

Cic. IS'at. f^eor. 2. 
Liv. 22 fc.. 23. 


We shall find by *the concurrent testimony of 
many, that the goddess Concordia had many altars 
at several times dedicated to her ; but she was es- 
pecially worshipped by the ancient Romans. Her 
image held a bowl in her right hand, and a horn of 
plenty, or a sceptre from which fruit seemed to 
sprout forth, in her left, f The symbol of concord 
was two right hands joined together, and a pome- 

Pax was honoured formerly at Athens with an 
altar, Jas Plutarch tells us. At Rome she had a 
most magnificent temple in the Forum, begun by 
Claudius, and finished by Vespasian; §which was 
afterwards consumed by fire under emperor Com- 
modus. She was described in the form of a matroii, 
holding forth ears of corn in her hands, and crowned 
with olives and laurel, or sometimes roses. Her 
particular symbol was a caduceus, a white staff 
borne by ambassadors when they go to treat of 

The goddess Salus was so much honoured by the 
Romans, that anciently several holy days were ap- 
pointed in which they worshipped her. There was 
a gate at Rome called Porta Salutaris, because it 
was near to the temple of Salus. Her image was 
the figure of a woman sitting on a throne, and hold- 
ing a bowl in her right hand. Hard by stood her 
altar, a snake twining round it, and lifting up his 
head, tov/ard it. Tbe Augurium Salutis was for- 

erly celebrated in tlie same place. It was a kind 

f divination, by which they begged leave of the 
gods that the people might pray for peace. 

Fidelity, ||says St. Augustine, had her temple and 

* Liv. 1. 9. Plut. in C. Gracch. Suet in Tib. 

t Lil. Gyr. synt. 1. 1. e 

X Plut. in Cimon. 

Herodot. 1. 2. 

De Civ. Dei. 4. 


// .1/--.. . / 

^„ „„...„//. 



altar, and sacrifices were performed to her Thev 
represented her like a venerable matron sitting upon 
a throne holdmgawhite rod in her right hand and 
<t great horn ofplentv in her left. '»"", ana 

hen- liberty, especially after the expulsion of the 
kings, when they set themselves at liberty, so thev 

their other goddesses. 

The Romans invoked Pecunia as a goddess, that 
they might be rich They worshipped the god 
^sculanus, the father of Argentinus, that they 
might have plenty of brass and silver : and esteem- 
ed ^sculanus, the father of Argentinus, because 
brass money was used before silver. « I wonder " 
says St. Augustine, " that Aurinus was notmade'a 
god after Argentmus, because silver money was fol-*' 
lowed by gold.' To this goddess, MoneV, O how 
many apply their devotions to this day! what vows 
do they make, and at what altars do they impor- 
tune, that they may fill their cofiers ! "If thev have 
those gods," says fMenander, "gold and silver at 
home ask whatever you please, you shall have 
vke » themselves will be at your ser- 

th^nllfT "'"?"'<"'^'y r««d an image among 
the JLacedsemomans, to the god Risus. The Thes- 
salonians of the city of Hypata, every year sacri- 
ficed to this god with great jollity. 

,1, Jl f ""^ ^?"" ^'"""' ^""^ « '*'"Vle in the way 
that leads to the mountain Mienalus, as says Pau- 
sanius. At the end of the supper they oflered a cup 
to him, filled with wine and water; vvliich was call- 

t Plut. in.Lycurgo 


ed " the grace cup." Some say the cup had more 
water than vvhie ; others say the contrary. 


From what does the goddess Virtue derive her name ' 

To what does the temple of Virtue lead ? 

In what way did the priests sacrifice to Honour? 

Where was the temple of Fides, and how are her sacrifices 
^rformed ? 

What were the usual symbols of Fides ? 

How is Hope described, and where was her temple ? 

How was Hope preserved to the iniiabitants of the earth ? 

How is justice described ? 

Where was there a chapel dedicated to Piety, and what was 
the cause of it ? 

W^hat temples were dedicated to Chastity ? 

How is Truth painted ; whose daughter is she; and why? 

Why was mens made a goddess ? 

How is Concordia described, and by what symbol is she 
known ? 
H Where was Pax honoured, how is she described, and what l» 
her peculiar symbol ? 

What is said of the goddess Salus ? 

How is Fidelity represented ? 

"What is said of Liberty? 

Why did the Romans invoke Pecunia as a goddess ? 

What was the saying of Menander ? 

Who sacrificed to Risus ? 

Where was there a temple dedicated to Bonus Genius, and 
what was offered to this god ? 



I CALL those Evil Deities which oppose our hap- 
piness, and many times do us mischief. And first, 
of the Vices to which temples have been conse- 

That Envy is a goddess, appears by the con- 
fession of Pallas, who owned that she was assisted 
by her, to infect a young lady, called Aglauros, 
with her poison. Ovid describes the house where 


she dwells in very elegant verse, and afterward gives 
a most beautiful description of Envy herself. 

"Protinus Invidiae nigro squallentia tabo 

Tecta petit. Domus est imis in vallibiis antri 

Abdita, sole carens, nee ulli pervia vento; 

Tristis, et ignavi plenissiraa iVigoris ; et quae 

Igne vacet semper caligine semper abundet." Met. 2, 

Then strait to Envy's cell she bends her way, 

Which all with putrid gore infected lay. 

Oeep in a gloomy cave's obscure recess, 

Vo beams could e'er that horrid mansion bless; 

\o breeze e'er fannd it, but about itj^oll'd 

^Iternal woes, and ever lazy cold ; 

Vo spark shone there, but everlasting gloom, 

impenetrably dark, obscur'd the room. 

• Pallor in ore sedet ; macies in corpore toto*, 
Vusquam recta acies; livent rubigine dentes; 
'ectora felle virent ; lingua est suffnsa veneno; 
ilisus abest, nisi quern visi movere dolores. 
Vec fruitnr sonmo, vigllantibus excita curis ; 
Sed videt inG;ratos, intabescitque videndo, 
"^uccessus hominum : carpitque, et carpitur una j 
Suppliciumque suum est." Met. 2, 

V deadlj' paleness in her cheeks are seen ; 
ler meager skeleton scarce cas'd with skin; 
^ler looks awry, an everlasting scoui 
Sits on her brows •, her teeth deform'd and foul ; 
Her breast had gall more than her breast co'ild hold; 
Beneath her tongue black coats of poison roH'd ; 
No smiles e'er smooth'd her furrow 'd brows, but those 
Which rise from common mischiefs, plagues, and woes : 
Her eyes, mere strangers to the sweets of sleep, 
Devourinsr spite for ever waking keep ; 
She sees blest men with vast successes crown'd, 
Their joys distract her, and their glories wound : 
She kills abroad, herself 's consum'd at home, 
And her own crimes are her perpetual mai'tyrdom. 

The vices Contumely and Tr^ipudence, were both 
adored as deities by the Athenians ; and partici^'nr- 
ly, it is said, they were represented by a partridge ; 
which is esteemed a very impudent bird. 

Tlifi Athenians erected an altar to Calumny, 
Apelles painted her thus : There sits a man with 


great open ears, inviting Calumny, with his hand 
held out, to come to him ; and two women, Igno- 
rance and Suspicion, stand near him. Calumny 
breaks out in a fury ; her countenance is comely and 
beautiful, her eyes sparkle like fire, and her face is 
inflamed with anger ; she holds a lighted torch in 
her left hand, and with her right twists a young 
man's neck, who holds up his hands in prayer to the 
gods. Before her goes Envy, on her side are Fraud 
and Conspiracy ; behind her follows Repentance, 
clad in mourning and her clothes torn, with her 
head turned backward, as if she looked for Truth, 
who comes slowly after. 

Fraud was described with a human face, and with 
a serpent's body : in the end of her tail was a scor- 
pion's sting : she swims through the river Cocytus, 
and nothing appears above water but her head. 

Pretronius Arbiter, where he treats of the civil 
war between Pompey and Caesar, has given a beau- 
tiful description of the goddess Discordia. 

Intremuere tuba?, ac scisso Discordia crine 
Exlulit ad superos Slygiuin caput. Hujus in ore 
Concj'etus sanguis, comesaque lumina flebant; 
Stabant ffirata rubigine deutes, 
Tabo lingua fluens, obsessa draconibus ora: 
Atque inter toto laceratam pectore vestem, 
Sanguineam tremula quatiebat lampada dextra '* 

The trumpets sound, and with a dismal' yell 
. Wild Discord rises from the vale of hell 

From her swell'd ey^s there ran a briny flood, 

And clotted gore up-on her visage stood; 

Around her head serpentine elf-locks hung, 

And streams of blood flow'd from her sable tongue* 

Her tatterd clothes her yellow skin betray 

(An emblem of the breast on which they lay;) 

And brandish'd flames her trembling hand obey. 

Fury is described sometimes chained, sometimes 
raging and revelling with her chains broke : but 
Virgil chooses to describe her bound in chains. 


-*' Furor impius intus 

Saeva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus ahenis 
Post tergum nodis, fremit horridus ore cruento." ^n. 1 

■Within sits impious Avar 

On cursed arms, bound with a thousand chains. 
And, horrid with a bloody mouth complains. 

Petronius describes her at liberty, unbound. 

" Furor abruptis, ceu liber, habenis 

Sanguineum late tollit caput; oraque mille 
Vulneribus confossa cruenta casside velat. 
Haeret detritus lavas Mavortius umbo 
Innumerabilibus telis gravis, atque flagranti 
Stipite dextra minax terris incendia portal " 

bisorder'd Rage, from brazen fetters freed, 
Ascends to earth with an impetuous speed : 
Her wounded face a bloody helmet hides, 
And her left arm a batter'd target guides ; 
Red brands of fire supported in her right, 
■ The impious world with flames and ruin fright. 

^Pausanias and f Plutarch say, that there were 
temples dedicated to Fame. She is thus finely and 
delicately described by Virgil. 

'' Fama, malum quo non aliud velocius uUum, 

Mobilitate viget, viresque acquirit eundo ; 

P8i-\'a metu primo ; mox sese attollit in auras, 

Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit. 

Illam terra parens ira irritata Deorum, 

Extremam (ut perhibent) Coeo Enceladoque sororera 

Progenuit ; pcdibus celerem et pernicibus alls: 

Monstrum horrendum, ingens ; cui quot sunt corpore phimffi. 

Tot vigiles oculi subter (mirabile dictu) 

Tot lingufe, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit aures. 

Nocte volat coeli medio terra^que per umbram 

Stridens, nee dulci declinat lumina somno. 

Luce sedet custos, aut summi culmine tecti, 

Turribus aut altis ; et magnas territat urbes : 

Tarn ficti pravique tenax, quam nuncia veri." jEn. 4« 

Fame, the great ill, from small beginning grows, 
Swift from the first, and every moment brings 

* Pausan. in Atti. t Plut. in Camillo* 



New vigour to her flights, new pinions to her wings. 

Soon grows the pigmy to gigantic size, 

Her feet on earth, her forehead in the skies 

Enrag'd against the gods, revengeful Earth 

Produc'd he) last of the Titanian birth. 

Swift is her walk, more swift her winged haste, 

A monstrous phantom, horrible and vast: 

As many plumes as raise her lofty flight, 

So many piercing eyes enlarge her sight ; 

Millions of op'ning mouths to Fame belong, 

And ev'rj^ mouth is furnish'd with a tongue ; • 

And round with list'ning ears the flying plague is hung. 

She fills the peaceful universe \yith cries ; 

^o slumbers ever close her wakeful eyes ; 

By day from lofty tow'rs her head she shows, 

And spreads through trembling crowds disastrous news. 

With court-informers' haunts, and royal spies. 

Things done relates, not done she feigns, and mingles truth 

with lies: 
Talk is her business, and her chief delight 
To tell of prodigies; and cause affright. 

Why was Fortune made a goddess, says *St. Au- 
gustine, since she comes to the good and bad with- 
out any judgment? She is so blind, that without 
distinction she runs to any body ; and many times 
she passes by those that admire her, and sticks to 
those that despise her. So that Juvenal had reason 
to speak in the manner he does of her. 

"Nullum numen abestsi sit prudentia; sed te 

Nos facimus, Fortuna, Deam, coeloque locamus." Sat. 20. 

Fortune is never worshipp'd by the wise ; 
But she, by fools set up, usurps the skies. 

Yet the temples that have been consecrated to 
her, and the names that she has had, are innumera- 
ble : the chief of them I will point out to you. 

She was styled Aurea, or Regia Fortuna, and 
an image of her so called was usually kept in the 
emperor's chamber ; and when one died, it Was re- 
moved to the palace of his successor. 

* " Aug. de Civ. Dei. 1. 

V- ''}:..:v f\^r-\ 


She is also called Caeca, " blind." Neither is 
she only, says '^Ciceio, blind herself, but she many 
times makes those blind that enjoy her. 

She was called Muliebris, because the mother 
and the wife of Coriolajius saved the city of Rome. 
And when his image was consecrated in their pre- 
sence, f it spoke these words twice : " Ladies you 
have dedicated to me as you should do." 

Servius Tullus dedicated a temple to Fortuna 
Obsequens, because she obex's the wisiies of men. 
The same prince worshipped her, and built her 
chapels ; where she was called Primigenia, jbe- 
cause both the city and the empire received their 
origin from her ; also Privata or ^Propria, because 
she had a chapel in the court, which that prince 
used so familiarly, that she was thought to go down 
through a little window into his house. 

Lastly, she was called Viscata, Viscosa, because 
we are caught by her, as birds are with birdlime ; in 
which sense Seneca says, *' kindnesses are birdlime." 

Febris, Fever, had her altars and temples in the 
palace. She was worshipped that she should not 
hurt : and for the same reason they worshipped all 
the other gods and goddesses of this kind. 

Fear and Paleness were supposed to be gods, and 
worshipped by Tullus Hostilius ; ||when in the bat- 
tle between the Romans and the Vejentes it was told 
him that the Albans had revolted, and the Romans 
grew afraid and pale, for in this doubtful conjecture, 
he vowed a temple to Pallor and Pavor. 

The people of Gadara made Poverty and Art 
goddesses ; because the first whets the wit for the 
discovery of the other. 

* Dei Amicitia. 

t Rite me, Matronse, dedicatis. Auff. de Civ. Dei. 4. Val 
Max. 1. 2. 
t Plutarch, 


Liv, 1. !. , 


Necessity and Violence had their chapel upon th* 

mIw .'" •* ^;- " T"" ^^"^ '^ enter K^ 
M. MarceJhis dedicated a chapel to Tempestas 
without the gate of Capena, after he had e S a 

Zi"T^' '" ^ "^^'^^^ ^^ ^^- ^^^«^ o^ Sic'?; 

lioth the Romans and Egyptians worshipped the 
gods and goddesses of Silence. The Latins pa d 
cularly worshipped Ageronia and Tacht^^hose 

because they who endure their car^s with silence 
and patience, do by that means procure to thTm! 
selves the greatest pleasure. 

ccl^A^ Egyptians woi-shipped Harpocrates, as the 
god of Silence," fafter the death of Osiris. He 
was the son of Isis. They offered the first fruits of 
the lentils and pulse to him. They consecrated the 
tree persea to him ; because the leaves of it were 
shaped like a tongue, and the fruit hke a heart 
He was painted naked in the figure of a boy, crown- 
ed with an Egyptian mitre, which ended at the 
points as It were in two buds ; he held in his left 
hand a horn of plenty, while a finger of his rie:ht 
hand vvas upon his lip, thereby commanding silence. 
And therefore I say no more ; neither can I better 
be Silent, than when a god commands me to be so 

How are the evil deities described ? 
How is it ascertained ? &c. 
Whom did the Athenians adore as deities f 
How is Calumny painted by Apelles ? 
How was Fraud described ? 
Repeat the lines descriptive of Discord. 
How is Fury described by Virgil ? 
What are the lines by Petronius ? 
Give me Virgil's fine description of Fame? 

^ Quod, qui suos angores (unde Angeronia dicta est) sequ* 
ammo ferupt, perveniunt ad maximam voluptatera. 
\ Epiph. 3. contra Hcerese* 


How is Fortune described ? 

What does Juvenal say of her ? 

How is she described by Cicero ? 

What did Servius Tullus do with respect to Fortune ? 

Why was Fortune called Viscosa, and what was Senecft'iJ 

Why was Febris worshipped ? 

By whom were Fear and Paleness worshipped ? 

Why, and by whom were Poverty and A.rt deified ? 

What is said of Necessity and Violence ? 

Who dedicated a temple to Tempestas ;' and why did he do 
so ? 

Who worshipped the gods and goddesses of Silence? 

Whom did the Latins worship, and why ? 

Whom did the Egyptians worship ? 

How is Harpocrates painted ? 




Absyrtus, torn in pieqes by Me- 
dea 259 
Achelous, turns bimself into a 
serpent, then into a bull, in 
•w^hich shape he is conquered 
by Hercules 255 
Acheron, one of the infernal 
rivers 209 
Achilles, history of 281 
Acidalia, one of the names of 
Venus 102 
Actaeon, turned into a deer by 
Diana, and torn in pieces by 
his own dogs 176 
Adonis, killed by a boar, and 
by Venus turned into the 
flower anemone 111 
Adrastsea, the same with Ne- 
mesis, one of the goddesses 
of justice 166 
Adscriptitii Dii, gods of the 
lower rank 21—249 
^acus, judge of hell 221 
iEcastor, an oath only used by 
women, as Hercle was used 
by men 265 
^depol, an oath used by both 
sexes 265 
^geon, account of 223 
^gis, Jupiter's shield 26 
Aello, one of the Harpies 230 
^olus, god of winds, descrip- 
tion of 136 

, great skill of 137 

jjisculapius, description of 270 

iEson, the father of Jason, when 

very old, restored to youth 

by Medea 259 

JEta, father of Medea, and king 

of Colchis ' 259 

Africans, gods of the 18 

Agamemnon, history of S66 

Aglaia, one of the graces 111 

Ajax, kills himself, and hia 

blood turned into a violet 

Alcides, one of the names of 
Hercules, see Hercules 251 
Alecto, one of the Furies 218 
Alectryon, why and how pun- 
ished 80 
Alpheus, story of 188 
Amazons, female warriors, ac- 
count of 261 
Ambarvalia, description of 157 
Ambrosia, festivals in honour 
of Bacchus 71 
Amica, a name of Venus 101 
Amphion, from whom he re- 
ceived his harp 280 
Amphytrite, wife of Neptune 
Andromeda, delivered by Per- 
seus from a sea-monster 268 
Angerona, the goddess that re- 
moved anguish of mind 240 
Anteus, a giant overcome by 

Hercules, see Hercules 

Antiope, 28 

Anubis, a god with a dog's 

head, history of 287 

Aonides, the Muses so called 


Apaturia, a title of Venus 102 

Apis, king of the Argivi 290 

Apollo, description of, and how 

painted, 39 

, what devoted to 40 

Apollos, the four ib. 

Apollo, actions of 41 

, names of 45 

, Signification of the fa- 
ble of 50 
p things sacrificed to 60 


Arachne, turned into a spideu. 
by Minerva ^6 
Areopcigus; for what used ' 75 
^^ — , juJges of their du- 
ties " ib. 
Arethusa, for what celebrated 
Argonauta?, Jason's compan- 
ions that went with him to 
fetch the gohie^. i.fece 259 
Argus, description of 86 
Ariadne, daughter of Minos 
Arion, history of 280 
Arista^is. histoiy of 174 
Armata, a title of Venus lOl 
Ascoiia, games in honqur of 
Bacchus 71 
Astra^a, description of 165 
Atalanta and Hippomenes, sto- 
rv of 106 
Atlks 276 
Atropos, one of the Fates 218 
Atys, hictory of 147 
Avernus, a lake on the borders 
of hell 208 
Augajas, his stable containing 
three thousand oxen, cleans- 
ed in one day by Hercules 
Aurora, birth and description 
of 115 


Baal, a name of Jupiter 30 
Babylon, walls of 54 

Babylonians, gods of the 18 
Bacchanalia, when celebrated. 
Bacchae, the priestesses of Bac- 
chus 68 
Bacchus, description of 64 

, birth of ib. 

, names of 65 

>- , sacrifices of, when ce- 
lebrated 70 

>-, actions of 68 

, fables of 73 

Battus, turned by Mercury into 

an index 62 

Betides, fifty daughters of Da- 

naus, Avho killed their hus- 
bands ou tile •. rdding nit;ht 

, punishment of in hell 


Bellerophon, history of 269 

's letters, meaning 

of ib. 

Beliica. a pillar before the tem- 
ple of Bellona 7S 

BeHona, description of 77 

Belus, king of Assvria, the firs't 
to whoni an idol was set up 
and worshi};ped 17 

Berecinthia, a title of Cybele, 
see Cybele 

Biblis, /alls in love with her 
brother Cauims 57 

, pines away with grief, 

dies, and is turned into a 
fountain 57 

Bona Dea, a title of Cybele 

Briareus, one of the giants that 
Avarred against Leav; a 224 

Busiris, a tyrant that offered 
human sacrifices to his father 
Neptune 254 


Cabiri, priests of Cybele 149 

Cacus, son of Vulcan 134 

Cadmus, banished, and builds 
the citv of Thebes 29 

, invents the Greek let- 
ters: sow^s the teeth of a dra- 
gon in the ground whence 
armed men sprung up 29 

Cadnceus, Mercury's wand de- 
scribed 61 

Caeculus, a robber, Vulcan's 
son 135, Cgenis 198 

Caprotina, kc. names of Juno 

Calisto, turned into a bear, and 
made a constellation 28 

Calliope, one of the muses 160 

Calumny, how painted by Apel- 
les 300 

Camillus, a name of Mercury, 
see Mercury 


Ganopus, god of the Egyptians 
Cantbarus, the name of Sile- 
nus' jug 172 

Casitoliiius, a title of Ju])iler 
Castalides, the Muses so called 
Castor and Pollux, accompani- 
ed Jason to Colchis, 264 
Celeno, one of the harpies 230 
Centaurs, overcome by The- 
seus 261 
Cephalus and Tithonus how 
carried to heaven 116 
Cerberus, description of 210 
Ceres, description and history 
of 150 
— — — , inventions of 151 
, why called the foundress 
of laws 152 
Cham, to which of the heathen 
gods likened ' 125 
Charon, how represented 208 

, office of 209 

Charybdis, description of 205 
Chyniffira, description of 231 
Chiron, a centaur, account of 
Circe, character of 56 

— — — , a famous sorceress, ban- 
ished for poisoning her hus- 
band ib. 

, falls in love with Glau- 

cus, and turns Scylla into a 

sea-monster 204 

Clio, one of the Muses 160 

Clotho, one of the fates 217 

Clowns of Lycia, turned into 

frogs 115 

Clytemnestra, history of 265 

Cocytus, description of 210 

Cceliim, wife and children of 


Colossus of Rhodes, one of the 

seven wonders of the world 

described 53 

Concordia, temples dedicated 

to 296 

Corybantes, whence the name 

of derived 149 

Cupid, character of 109 

C iretes, signification of 148 

C bele, i-eason of her different 

unes !43 

, names trl" the priests of, 

rites observed in sacrificing 

to 148 

Cyclops, servants of Vulcan 134 i 
Cyllenius, a title of Mercury, . j^ 

see Mercury -^ 

Cynthius, a title of Apollo, see ^ 

A]iollo ■ 

Cyjiarissus, a beautiful youth " 

turned into a cypress-tree 43 
Cypria, Cypris, Cylher<ya, &z,c. 

names of Venus, see Venus 
Cyrus, palace of 54 


Daedalus, character and descrip" 
tion of 56 

Dana?, 27 

Danaides, story of 227 

Daphne, turned into alaurel 43 
Deianira, wife of Hercules, oc- 
casion of his death 256 
Delius, Delphicus, titles of 

Apollo, see Apollo 
Delos, origin of 113 

Deluge, account of the 275 
Deucalion, history of ib. 

Diana, description and history 
of 176 

, names of 177 

, temple of 53 

Diespiter, a name of Jupiter 31 
Diomedes, a tyrant of Thrace, 
subdued by Hercules, and 
given as food to his horses 
Dira?, a name of the Furies 218 
Dodoneus,aname of Jupiter 31 
Dreams, by what ways convey- 
ed to men, 220, Dryades 186 


Echo, description of 189 

Elysium, description of 23$ 

Envy, description of 3 

Erato, one of the Muses, 160 

Erisichthoii, story of 154 


J5nryale,one of the gorgons 230 
Eijtei'pe, one of the Muses 161 
Endyjiiion 178 

Eleusian mysteries 154 

Fates, how represented 217 
Fauns, description of the 173 
Febris, why worshipped 303 
Feronia, the goddess of the 
woods, why so named 184 
Fides, reverence paid to, and 
symbols of 292 

Fleece, golden account of 258 
Flora, hoAV painted and de- 
scribed 183 
Floralia, when celebrated ib. 
Fortune, how represented and 
described 302 
Fraud, description of 300 
Frogs, why doomed to live in 
water 115 
Furies, description of 218 

Gallantes, from whence the 

term derived 148 

Galli, from whence the name 

of derived ib. 

Genii 240 

, history of ib. 

, to wliom assigned 241 

Geryon, story of 229 

Giants, from what derived, 

character of, battles of 222 

Glaucopis, a name of Minerva, 

see Minerva 
Glaucus, how transformed to a 
sea-god 201 

Gods, false origin of 17 

, of the Romans, divided 

into six classes 20 

, celestial, enumerated 24 

•■ ■ terrestrial, most celebrat- 
ed' of, named and described 
— '■ — , inferior rural 191 

, of the woods 171 

-, and goddess, nuptial 243 

— — , sylvan, for what mis- 
chievous 244 

Gods, presiding over infants, 

, a particular one, assigned 

to each part of the body 247 

, funeral ib. 

Golden Age, described 120 

Golden Fleece, described 258 

Gorgons, number and names 
of 230 

Graces, description of 110 

Gradivus, a title of Mars, see 

Grasshopper, nurious property 
of 116 

Greek Letters, by whom in- 
vented 29 


Hadesj a name of Pluto, see 

Halcyone, a daughter of Atlas 

Harpies, from whom born, de- 
scription of 229 

Hebe, the goddess of youth, 
her birth ; made cup bearer 
to Jupiter; but for an un- 
lucky fall is turned out of 
her office 85 

Hecate, whence the name of 
derived 178 

Helena, the most beautiful vir- 
gin in the world, runs away 
with Paris, after his death 
marries his brother Deipho- 
bus, and then betrays him to 
Menelaus 107 

Helicon, the Muses' mount 162 

Heliconides or Heliconiades, 
the Muses so called ib. 

Hell, description of 207 

, rivers of 209 

, judges of 221 

, monsters of 208 

Helle, drowned in that sea 
which from her is since call 
.ed the Hellespont 258 

Hellespontiacus, a title of Pria 
pus, see Priapus 

Hercules, actions of, to whom 
ascribed 250 


Hercules, infant strength of 251 

, !;ibours of 252 

by whom overcome 

Hermac, statues of Mercury set 
up for the direction of travel- 
lers 62 

Hermaphroditus and Salmacis, 
made into one [lerson, called 
a hermaphrodite 61 

Hermathenee, images used 
among the Romans 63 

Hermes, a name of Mercury ib. 

Hermione, the daughterof Me- 
nelaus, promised to Orestes, 
T)ut married to Phyrrus 265 

Heroes, whence the name de- 
rived 249 

Hesper or Hcsperugo, the even- 
ing-star 278 

Hesperides, the three daughters 
of Hesperus, in whose garden 
were golden apples, guarded 
by a dragon, which Hercules 
kills, and takes away the 
fruit 278 

Hesperus, the brother of Atlas, 
turned into a star ib. 

Hippius and Hippodromus, 
names of Neptune, see Nep- 

Hippocampi, the horses of Nep- 
tune's chariot 196 

Hippocrene, the Muses' foun- 
tain 162 

Hippolyte, queen of the Ama- 
zons.' married to Theseus ib. 

Hippolytns, the son of Theseus, 
his exemplary chastity; is 
killed by a fall from his cha- 
riot, and restored to life by 
^^^culapins ib. 

Hippona, a goddess presiding 
over horses and ^tables- 191 

Honour, w!iy sacriHced to 292 

Hopf^, how d'^scribed 293 

Hora; or Hour? <]ir]r late de- 
scnnt and of'icfs 52 

Hortcnsis, a t'ltie of Venus 102 

Horus, a name of the Sun 52 

Hostilina, a goddess of corn 

Hyacinthus, killed by Apollo, 

with a quoit 42 

Hyades, signification of 277 
Hydra, a monstrous s^pent, 

killed by Hercules 252 

Hygiaea or Sanitas, a daughter 

of iEsculapius, see ^Escula 



Jani, a place at Rome where 
usurers met 127 

Janitor, a title of Janus 128 

Janus, description of 127 

, name of, whence de- 
rived 128 

, what sacrifices offered 

to him 130 

, founder of temples and 

religious duties ib. 

, temple of, when shut ib. 

, story of ib. 

Japhet, to whom likened 125 

Jason, the history of 258 

Icarus, flies with artificial wings, 
but the sun melts them, so 
that he falls into the sea, and 
is drowned 57 

Idcei Dactyli, origin of 149 

Idalia, a name of Venus, see 

Idolatry, causes of 15 

Ignis, a god of the Chaldeans 

fights with the Egyptian god 

Cauopus, and is vanquished 


Imperator, a name of Jupiter 32 

Impudence, by what represent- 
ed 299 

Incubus and Inuus, names of 
Pan 168 

lo, Jupiter's intrigue w^ith her, 
and by him turned into a 
cow ; after her death wor- 
shipped by the Egyptians, 
and called Tsis ^85 

lolaus, assists Hercules, for 
which, when become old, he 
is restored to youth again 253 

Iphiclus, twin brother to Her- 
cules, see Hercules 

Iris S4 


fudges of hell, their names and 

characters 221 

Juno, description of 83 

-, children of 85 

, character of ib. 

Jupiter, description of 24 
, how dressed and adorn- 
ed by dirterent nations ib. 
's descent, and educa- 

tion of 

, e^f^its and actions of 

^ 26 

, names 30 

Justice, how described 293 
Ixion, punishment of 225 


Labvrinth, Theseus delivered 
from 261 

Lachesis, one of the Fates 217 

Lacinia, a title of Juno, see 

Lactura or Lactucina, a god- 
dess of corn 192 

the promise he had made, 
for which Hercules destroys 
Troy 255 

Lapides Terminates, why es- 
teemed sacred 175 

Lapis or Lapideus, a title of 
Jupiter 32 

Lares, account of the 238 

, feasts dedicated to ib. 

— '■ — — , where worshipped 239 

Latona, history of, reception of, 
at Delos 112 

, effects of the anger of 


Learchus, killed by his father 
At ham as 200 

Leda 28 

Lenaeus, a name of Bacchus, 
see Bacchus 

Let lie, river of hell, description 
ot 234 

Levana, a tutelar goddess to 
new-born infants 245 

Leucothe, burled alive |^or her 
incontineuce, and turned in- 
to a tree bearing frankin- 
cense 44 

Liber and Liber Pater, names 
of Bacchii?, see Bacchus 

Libitina, tiie g(»ddess of fune- 
rals; also a name for the 
grave itself 247 

Libitinarii, officers that buried 
the dead ib. 

Lucetius, a title of Jupiter 33 

Lucina, a name of Juno, see 

Luna, why Diana was called 
by this name, see Diana 

Lupercalia, festivals in honour 
of Pan 168 

Luperci, the priests of Pan 168 

Lycaon, king of Arcacia, turn- 
ed into a wolf for his mon- 
strous impiety 27 

Lyceus, a name of Pan, see Pan 

Lycian clowns, turned into 
frogs by Latona 115 

Lycurcus, to whom erected an 
image 297 

Lybians, gods of the 18 


Mars, descri{.tion of 76 

, what things consecrated 

to 76 

, wife of 77 

, names of 78 

, chief actions of 80 

, sacrifices of ., 82 

, son of 81 

, ancient rites of 82 

Marsyas, challetiges Apollo in 
music, is overcome by him 
and turned into a river 44 
Matura. a iroddess of corn 192 
Mausolus' tomb, one of the se- 
ven wonders of the world 53 
Medea, story of 259 

Medusa, one of the gorgons 230 

, desc-iption of 268 

Meleager, his adventur^^' 181 
Melicerta, made a sea-god 201 
Mellona, the goddess of honey 
Melpomene, one of the Mu^es 
Memnon, story of 116 


Memnon, statue of, described 


Mentha, turned into a mint 2](> 

Mercury, description of 

• , parents of 

— ' , offices (jf 

, qualitips of 

, actions of 

, statues of, 



, sacrifices to, by whom 

offered 63 

Mercy, an altar erected to 294 

Metra, Mestra, Mestre, the 

daughter of Erischthon, who 

could transform herself into 

any shape 198 

Midas, treatment of by Apollo 


, asses' ears of 45 

Migonitis, at'tle of Venus, see 

Milky-way, origin of 
Minerva, description of 

, wh\ armed 

, things ">acred 



, statue of 

, birtli of 

, names of 


to her 

, signification of the 

fable of 98 

Minos, judge of hell 221 

'; king of Crete 260 

, his conduct tow^ards the 

Athenians ib. 
Minotaur, described 56 
, overcome by The- 
seus ■ 260 
Mithra, a name of the Sun 52 
Momus, name of, w^hence de- 
rived 138 
— — — , business of ib. 

, judgment of ib. 

, parents of 139 

Morpheus, the servant of Som- 

nus, he brings to the people 

their dreams 221 

Mors, the goddess of death 220 

Moses, to whom compared 73 

Mulciber or Mulcifer, a name 
of Vulcan, see Vulcan 

Muscarins, a tith; of Jupiter 33 

Muses, the description of the 

, of what the mistresses 

and presidents ib. 

, how painted 160 

; names of the ib. 

, names of, common to 

all 162 

— , why three, and after- 
wards nine 163 

Myrmidones, froni what deriv- 
ed 221 


Naiades or Naides, priestesses 

of Bacchus, nymphs of the 

fountains 187 

Nap«8e, nymphs of the groves 

and vallies 187 

Narcissus, falls in love with his 

own image 190 
, pines away and is 

turned into a daffodil ib. 

Neniffian Lion, killed by Her- 
cules, see Hercules 
Nemesis, history of 166 

Neptune, king of the waters, 

description of 194 
, how preserved from 

Saturn 194 

, to whom married 195 

, president of the horse 

races ib. 
, governor of ships, 

he. 19d 

J children of 197 

Nereides, origin of the name of 
Nereus, for what famous ib. 
Nicephorus, a title of Jupiter 33 
Nimrod, to whom compared 73 
Ninus, account of 17 

Niobe, stocy of 113 

Noah, in what respects similar 

to Saturn 124 

Nodosus or Nodotus, a god of 

corn 192 

Nox, from whom derived, and 

how represented 220 


^>ndina•, a tutelar goddess to 
infants 245 

Xsyctilius, a name of Bacchus, 
see Bacchus 

Nymphs, description of, office 
of 186 


Ocean us, sea-god, description 
of 2C.0 

Ocypete, one of the Harpies 230 
Oedipus, history of 232 

Opigena, a title of Juno, see Juno 
Opitulus or Opitulator, a name 
of Jupiter 34 

Ops, a name of Cybele 143 
Orestes, kills his mother Cly- 
temnestra, and her gallant 
^gisthus, also Phyrrus, for 
marrying his sweetheart Her- 
mione 265 

Orgia, feasts of Bacclms 72 
Orion, companion of Diana 286 
Orpheus, his parentage, and 
amazing skill in music ; he 
overcomes the Sirens ; ob- 
tains Eurydice, his wife, from 
hell, but loses her again ; re- 
solves never more to marry, 
for which he is torn in pieces ; 
his harp made a constellation; 
the meaning of this fable 279 
Osiris, king of the Argives, quits 
his kingdom and travels into 
Egypt, where he marries lo; 
killed by his brother Tjphon ; 
the same with Apis and Sera- 
pis, and also thought to be 
the Sun 286 

Pactolus, a river whose sand is 
gold 69 

Paean, a name of Apollo 46 
Palajmon, one of the sea-gods 
Pales, the goddess of shepherds 
Palladium, an image of Miner- 
va that fell from heaven 94 
PaJlas, the same with Minerva 

Palilian feasts, when and how 
observed 183 

Pan, history of 167 

Pandora, the first woman fash- 
ioned by Vulcan ; !ier box, 
and the mischiefs that came 
from it on mankitid 134 

Pantheon, description of 15 
Paphia, name of V^eims 103 
Parca;, why so called, names 
and offices of 217 

Paris, his descent and birth ; 
determines who is the fairest 
of Juno, Minerva, and Ve- 
nus; runs away with Helena, 
who was betrothed to Mene^ 
laus, which occasions the war 
between the Greeks and Tro- 
jans, in which Paris is kiiied 
by Philoctetes 107 

Parnassides, the Muses so call- 
ed 162 
Parthenos or Parthenia, a title 
of Juno 90 ; and of Minerva, 
Pasiphae, falls in love with 
Taurus, and brings forth a 
Minotaur ; the meaning of 
this faI)Io 56 
Pax, honours paid to 296 
Pecunia, why prayed to 297 
Pegasus, the Muses' horse, his 
birth and description ; is 
CHUi;ht and rode upon by 
Bellt-rophon, and afterwards 
placed in heaven among the 
stars 269 
Penates, enumerated and de- 
scribed " 236 
Penelope 285 
Periclymenus, one that could 
transform himself into any 
shape, and was killed {by 
Hercules when in the shape 
of a fly 198 
Perseus, son of Jupiter, story 
of 267 
Persians, gods of the 18 
Pha3ton,the son of Sol, obtains 
leave to drive the chariot of 
the Sun for one day ; over- 
tiirows it, by which the hea- 


ven and the earth are set on 
fire, aijd he is by Jupiter 
struck with thunder into the 
river Po ; his sisters turned 
into poplars ; the meaning of 
this fable 55 

Philomela, story of 81 

Phlegethon or Puriphlegethon, 
one of the infernal rivers, the 
streams of which are fire 210 
Phlegyas, in what manner, and 
why punished 225 

Phorcus or Phorcys, a son of 
Neptune 197 

Pierides or Pieriae, the Muses 
so called 162 

Piety, description and illustra- 
tion of 293 
Pilumnus, a rural god 192 
Pistor, a name of Jupiter 34 
Pleiades, names of 277 

, from what the name 

rived Jh. 

Pluto, description of, names of, 

over what he presides, why 

blind .211 

Podalirius, a famous physician 


Polyhymnia, one of the muses 

•^ -^ 161 

Polyphemus 135 

Polyxena, at her marriage with 

Achilles causes him to be 

killed, and is sacrificed to 

appease his ghost 282 

Pomona, the goddess of fruit 184 

Porthmeus or Portitor, a name 

of Charon 208 

^rsedator, a name of Jupiter, 

see Jupiter 
Priapus, description of 174 
Procris, married to Cephalus, 
ark. killed accidentally by 
him 116 

Progne, story of 81 

Prometheus, makes a man of 
clay, and animates hint with 
firestolenfromheave i; pun- 
ished by Jupiter for his theft, 
freed from his punishment by 
Hercules; the meaning of 
tbrs fable 2T3 

Proserpine, a goddess of corn ; 

her descent, and how carried 

away by Jiito: is sought for 

by her motlicr Ceres, who 

obtains from Jupiter that 

Proserpine sliould be six 

months with Pluto, and the 

other six with her in heaven 


Proteus, description of 197 

Pygmalion, history of 104 

Pyramids of Egypt, one of the 

seven wonders of the world 


Pyramus and Thisbe, account 

of 104 

Fythius, a name of Apollo 47 

Pytho, a daughter of Atlas 277 

Python, killed by Apollo 47 

Quietus, a name of Pluto, see 

Quirinus, a title of Jupiter 34 
, a title of Mars, see 


Rationes Libitinas, an account 

of the dead, not unlike our 

Bills of Mortality 247 

Rhadamanthus, judge of hell 


Rhea, a name of Cybele 143 

Rhodes, Colossus of 53 

Riddle, proposed by Sphynx 


Robigus, a god of corn, whose- 

festivals are called Robigalia 


Roman people, ranks of 19 

gods, how divided 20 

__ , over what presid- 
ed ib. 
Runcina, the goddess of weed- 
ing . 191 

Salii, priests of Mars, see Mars 
Sali^bsulus, a title of Mars ib. 


Salmeneus,\vhy and how pun- 
ished 226 
Sal US; how honoured 301 
Saturn, representation and his- 
tory of 118 

, names and sacrifices of 


, feasts of 122 

, to whom of the antedi- 
luvians compared 123 
Saturnalia, festivals in honour 
of Saturn 122 
Satyrs, of whom the compan- 
ions, and description of the 
Scylla, the daughter of Nisus, 
ruins her country, by cutting 
oft" her father's purple lock of 
hair, and is turned into a 
lark 204 
Scylla and Charybdis, fables of 
Seia or Segetia, a goddess of 
corn 191 
Semele, beloved by Jupiter; 
through her own ambition is 
destroyed 64 
Semi-Dei, described 249 
Serapis, the name of derived 
Shem, who supposed to repre- 
sent 125 
Silence, why worshipped 304 
Silenus, story of 171 
Silvanus, description of ib. 
Sirens, their description ; over- 
come by Orpheus, and turn- 
ed into stones ; the explana- 
tion of this fable 202 
Sisyphus, a famous robber 226 
Sol, a name of Apollo 45 

, a name of the Sun 52 

Somnus, description of 22\^' 
Sospita, a 'itleof Junojsee Juno 
Soter or Sovator, a title of Ju- 
piter 35 
Spnynxjby whom begotten 231 
Stell-fO, a saucy boy turned into 
an evet by Ceres 154 
Sterculius, Stercutius, Stercutus 
©r SterquUinius, a rural god 

Stheno, one of the gorgons 23<^ 
Sthffiiiobcea, endeavours to en- 
tice Bellerophon, but is re- 
jected, and therefore kills 
herself, see Bellerophon 
Stymphalides, birds that feed 
on human flesh, destroyed by 
Hercules 253 
Styx, description of 210 
Sun, why named Sol 52 
, how named by other na- 
tions ib. 

, children of 55 

Syrens, story of, &c. ' 202 

Syrinx, a nymph courted by 

Pan, but flies from him, and 

is turned into a bundle of 

reeds 169 

Tantalus, wickedness and pun- 
ishment of 227 
Telchines, an account of the 149 
Tereus, marries Progne, falls in 
love with her slsto;- Philo- 
mela, cuts out her tongue, 
she informs Progne of this 
villany by needlework, and 
to revenge themselves they 
kill and dress Itys, whom his 
father Tereus feeds on for 
supper, Progne becomes a 
sparrow, Philomela a night- 
ingale, Tereus a hoopoe, and 
Itys a pheasant 81 
Tergemina, a title of Diana 176 
Terminus, of what the god 175 
Terpsichore, one of the Muses 
Terrestrial Gods and Goddesses 
Thalia, one of the Graces ^1.11 
, one of the Muses )fei(60 

Thamyras, dismal fate of 163 
Thesmophorian Mysteries 157 
Themis 164 

Theodamus, killed by Hercu- 
les 255 
Theseus, actions of, &c. 260 
Thisbe, history of 104 
Thyades, Bacchus' companions 


Tinie and Sal'.uri, vvh}' mean- 
ing the same 126 
Xisiphone, one eif the furies 
Titan, coiiduct of 119 
Titans, description of 225 
Tithonus, history of 116 
Tytius, history of 224 
Tonas and Tonitrualis, names 
of Jupiter 35 
Trieterica, sacrifices to Bac- 
chus 71 
Triformis, a title of Diana 177 
Trioculus or Triophthalmos, a 
name of Jupiter 36 
Triptolemus, account of 153 

— — — , fourth Judge of 

hell 221 

Triton, a sea-god, description 

of 199 

Tritonia, a name of Minerva 95 

Trivia, a nauie of Hecate or 

Diana, see Diana 

Trojan war, reason of the 108 

Troy, the walls of it built by 

the music of x\pollo's har]) 42 

Truth, how painted 295 

Tutelina or Tutulina, a goddess 

of corn 192 

Tvndai-ite, the children of Tyn- 

'darus 263 

Tyndarus, king of Laconia, the 

husband of Leda ib. 

TyphcBus, description of 223 


Valloiiia, tlie goddess of the 

vollies 191 

Vejovis, Vejupiter and Vedius, 

titles of Jujiitcr • 36 

Venus, description of 99 

i-, character of 100 

how painted ib. 

9. from what sprung ib. 

. , to whom married ^ 101 

, names of / ib. 

— , actions of 104 

— , companions of 109 

Verticordia, a title of Venus, 
see Venus 

Vertumnus, story of 185^ 

Vesta, description of 139 

, sacrifices of 140 

, why put for fire ib. 

, why highly esteemed ib. 

, fire kept in her temples . 


, privileges of ib. 

, meaning of by the poets 


Vices, enumerated and describ- 
ed 298 

Virtue, by whom w^orshipped 

Volumnus and Volumna, tutelar 
deities to adult persons 247 

Volusia, the goddess of corn 192 

Vulcan, his birth, descent, and 
employment ; courts Miner- 
va, but is rejected ; marries 
Venus ; makes the first wo- 
man, who is called Fandora; 
his servants ; his children ; 
the signification of this fable 

Vulcania, feasts in honour of 
Vulcan, see Vulcan. 


Ulysses, why so named, history 

of, actions 288 

Urania, one of the Muses 161 

Unxia, a title of Juno, see Juno 


Walls of Babylon, one of the 

seven wonders of the world 


Wise men of Greece, their 
names and characters 48 

Wonders, seven of the world 58 


Xanthus, one of the horses of 

Achilles, see Achilles 
Xenia, a name for presents made 

to strangers 36, 

g ^ 1?> 

^ ^ 4P